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Art. I. Biographical Memoir of the late Professor Jameson, 1 

II. On the China-stone and China-clay of Cornwall. By % 

Mr H. M. Stoker, of St Austel, Cornwall, . 50 

III. On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals, . 58 

IV. On Coal — The Nature of the Plants forming Coal — 

The changes produced by Chemical Action and 
Compression — Associated Mineral Matter — Origin 
of Coal. By Professor Harkness, Queen's College, 
Cork, ........ 66 

V. On the Cultivation of Tea in the District of Kangra. 
By William Jameson, Esq., Director of the Bo- 
tanical Gardens, North West Provinces, India, . 76 

VI. On the Generation of Electrical Currents. By 
Richard Adie, Esq., Liverpool. Communicated 
by the Author, . . . .84 

VII. Synopsis of the Fall of Rain, &c, in the English 
Lake and Mountain District, in the Year 1853. 
By John Fletcher Miller, Esq., Ph. D., F.R.S., 
F.R.A.S., Assoc. Inst. C.E., &c. Communicated 
by the Author, . . . .88 



Art. VIII. On a change of Ocean Temperature that would 
attend a Change in the level of the African and 
South American Continents, By James D. Dana, 92 

IX. On the Influence of Undulating or Hilly Ground 
in checking Currents of Wind. By Richard Adie, 
Esq., Liverpool. Communicated by the Author. 94 

X. Address delivered at the Anniversary Meeting of 

the Geological Society of London on the 17th Fe- 
. bruary 1854. By Edward Forbes. Esq., Presi- 

dent of the Society, . . . .99 

XI. On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, and 

the products of its Transmutation, . .124 

1. Pseudomorphous Mica after Wernerite, . 133 

2. Yellow Scapolite, from Bolton, Massachusetts, . 136 

3. Red Scapolite from Arendal, . -138 
Black Scapolite from Arendal, . • 139 
Epidote in the form of Wernerite (from Arendal), . 140 

XII. On the Palolo. Communicated by the Rev. Mr 

Gill, Missionary, in a Letter to R. Chambers, 
Esq., . . . . .144 

XIII. A suggestive Paper on the Palaeozoic Formations 
of the Earth. By E. Pughe, B.A. Vicar of Ban- 
gor Cathedral. Communicated by the Author, 146 

XIV. The Tides in South Pacific. Communicated by 
ths Rev. Mr Gill, Missionary, in a letter to Ro- 
bert Chambers, Esq., . . . 148 

XV. A Botanical Fact; an apt Illustration. Com- 
municated by the Rev. Mr Gill, . .151 



Art . XVI. On the Explosion of a Meteor. Communicated 
by Richard Corbet, Esq., in a letter to R. 
Chambers, Esq., . . . .152 

XVII. On the Uses of Industrial Exhibitions ; — The 
Great Industrial Exhibition of 1853, and its in- 
fluence upon the Development of Industry in Ire- 
land. By Sir Robert Kane, F.R.S., M.R.I. A., 154 

XVIII. Notice of Two Additional Crania of the Ancient 
Short-horned Ox (Bos longifrons, Owen), found 
sometime ago near Newstead, Roxburghshire. By 
John Alex. Smith, M.D. Communicated by 
the Author, . . . .162 

XIX. Influence of Occupation upon Health, . 16 5 

XX. Important New Theories in Agricultural Science, 167 

XXI. Classification of the Fossilliferous Rocks, . 171 

XXII. Scientific Intelligence : — 


1. In Oraenaks Fiord, known as Jacob's Bight, 
lies the famous Halibut fishing-station. 2. 
Are the floating Icebergs of the Polar Seas 
of the nature of neve ? 3. The Middle Ice, 
the position of the best known whale fishing- 
ground, . . . . . . 176 


4. Notice of the Discovery of a Deep Sea Bank 
in the Examination of the Gulf Stream. 5. 
Artesian Well, Charleston, S.C., . . 177 


6. M. Fuchs on Iron. 7. Artificial Malachite, 179 



8. On the Depth of the Primeval Seas, afforded 
by the Keraains of Colour in Fossil Testacea. 
By Edward Forbes, F.R.S., Pres. G. S. L. 9. 
On the employment of water in filling up 
deep Bore-lloles in Blasting Operations. 10. 
The American Tunnelling-Machine. 1 1 . Table 
of Statistics respecting the Mississippi, by 
Mr Brown. 12. Age of our Planet. 13. 
Use of Nitrate of Soda as a Fertilizer, 1 79 


14. Progress of Flax Cultivation in Ireland. 182 


15. Augustus Petermann on the progress of the 
Expedition to Central Africa, by Messrs 
ltichardson, Barth, Overweg, and Vogel, in 

the j ears 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853, . 183 


16. On the Identity of Structure of Plants and 
Animals, by T. H. Huxley, . . 185 


17. On the Preservation of Buildings. 18. On 
the relative values of different kinds of Meat 
as Food, by Marchal of Calvi. 19. New Ob- 
servatory at Vienna, . . . . 185 

New Publications received, . . .191 



Art. I. Biographical Notice of Marie-Henri Ducrotay de 
Blainville, de l'Academie des Sciences, Pro- 
fesseur Administrateur au Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle, Professeur a la Faculte des Sciences 
de Paris ; de la Societe Boyale de Londres, 
&c. &c. By M. Flourens, . . 193 

II. Extraordinary Fishes from California, constituting 
a new Family. Described by L. Agassiz, 
Professor of Zoology and Geology in the Law- 
rence Scientific School at Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, . . . . .214 

III. Experiments on the Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 

By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., Assistant Phy- 
sician, Crichton Royal Institution, Dumfries. 
Communicated by the Author, . . 228 

IV. The Old World Compared with the New World. 

By M. Marcel de Serres, Professor of Mi- 
neralogy and Geology at Montpellier, . 250 



Art. V. Observations on the Gradual Changes that the 

Human Races appear destined to pass through, 267 

VI. On the Probable Direful Consequences from the 

Intermingling of Human Races, . . 269 

VII. The Primitive Diversity and Number of Animals 
in Geological Times. By L. Agassiz, Profes- 
sor of Zoology and Geology in the Lawrence 
University at Cambridge, Massachusetts, . 271 

VIII. On the Artificial Formation of Minerals, . 292 

IX. On the Influence of Undulating or Hilly Ground 
in checking Currents of Wind. By Richard 
Adie, Esq., Liverpool. Communicated by the 
Author, . . . . .300 

X. Prize Subjects proposed by the Society of Sciences 

at Harlem for the year 1856, . . 304 

XI. Researches on the Artifical Production of Mi- 
nerals, belonging to the family of Silicates and 
Aluminates, by the reaction of Vapour on 
Rocks. By M. Daubree, . .307 

XII. Siluria— Present State of Geology, . .313 

XIII. Notice of some Ancient Indian Mining Tools, 
found in the Copper Districts of Lake Superior. 
By William Jory Henwood, F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Member of the Geological Society of France ; 
Corresponding Member of the Lyceum of Na- 
tural History, New York, . . .32 



Art. XIV. The Botany of the Eastern Borders, with the 
popular Names and Uses of the Plants, and of 
the customs and beliefs which have been asso- 
ciated with them. By George Johnston, 
M.D., Edinburgh, . . .325 

XV. On the Manifestation of Polarity in the Distribu- 
tion of Organized Beings in Time. By Pro- 
fessor E. Forbes, .... 332 

XVI. Obituary of Dr Samuel George Morton, . 337 

XVII. Indications of Weather, as shown by Animals, 
Insects, and Plants. By M. W. B. Thomas 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, . . . 341 

XVIII. Experiments upon the formation of Minerals in 
the Humid way in Metalliferous Repositories. 
By M. de Sanarmont, . . .344 

XIX. On the Natural Provinces of the Animal World, 
and their Relation to the different Types of 
Man, By Louis Agassiz, . . 347 

XX. On the Geological Associations of Tellurium. By 
William Jory Henwood, F.R.S., F.G.S., 
Member of the Geological Society of France ; 
Hon. M.Y.P.S., &c. ; Mineral Surveyor to the 
Hon. East India Company. Communicated by 
the Author, . . . .363 

XXI Scientific Intelligence : — 


1/ Sir David Brewster on the origin of the Dia- 
mond. 2. Polarity of Crystals. 3. Researches 
on Crystallization. 4. Natural Deposit of 



Saltpetre. 5. Artificial Formation of Minerals 
by Igneous Action. G. The Use of the Micro- 
scope to Mineralogists, . . 365—367 


7. Earthquake Indicator, 8. The quantity of 
Solid Matter carried annually to the Sea. 

9. Origin of the Bitumen of Stratified Rocks. 

10. Strength and Density of Building Stone. 

11. Theory of Earthquakes, . 367-372 


12. Agassiz on the Specific Difference of the Hu- 
man Races, . . . • 372 


13. The importance of correct Scientific Instru- 

ments at Sea, .... 372 


14. The Age of the Cypress Forests. 15. The 
Effect of Coloured Light on Germination. 
16. Origin of the Wheat Plant. 17. A New 
Invention for increasing the Produce of 
Autumn Wheat. By M. D'Urcle, 18. The 
Preservation of the Soil, . . 373-376 


19. The Present State of Astronomy, . 3^6 


20. New Method of procuring Coloured Silk from 
the Cocoons. 21. The Value of Polarization 
to thej Optician and Glass Manufacturer. 
22. Practical Value of the Optical characters 
of Sugar. 23. Polarized Light used in de- 
tecting Vinous Fermentation. 24. The use of 
Polarized Light as a Test for Sugar. 25. The 
Value of the Microscope for detecting the best 
kinds of Wool for Felting. 26. Present State 

of Agriculture, . . 377-379 

New Publications received, . . . 379 

Index, ..... 381 






Fellow of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh ; Honorary Member of the Royal Irish Academy ; of the 
Royal Society of Sciences of Denmark ; of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin ; of the Royal Academy o f 
Naples ; of the Geological Society of France ; Honorary Member of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta ; Fellow of 
the Royal Linnean, and of the Geological Societies of London ; of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall, and 
of the Cambridge Philosophical Society; of the Antiquarian, Wernerian Natural History, Royal Medical, Royal 
Physical, and Horticultural Societies of Edinburgh ; of the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland ; of 
the Antiquarian and Literary Society of Perth; of the Statistical Society of Glasgow; of the Royal Dublin 
Society; of the York, Bristol, Cambrian, Whitby, Northern, and Cork Institutions; of the Natural History So- 
ciety of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle ; of the Imperial Pharmaceutical Society of Petersburgh ; of 
the Natural History Society of Wetterau ; of the Mineralogical Society of Jena ; of the Royal Mineralogical So- 
ciety of Dresden ; of the Natural History Society of Paris ; of the Philomathic Society of Paris ; of the Natural 
History Society of Calvados ; of the Senkenberg Society of Natural History ; of the Society of Natural Sciences 
and Medicine of Heidelberg ; Honorary Member of the Literary and Philosophical Society of New York ; of 
the New York Historical Society ; of the American Antiquarian Society ; of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia ; of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York ; of the Natural History Society of Montreal ; of 
the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanical Arts ; of the Geological 
Society of Pennsylvania ; of the Boston Society of Natural History of the United States ; of the South African 
Institution of the Cape of Good Hope ; Honorary Member of the Statistical Society of France ; Member of the 
Entomological Society of Stettin, and other learned Societies. 

By the death of Robert Jameson, the University of Edin- 
burgh has lost a great master and a good man, one of the true 
philosophers of the old school ; " One who, (in the words of his 
colleague, the \ ery Rev. Principal Lee,) for a half century, 
has filled a most eminent place among the brightest ornaments 
of this University, and who, indeed, has been entitled to be 
universally recognised as one of the most ardent, and one of 
the most successful contributors to the advancement of 
science in this enlightened age." In fact, Robert Jameson 
was the Father of Modern Natural History. His loss 
is deeply to be deplored, — a man of the same grasp of 
mind, devoted to physical science, only at times appears to 


2 Biographical Memoir of 

enlighten his age. He was eminently fitted for the station 
which he had filled with so much success. He had fine natural 
talents, which had been carefully cultivated, and were applied 
with vigour to the studies in which he delighted. He was a 
careful observer, a comprehensive thinker, and his industry 
was unwearied. He was never satisfied with loose and general 
notions upon any subject ; his range of information was wide, 
ami what he knew he knew thoroughly. He was practical, 
and anxious to be useful, in days when science and practice 
stood apart, as if they were two repellent forces. He did 
much towards neutralizing these states ; and was one of the 
pioneers to whom we are indebted for that union of science 
and practice which is now the prevailing feature of our time. 
Professor Edward Forbes, the distinguished successor of 
Professor Jameson, says : — " To my illustrious predecessor 
and master, who passed from amongst us ripe in years, 
honours, and fame, so lately, I gratefully record my ac- 
knowledgments for the encouragement of those tastes, and 
the founding of that knowledge which have proved to me 
a chief delight. Who that, in time past, was his pupil, and 
found pleasure in the study of any department of Natural 
History, can ever forget his enthusiastic zeal, his wonder- 
ful acquaintance with scientific literature, his affection for 
all among his friends and pupils who manifested a sincere 
interest in his favourite studies. When, in after life, their 
fates scattered them far and wide over the world ; some 
settling amid the civilised obscurity of rural seclusion ; 
some rambling to the far ends of the earth to sift and ex- 
plore wild and savage regions ; some plunging into the 
boiling and noisy whirlpool of metropolitan activity; none 
who remained constant to the beautiful studies of his pupil- 
hood was ever forgotten by the kind and wise philosopher, 
whose quick and cheering perception of early merit had per- 
petuated tastes that might have speedily perished if unob- 
served and unencouraged. The value of professional worth 
should chiefly be estimated by the number and excellence of 
disciples. A large share of the best naturalists of the day re- 
ceived their first instruction in the science, that was after- 
wards to prove their fountain of honour, from Professor 

the late Professor Jameson. 3 

Jameson. Not even his own famous master, the eloquent 
and illustrious Werner, could equal him in this genesis of in- 
vestigators. Under his auspices, too, were lasting friend- 
ships and unions of kindred minds formed, that have been 
productive in good to the cause of knowledge. Valuable as 
were his writings, each, when estimated with regard to the 
position of science at the time of its issue, an effective ad- 
vance — his pupils were even more valuable. The greatest 
praise of a great professor is that which proclaims he has 
founded a school. And where else in the British Empire, ex- 
cept here, has there been for the last half century a school of 
Natural History V 

Jameson attained the age of eighty years, and had filled his 
chair for upwards of half a century, and had done more than 
can now be well estimated, by his unwearied exertions. The 
many thousand difficulties he had to conquer, in a department 
of science which, at the commencement of his labours, was in 
its infancy, and involved in a labyrinth of vague conjectures, 
required a mind of a constant and steady determination to 
group together all the known facts, and to draw deductions 
from those to overturn erroneous doctrines then in existence, 
and to open up the path to truth. 

Jameson died on the 19th of April 1854, at his residence 
in this city. His health in general throughout life was good, 
and although slender in body, he could undergo a great deal 
of fatigue without injuring his health. During the last two 
years of his life he had suffered from repeated attacks of 
bronchitis, which had much impaired his iron frame ; but by 
the judicious advice of his medical attendants, and the tender 
care of an afflicted and watchful family, his latter days 
were soothed and prolonged. He knew well that the end of 
his earthly existence was not far distant, and talked of it with 
the same calmness and composure as he did of the daily events 
of life. He wound up all his thoughts, in so far as they were 
connected with this earth, in the most perfect composure ; 
and, like a traveller whose toil is over, slept the sleep of the 
just, calm and tranquil. 

On the morning of the day of his death I saw no unusual 
symptoms. He had passed a quiet night ; breakfasted at his 

2 A 

4 Biographical Memoir of 

usual hour; dressed, and walked to his easy-chair with a 
little assistance. He took luncheon, and apparently with an 
appetite. About mid-day he complained of slight faintness 
and sickness. I gave him a little wine, which refreshed 
him much. At 2 P.M. he again complained of sickness and 
uneasiness. I now asked him if he wished to go to bed ; 
and his answer was, Yes, in a decided and firm tone. We 
undressed him without any difficulty ; he walked from his 
chair to his bed, but then asked to be lifted into it, as the 
sickness was increasing. He lay perfectly quiet until about 
half-past 3 p.m., when he was seized with a shortness of 
breathing. Dr Alison, Dr James Wood, and Dr Newbig- 
ging, were sent for, who appeared very shortly. On exami- 
nation they found their patient labouring under no immediate 
symptoms of apparent danger ; he still lay calm and quiet, 
the breathing more rapid than natural. Shortly after this 
the features changed, and marked symptoms of sinking pre- 
sented themselves ; the breathing became slower and softer, 
and then ceased without a trace of bodily movement. He 
expired so quietly that those around him did not discern 
the final expiration, — the passing from life to death being so 
perfectly tranquil. 

Jameson was greatly esteemed by the citizens of Edinburgh, 
not only as a man celebrated and highly distinguished in na- 
tural science, but of sterling worth ; and to shew their sense 
of his merits, they awarded him a public funeral. The fune- 
ral took place on Friday the 28th April 1854, at 2 o'clock. 
The remains of the deceased were transferred from his 
house, Royal Circus, to the Warriston Cemetery. The proces- 
sion began to move at half-past two, and was arranged as 
follows: — Police officers, Ushers, Students, Royal Scottish So- 
ciety of Arts, Royal Academy, Royal Physical Society, Wer- 
ncrian Society, Antiquarian Society, Royal Society, Royal 
College of Surgeons, Royal College of Physicians, Senatus 
Academicus, The Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council — 
Mutes — Batonmen — the Coffin — Chief mourners — Private 

The late Professor Jameson was third son of Thomas 
Jameson, Esq., and was born at Leith on the 11th July 1774. 

the late Professor Jameson, 5 

He was at the usual period sent to the grammar-school, then 
taught by Mr Wilson, where he made such progress as 
boys make who have no particular love for letters. Whilst 
at school he early shewed a strong desire of becoming ac- 
quainted with the history of natural objects ; and at this 
period he had commenced stuffing birds shot for him by a 
young man, who thought himself well paid by receiving 
powder and shot for his labour ; at the same time he was 
himself collecting such animals and plants as could be found 
on the beach at Leith and the neighbourhood. Mr Jameson 
entered the humanity class in the year 1788 ; and whilst at- 
tending this class, he walked in the procession at the laying 
of the foundation-stone of the New College Buildings, in one of 
the class-rooms of which he was destined to be a distinguished 

The development of man's ruling propensity may in general 
be discovered by a careful observation of the companions 
and pastimes of the young. The ruling propensity may 
be dormant, for there may be nothing peculiarly fitted to 
call it into action ; but when such objects as are adapted to 
that predisposition are brought to bear on the mind, the pre- 
disposition begins to develop itself. This was the case 
with the subject of this memoir. During the early period of 
Professor Jameson's life, De Foe's " Robinson Crusoe " was a 
leading book with boys ; with our young naturalist it became 
a second life. The wonders of Crusoe's island, its birds and 
beasts, its inhabitants, and the situation of poor Friday, in- 
creased his desire to know more of nature. " Cook's Voyage," 
so interesting and instructive, and at this period universally 
read, increased his desire to study nature in all her grandeur 
and variety, — to investigate the great laws by which varied ob- 
jects of interest are scattered over the surface of the globe, 
and ultimately to promote human happiness. The strange and 
romantic adventures of Peter Wilkins were not without their 
influence in urging the turning-point of Professor Jameson's 
life. Jameson used to boast that the " History of the Three 
Hundred Animals" made him a Professor of Natural History. 
This kind of reading gave him a strong desire to examine 
not only his native, but foreign lands. Whilst under the 

6 Biographical Memoir of 

tuition of Mr Wilson, there seemed very little to excite his 
attention. He was a notorious truant, so much so, that one 
of his father's servants had more than once to accompany 
take him by force to the High School ; and at that very 
time he would have spent hours reading the Three Hun- 
dred Animals, pursuing insects, or collecting the mollusca 
and zoophytes on the sea-beach. His heart was not in 
11 Amo" but in Nature's glorious works. 

He intimated to his father his desire to enter on the pro- 
fession of a mariner — and in this determination he was 
guided more by his ruling desire to study nature, than by any 
love for a mariner's life ; but to this his father objected ; still 
the son was determined, and the good-tempered parent in 
time yielded to his son's wish, and apparently did not try to 
thwart him. Man advises, but God determines. There is a 
turning point in human life, and here it was exhibited ; " Our 
times are in His hand." Some valued friends suggested to 
the young mariner that he might see the world, and the ful- 
ness thereof, by devoting himself to the study of the structure 
of man and animals, in health and in sickness, and so pressed 
on him the duty of yielding to his indulgent parent, by adopt- 
ing the study of Medicine as a profession, in which he might 
still carry out his idea of the happiness of understanding the 
works of nature's God. He at last yielded, the maritime 
life was dispensed with, and he was appointed assistant to the 
late John Cheyne, Esq., surgeon in Leith, — and was a fellow 
associate with Dr Anderson of Leith, translator of Von 
Buch's Mineralogical Description of the Environs of Landeck, 
and Werner's Theory of the Formation of Veins. 

Mr Jameson thus commenced a study not congenial to his 
taste, and a surgeon's assistant was not the best position 
to reconcile him to his situation. 

At this period of his life, 1792, he had become acquainted 
with Dr Walker, then Professor of Natural History in the Col- 
lege of Edinburgh, under whom he commenced his hard study 
of nature. He attended one course of his lectures on Natu- 
ral History in 1792 ; another in 1793. He soon became a fa- 
vourite pupil, and shortly afterwards the charge of the museum 
ommitted to him. At times when his duties permitted, 

the late Professor Jameson. 7 

he, accompanied by the Doctor himself, went on several 
dredging expeditions down the Frith of Forth, and often 
was very successful in obtaining valuable zoological treasures. 
We add a few of these, taken from his note-book, dated 1794 : 
Tritonia papillosa, Bosc. ; T. verrucosa, Bosc. ; Doris argo, 
Lin. ; Ascidia rustica, et A. prunium, Muller ; A. Conchi- 
lega, M. ; Mammaria mammela, M. ; Lineus longissimus ; 
Nereis mollis, Muller ; N. lamelligera ; Aphrodita scabra, 
Lin. ; A. aculeata, L. ; A. punctata, Bosc. ; A. imbricata ; 
Amphitrite ventilabrum, Muller; A. cristata, M. ; Actinia 
rufa; A. crassicornis ; A. gemmacea, Ellis; Echinus lacu- 
nosus, Lin.; Asterias papposa, Lin.; A. rubens, Lin.; A. 
equestris, Lin.; A. glacialis ; A. sphmrulata, Lin.; A. 
ophiura, Lin. ; Millepora pumicosa ; C . ellepora pumicosa ; 
Gorgonia flabellum ; Spongia tomentosa ; S. stuposa ; Al- 
cyonium schlosseri ; A. gelatinosum ; A. digitatum ; Flustra 
foliacea ; F. truncata ; F. pilosa ; F. carbasea ; F. are- 
no sa ? F.hispida ; Tubularia indivisa ; T. ramosa ; Coral- 
Una officinalis ; Sertularia rosacea ; S. pumila ; S. oper- 
culata ; S. abietina ; S. cupressoides ; S. cupressina ; S. 
argentea ; S.rugosa; S. volubilis ; S. halecina ; S. thuya ; 
S. falcata ; S, antennina ; S. cuscata ; S. filicula ; S. mu- 
ricata ; S. uva ; S. lendigera ; S. geniculata ; S. dichotoma ; 
S. spinosa ; S. setacea ; S. polyzonias ; S. loriculata; S. 
fastigata ; S. avicularia ; S. cruposa ; S. ciliata ; S. ebur- 
nea ; S. nigra ; Pennatula phosphorea ; Hydra lutca ? Bosc. 

Whilst attending Dr Walker, he commenced the study of 
an important branch of Natural History — Botany, and pursued 
this study with zeal and success. At this period Mr Jame- 
son became the friend of the late Dr Anderson, who had 
started a periodical named the Bee, in which he first sub- 
mitted his ideas as a mineralogist to the public. In 
vol. xiii. the first part of an Essay on Gems appeared, 
which was carried on throughout the volume. These papers 
were collected, and are preserved in the Professor's library, 
as the first fruit of the industry by which in after life he 
attained high eminence as a mineralogist. 

In the year 1793 he visited London, where he was intro- 
duced to the principal scientific gentlemen of the metropolis. 

Biographical Memoir of 

He ever spoke of the pleasure and benefit he derived from 
the meetings he had with Sir Joseph Banks, Mr Diyander, 
Dr Shaw, and the other leading members of the Linnsean 
Society. After inspecting and making himself fully 
acquainted with the mineral and zoological collections 
— the Botanic Gardens, and the Leverian Museum, &c, 
he returned to Scotland, deeply sensible of the very kind 
manner in which he had been received, and the friendships 
he had formed, which, in many individuals, only terminated 
at death. On returning to Leith, he seems to have aban- 
doned his medical engagements and turned his attention 
principally to Natural History, leaving the practice of medi- 
cine to his successor in the surgery. Though he resigned 
his surgical appointment, he did not desert those studies 
connected with the medical profession, because at this 
period he applied all the time he could spare to practical 
anatomy, under the celebrated lecturer John Bell, when he 
formed a friendship with Mr Charles (afterwards Sir Charles) 
Bell, with whom he dissected for a long period, to enlarge his 
views of comparative anatomy. Whilst Mr Jameson was 
dissecting, and at the same time extending his knowledge of 
ornithology and entomology, Mr Patrick (afterwards Sir Pat- 
rick) Walker, united with him in prosecuting these branches 
of science. Mr Jameson had full advantage of Mr Walker's 
entomological collection of native specimens, inferior only to 
that of Professor Walker, which at that time was considered 
the best Scottish collection extant. Whilst attending the che- 
mical class, his assiduity attracted the attention of the late 
Dr Rotheram, then Dr Black's assistant, and afterwards 
Professor of Physics in St Andrews. Mr Jameson now added 
to his chemical knowledge, mineralogical information gene- 
rally, and especially in the analytical chemistry, a branch 
of science which Dr Rotheram had studied in Germany ; 
and perhaps Mr Jameson's intense desire to visit the Ger- 
man mines may, in a great degree, be attributed to the 
intimacy which subsisted between him and Dr Rotheram. 
This close intimacy between Rotheram and Jameson was 
broken off when the former retired to St Andrews, on Dr 
Hope being appointed to the chemical chair. Between Hope 

the late Professor Jameson. 9 

and Jameson, though opponents as geologists, friendship long 
subsisted. Dr Hope displayed the first oxyhydrogen blow- 
pipe, which was constructed under Mr Jameson's superin- 
tendence — an instrument indispensable in analytical mine- 
ralogy. Thus attending lectures, and studying the subjects 
lectured on, he did not consider these all that were neces- 
sary to form a chemist ; he felt unless he could handle a 
crucible as well as name it — unless he could collect the 
gases as well as describe them — he was only a nominal 
chemist. His father, entering into his views, assigned him 
a suitable room for his laboratory, and fully supplied him 
with what apparatus it required, and allowed him necessary 
attendants in assisting him in his experiments. 

Before Jameson laid before the public any separate works, 
he appears to have confined his literary labours to the com- 
munication of papers on various scientific subjects which 
he read to the Natural History Society — a society that ap- 
pears to have been instituted in 1790, but whose proceed- 
ings were not published, — and to several periodical publica- 
tions. A list of a few of these papers will shew how he was 
occupied from the time he commenced his Natural History 
investigations, and how he continued to follow up these re- 

Natural History Society. 

Before this Society he appears to have read the following 
communications : — 

1. Description of the Phasianus Argus. 

2. Psittacus Magnificus, Shaw. 

3. On the Class Vermes, containing a Catalogue, with descrip- 
tions of most bodies of this class, as found on the Leith shore. 

4. An account of Marine bodies found near Queensferry. 

5. A description of the Psittacus Xanthocaudatus. 

6. Description of Marine bodies found in Shetland. 

7. A Catalogue of Birds found in the neighbourhood of Leith, 
with a hw general remarks on them. 

8. On the Hydra Squammata of Miiller. 

9. An examination of Mr Townson's description of Arthur's 

10. Mineralogical Observations made in the Highlands in 1796. 

11. Geological and Mineralogical Description of the Shetland 
Islands. Mineralogy of the Mainland — Yell — Fetlar — Balta. 

10 Biographical Memoir of 

12. Mineralogical Description of the Islands of Foula, Papa- 
Stour, Valey, Mucklc Rhooe, Vementry. 

We now give a list of a few of the separate Papers that 
appeared in the periodical publications : — 

Nicholson's Journal. 

13. On Granite. 1802. 

14. On the supposed Existence of Mechanical Deposits in Primi- 
tive Mountains. 1802. 

15. On the origin of the Rocks of the Trap formation. 

Thomson's Annals of Philosophy. 

16. On Formations; a Paper vindicating the Geological views of 
Werner from an attack made upon them by the Edinburgh Review. 

17. On the supposed Existence of Mechanical Deposits in the 
Primitive Mountains. 

18. On the Igneous Origin of Rocks. 

19. On the Old Red Sandstone. 

20. On contemporaneous Masses and Veins occurring together 
in the same mass of Rocks. 

21. On Beds and Strata — their junctions. 

22. On Stratification — on Veins — on Coal. 

23. On Conglomerated Rocks. 

24. On the Old Red Sandstone Formation. 

Wernerian Transactions. 

25. On true Veins — contemporaneous Veins — on Granite — on 

26. On the Geognosy of the Lothians. 

27. On the Mineralogy of the Pentland Hills. 

28. On Conglomerated or Brecciated Rocks. 

29. On Porphyry. 

30. Mineralogical Observations and Speculations. 

31. On Contemporaneous Veins. 

32. Mineralogical Queries proposed by Professor Jameson. 

33. On Colouring of Geognostical Maps. 

34. On the Topaz of Scotland. 

35. On the Strontian Lead-Glance Formation. 

36. On Cryolite. 

37. Catalogue of Animals of the class Vermes, found in the 
Fi ith of Forth and other parts of Scotland. 

Edinburgh Philosophical Journal. 
^8. Account of Rocks formed by Hot Springs, Torrents of Hot 

the late Professor Jameson. 1 1 

Water, Bursting of Subterranean Lakes, Air Volcanoes, and Cold 

39. On the Geognosy of the neighbourhood of Edinburgh. 

40. On the Geognosy of the Cape of Good Hope. 

41. On the Geognostical Relations of Granite, Quartz Rock, and 
Red Sandstone. 

42. On the Black Lead, or Graphite of Borrodale, of Ayrshire, 
and Glenstrathfarran. 

43. On Secondary Greenstone and Wacke. 

44. On Veins which connect Mineral Beds. 

45. On Trap Veins. 

46. On Parry's Voyage of Discovery. 

47. On the Rocky Mountain Sheep of the Americans. 

48. On the King Fish. 

49. On a remarkable Thunder Storm. 

50. On the Horn of a Rhinoceros found in the Loch of For- 

51. On the Formation of Opal, Woodstone, and Diamond. 

52. On Water as a Moving Power for Machinery. 

53. Remarks on Noises that sometimes accompany the Aurora 

54. On the Irish Elk. 

55. Observations on the Geology of the countries discovered by 
Captains Parry and Ross. 

56. On the Birds of the Himalayan Mountains. 

57. On a new species of Eagle. 

58. On a new species of Ibis, Tanagra, and Rubecola. 

59. On Fossil Bones found in New Holland. 

60. Notice of the male Lophophorus Nigelli. 

In 1794 Jameson went to Shetland to acquire a know- 
ledge of the Natural History of the Shetland Islands, where 
he remained three months, zealously occupied in exploring 
their geology, mineralogy, zoology, and botany. In 1797 
the young and ardent student paid his first visit to the 
famous island of Arran, at that time unknown to geologists ; 
and in the following year he published his separate work, 
entitled " Mineralogy of the Island of Arran and the Shet- 
land Islands, with Dissertations on Peat and Kelp ; '' and 
being the first good geological account of places and forma- 
tions ever laid before the scientific reader in this country it 
soon became famous throughout Europe for the remarkable 
phenomena described in it. " Jameson's Mineralogy of Arran 
and the Shetland Islands, with Dissertations on Peat and 

12 Biographical Memoir of 

Kelp, was a highly creditable work, displaying a large share 
of mineralogical knowledge, obtained under circumstances 
that rendered its acquisition meritorious, and exhibiting an 
independence of intellect that renounced the theories amidst 
which he was educated, and became self-convinced of the 
important truth, that complete mineralogical knowledge is 
indispensable to every speculator in geology."* 

Intent on following up his discoveries, in 1798 Mr Jame- 
son, in company with his intimate friend, Charles Bell, 
afterwards Sir Charles Bell, the celebrated anatomist and 
physiologist, spent the summer months in examining the 
geology of the Hebrides and Western Islands. In 1799 he 
visited and investigated the Orkney Islands, and again 
turned his steps to the inexhaustible field presented by the 
Isle of Arran. From these diligent researches he was 
enabled, in 1800, to publish his " Mineralogy of the Scottish 
Isles," in two volumes quarto, illustrated with maps and 
plates. This great work contained the first sketch of the 
geology of the Hebrides and Orkneys ; and it has served as 
the foundation in all the scientific accounts of these islands 
which have issued from the press. 

Jameson left his own country for Freyberg in 1800, where 
he remained nearly two years, studying mineralogy and 
geology under the learned and famous Werner. He worked 
in the mines there under the rules laid down b v his master, and 
went through the same drudgery and the same kind of work as 
the common miner, by which means he acquired much valuable 
knowledge. Some of his companions who studied at the 
same time under Werner gained a high European reputation, 
among these were, Frederick Mohs, the celebrated minera- 
logist ; T. F. D'Aubisson de Voisins, distinguished for his 
work on the Mines of Freyberg, his excellent System of 
Geognosy ; and Basalts of Saxony ;t and Professor Stef- 

* Edinburgh Review. 
t This work was translated by Professor Jameson's attached friend, the late 

ill. Jameson relied much on the judgment of Neill, and considered him 

counsellor, Edit. 

the late Professor Jameson. 13 

fens, one of the most elegant scientific writers. How truly 
did Jameson delight in speaking of Steffens as a man — he 
spoke of the power he had in converting all his scientific pic- 
tures into poetical ones. The following short extracts from 
his well-known work, which we have often heard Jameson 
speak of with delight, shew his graphic power : — 

" A Midnight Scene on the Ocean. — ' Once more,' says 
Steffens, ' let us rock our imaginations on the bosom of the 
deep, before we go back to the world of men and things.' We 
know of few attempts in prose or verse to describe the un- 
describable, the awful majesty, and the profound, mysterious 
attraction of the ocean, equal to the following. Our author 
was good-naturedly invited by a party of six fishermen to ac- 
company them on an expedition to a sand-bank, at a dis- 
tance of six or seven Norwegian miles from shore, where 
they were to pass the night. They sailed in a serene and 
beautiful morning : the wind afterwards rose, and the sea 
was agitated. 

" ' The night I passed there I shall never forget. As twi- 
light closed around us on the tossing waves, we became more 
and more silent ; the masts were lowered ; the fishermen 
were contented with their day's work, and I now threw out 
my net once more ; the kind-hearted fellows pressed round 
me with friendly curiosity as I emptied my rich booty into 
the tub and began to examine it. I had to give a popular 
lecture on the new and rare productions I had caught. Mean- 
while, though the sun had sunk below the horizon, the bright 
evening red remained visible the whole night in the far west, 
and played on the waves around us — now gleaming, and then 
vanishing like a soft lightning, The oars lay still ; the boat, 
left to itself, rocked on the waves ; the conversation fell into 
monosyllables ; my companions sung a hymn ; I heard the 
murmur of their prayers, and then each, folding himself in 
his cloak, lay down to sleep ; they slept the deep sleep of 
tired men. The billows dashed against the boat, and the 
night-air closed over our heads ; the consciousness that a 
fathomless abyss might at any moment swallow up our small 
bark kept me awake, and the power of the wondrous ocean 

14 Biographical Memoir of 

— Solitude took possession of me. It was as if I belonged 
to the deep whose inhabitants I had disturbed with my dar- 
ing curiosity. The dim horizon of my precarious future — a 
thousand pictures of the past, appeared and vanished again. 
Neither sorrow nor joy could assume a distinct form ; all 
feelings blunted each other — all images rocked like the boat, 
and melted into each other like the waves ; it was a feeling 
such as I never experienced before or since. In the twilight, 
I could not discern the distant shore ; and here I learned the 
deep, unfathomable might with which Nature rules the soul 
— here, as in no other situation. By degrees all images be- 
came dimmer and more shadowy — the rocking motion of my 
thoughts more tranquil, gentle, and calm ; the plashing of 
the waves sounded like a lullaby, and I sank, like my com- 
rades, into a deep sleep.' "* 

Jameson fully acknowledged that it was from Werner we 
first derived clear and distinct views of the structure and 
classification of rocks. " We are chiefly indebted to the 
reports of Werner's pupils," says Conybeare, " especially 
to those of Jameson, for our knowledge of Werner's general 
views, so fully developed in his lectures, and there only." 
And Conybeare further states, that Jameson first divulged 
to this country that the various species of organic remains 
grouped together in the rock formations, determined the age 
of the formations, and were of the utmost importance in a 
practical point of view. " Werner taught," says Jameson, 
" that mineralogical and geological characters, and cha- 
racters derived from organic remains, were to be employed 
in determining formations, and that probably the same ge- 
neral geological arrangements would be found to prevail 
throughout the earth. But, he added, the truth or falsity 
of this view in regard to the similarity of formations can only 
be determined by the united labours of geologists, continued 
for a long series of years. He attached much importance to 
the mineralogical and geological characters ; and in this he 
was right, notwithstanding all that has been said to the con- 
trary. What are modern geologists at this moment doing, 

* Steffen in his " Was ich erlebte." 

the late Professor Jameson. 15 

but following out the Wernerian mode of investigation, and 
Werner's views in regard to the universality of formations. 
Do not geologists in Britain determine the characters of for- 
mations according to the Wernerian School ; and is this also not 
the case on the continent ? Are not the geologists of England 
endeavouring to identify the formations of our island with 
those of Germany, France, and Italy \ Are not the Ameri- 
cans doing the same % And do we not find geologists tracing 
our old red sandstones, coal formations, lias, oolites, &c, 
throughout India 1 What is this but attempting to prove 
the universality of formations 1" 

Under the shelter, says Werner, of these limestone ridges 
which intersect Italy and Greece — ridges of all heights, ra- 
mified in all directions, and which abound in springs, sepa- 
rated by charming valleys, rich in the productions of living 
nature — philosophy and the arts first sprang to life. It is 
there that those minds have arisen, of which the human race 
has most reason to be proud of; while the vast deserts of Tar- 
tary and Africa have always been inhabited by fierce and wan- 
dering shepherds ; and even in countries where they have the 
same laws, and the same language, a practised traveller is able 
from the manners of the people, from the appearance of their 
houses and their clothes, to guess at the composition of the 
soil of each canton. In the same manner as from this com- 
position, the philosophical mineralogist conjectures what may 
be their manners, their degrees of comfort and of instruction. 
Our granite districts produce, upon all the arts of life, very 
different effects from our calcareous. The natives of the Li- 
mousin, or of Lower Brittany, are not lodged, they are not 
fed, we might even say they do not think, like those of Cham- 
pagne or Normandy. Even the results of the conscription 
have been different, and different according to a fixed law in 
the different districts. Geographical mineralogy thus assumes 
a high importance, when we connect it with what Werner 
called economical mineralogy, or the history of the employ- 
ment of minerals to the wants of man. 

The comprehensive mind of Werner seized equally all these 
relations, and it was with an ever new delight, that his hearers 
listened to his exposition of so much of them as his public 

16 Biographical Memoir of 

prelections embraced. But in his private conversations, he 
traced their application a great deal further. The history of 
nations, and that of their languages, was connected, in his 
apprehension, with that of minerals and geological forma- 
tions, and he never considered himself as departing from his 
principal object, when he gave himself up occasionally to 
those other inquiries. He traced the various tribes in their 
migrations, according to the declivities and directions of 
countries, and he thus connected their progress and their 
stations with the structure of the globe. He connected the 
different languages with families ; he traced each family to a 
common source, originating always in the most elevated point 
of a mountain chain ; from that point he considered every 
dialect as descending, dividing itself according to the direc- 
tions of the valleys, becoming soft or hard according as it 
became stationary, in a level or in a mountainous district, 
separating itself in process of time from the neighbouring 
dialects, and becoming always so much the more distinct, as 
the natural obstacles to communication became more insur- 

He endeavoured even to trace the laws of military art by 
those of geology ; and if he had been to be believed, all gene- 
rals should have begun by studying some time at Freyberg. 
Strangers who happened to be at Freyberg, and who expected 
only to converse with a mineralogist, were astonished at his 
continual discussions respecting tactics, politics, and medicine. 
Many individuals, who afterwards became great mineralo- 
gists, had only wished to hear him, that they might give a 
summary idea of the science of minerals ; but having once 
listened to him, that science became the profession of their 

It is to this irresistible influence, that the scientific world 
has been indebted for these discoveries and observations which 
have rendered the names of Jameson, Humboldt, Buch, and, 
in fact, of many other geologists, renowned through Europe. 

Few teachers have enjoyed this pure and unreserved gra- 
titude to the same degree ; but perhaps no one ever better 
deserved it by his paternal feelings. He grudged nothing to 
the good of his scholars, — his time, his exertions, was at their 

the late Professor Jameson, 17 

disposal. If he knew of any of them that were in occasional 
need, his purse was open to them. His conversation was al- 
ways that of a man of genius, as well as that of a man of kind 
feelings. During whole hours, he would develop the boldest 
and best connected ideas ; but it was impossible to make him 
take up his pen. His life was passed either in the elevated 
regions of contemplation, or in philosophical or friendly con- 

"I cordially agree with Werner in opinion (says Jameson, 
in a paper written in 1813), that Conchology is a branch of 
Natural History which cannot be sufficiently recommended 
to the attention of all Geognosts, as furnishing important 
means of ascertaining with accuracy many of the leading 
facts in the history of the globe. It is a branch of natural 
history which has been long studied in Germany and France, 
and has of late years, particularly since its importance in 
geognosy has been ascertained and pointed out, made great 
advances. But we naturally enquire, to whom are we in- 
debted for our present highly interesting views of the natu- 
ral history of fossil organic remains in general \ It is to 
Werner. More than thirty years ago " [now upwards of 
seventy years] " he first embodied all that was known of 
fossils into a regular system. He insisted on the neces- 
sity of every geognostical cabinet containing an extensive 
collection not only of shells, but of the various produc- 
tions of the class zoophyta, of plants, particularly of sea 
and marsh plants, and ferns ; and an examination of the re- 
mains of quadrupeds in the great limestone caves in Germany, 
soon pointed out to him the necessity of attaching to the 
geognostical cabinet also one of comparative osteology. As 
his views in geognosy enlarged, he saw more and more the 
value of a close and deep study of fossils. He first made 
the highly important observation, that different formations 
would be discriminated by the organic remains they con- 
tained. It was during the course of his geognostical investi- 
gations that he ascertained the general distribution of or- 
ganic remains in the crust of the earth. He found that 
fossils appeared first in transition rocks.* These are but few 

* Now the Cambrian and Silurian. The learned and elaborate works of 
VOL. LVII. NO. CX11I. — JULY 1854. B 

18 Biographical Memoir of 

in number, and confined to molluscs and zoophytes. In 
the older flotz rocks they are of more perfect animals ; 
and in the newest flotz * and alluvial rocks, of birds and quad- 
rupeds, or animals of the most perfect kinds. He also 
found that the oldest vegetable petrifactions were of marine 
plants, the newer of large trees. A careful study of the 
genera and species of petrifactions disclosed to him another 
important fact, viz., that the fossils contained in the old- 
est rocks are very different from any of the genera or spe- 
cies of the present time ; that the newer the formation the 
more do the remains approach in form to the organic beings 
of the present creation, and that in the very newest for- 
mations fossil remains of the present existing species oc- 
cur. He also ascertained that the fossils in the oldest 
rocks were much more mineralised than the petrifactions 
in the newer rocks, and that in the newest rocks they were 
merely bleached or calcined. He found that some species 
of fossils were confined to particular beds, others were dis- 
tributed throughout whole formations, and others seemed 
to occur in several different formations ; the original species 
found in these formations appearing to have been so consti- 
tuted as to live through a variety of changes which had de- 
stroyed thousands of other species, which he found confined to 
particular beds. He ascertained the existence of fresh water 
shells in solid strata, sometimes alone, sometimes intermixed 
with marine productions. These highly interesting observa- 
tions having become generally known by means of his pupils, 
gave a stimulus to the study of fossils, which in a few years 
produced important results. They attracted the particular 
attention of the mineralogist, and roused the curiosity of the 
zoologist and botanist, who saw land before them, — a wide 
field of the most interesting nature. The mineralogist con- 
fidently anticipated from this study important elucidations in 
regard to the various changes the earth had undergone, dur- 

Sedgwick and Murchison mark the commencement of a new era in those geo- 
logical studies which relate to what had been called, until then, the Transition 
or Greywacke formation. Jameson was of opinion that the true Cambrian sys- 
tem existed highly developed in many parts of Scotland. — Edit. 

* In the district which Werner first investigated, the primitive and transi- 
tion strata were highly inclined, while the secondary of Lehman were hori- 
zontal. To these latter he (Lehman) gave the name of flotz. — Edit. 

the late Professor Jameson. 19 

ing the progress of its formation, from the earliest periods 
to the present time. The zoologist and botanist, by the dis- 
covery of new genera and species, hoped to increase the num- 
ber of natural families, to fill up gaps in the present systems, 
and thus to perfect more and more the natural system of 
animals and plants. But this was not all. The philosophic 
naturalist soon saw that these investigations would also lead 
to much curious information in regard to the former physical 
and geographical distribution of plants and animals, to the 
changes which the animated world in general, and particular 
genera and species, have undergone, and. probably are still 
undergoing ; and he would naturally be led to speculate on 
the changes that must have taken place in the climate of the 
globe during these various changes and revolutions. The writ- 
ings of Blumenbach, Von Hoff, Cuvier, Brongniart, Steffens, 
and other naturalists, are proofs of what has been done by 
following up the views of Werner."* 

" In our last number (says Thomson), we inserted an admir- 
able paper by Professor Jameson, of Edinburgh, vindicating 
the geognosy of Werner from the attack made upon it by the 
Edinburgh Review. Professor Jameson maintained, against 
the opinion of the reviewer, that Hatiy and Brongniart, in 
their account of the environs of Paris, had adopted the con- 
clusions, and used the language, of the Wernerian geognosy. 
Had he seen the Recherehes sur les Ossemens fossiles de Qua- 
drupeds, published, by Haiiy in 1812, he would have found 
the following passage, which deserves to be quoted as a vin- 
dication, or rather demonstration, of Professor Jameson's 
opinion : — < En effet, la partie purement minerale du grand 
probleme de la theorie de la terre a ete etudiee avec un soin 
admirable par de Saussure, et portee depuis a un developpe- 
ment etonnant par M. Werner et par les nombreux et savans 
eleves qu'il a formes — Le second (Werner) profitant des nom- 
breuses excavations faites dans le pays du monde ou sont les 
plus anciennes mines, a fixe les loix de succession des couches ; 
il a montre leur anciennete respective et pursuivi chacune 

* The genius of Werner, of De Saussure, and of Cuvier, laid the foundations on 
which geology now rests. They gave us the first glimpse of the fauna and flora 
of the earlier ages of our planet. — Edit. 

B 2 

20 Biographical Memoir of 

cTelles dans toutes ses metamorphoses. C'est de lui, et de 
lui settlement, que datera la geologie positive, en ce qui con- 
cerne la nature minerale des couches ; mais ni Tun ni l'autre 
n'a donne a la determination des especes organisees fossiles, 
dans chaque genre de couche, la rigueur devenue necessaire, 
depuis que les animaux connus s'elevent a un nombre si pro- 
digieux.' " Tome i., p. 34. 

Mr Jameson returned to his native land in 1804, being re- 
called in consequence of the state of his father's health. The 
knowledge of rocks and minerals he had acquired under 
the tuition of "Werner proved of the utmost importance to 
him, and such knowledge no one possessed in this country 
but himself, which he subsequently greatly improved and 
extended. It appears to have been his full intention to have 
returned to Freyberg again, because in writing to his friend 
Meuder, he says: " My dear Friend, I received your most 
agreeable and kind letter on the 1st day of February. It would 
have reached me sooner, but the intense frost prevented the 
packets from getting to England until late in the month of 
January. I return you a thousand thanks for the informa- 
tion you have had the goodness to communicate to me. I 
am much gratified by Werner's kindness. There is nothing 
I desire so much as again to visit Freyberg ; and I seriously 
intend, on the very first opportunity, to visit Germany. At 
present, I am so situated that I cannot undertake any jour- 
ney for at least twelve months ; after that period I hope to 
be able to pay a visit to Freyberg." The indisposition of Dr 
Walker caused Jameson to lay aside all notions of paying a 
second visit to Germany. On the death of Dr Walker, in 
1804, Jameson was appointed Professor of Natural History ; 
and by his publications and admirable lectures, he soon 
raised the Edinburgh School to a high degree of celebrity. 

Dr Walker was profound and learned in classical literature. 
While engaged in preparatory labours, about the year 1750, 
his attention was attracted by the museum of Sir Andrew 
Balfour, the sight of which first inspired him with an attach- 
ment to natural history that operated powerfully on his mind 
and future pursuits, and which he never lost. After his 
death, a volume of Tracts was published, which, together 
with his " Travels," and his Essays in the Royal Transac- 

the late Professor Jameson. 21 

tions, are all that remain to keep alive his remembrance. 
His lectures were much esteemed for the clear and scientific 
manner in which they were written. " The appointment of 
Professor Jameson, the favourite pupil of Dr Walker, to be 
his successor in the chair, in 1804," says his highly distin- 
guished and true friend, Dr Fleming, " raised great expec- 
tations, and were speedily realized. The notions of the 
Huttonians, at this period, respecting the laws of superposi- 
tion of the strata were very defective, scarcely amounting to 
perceivable glimmerings. But Professor Jameson, intimately 
acquainted with the geognosy of Werner, speedily began to 
group the rocks of the neighbourhood into their distinct for- 
mations, and to assign the relative position of our transition 
rocks, old red sandstone, and the independent coal formation. 
This important step in the progress of our geology was fol- 
lowed by a system of prelections, accompanied by excursions 
to the more important localities, where the phenomena could 
be studied in the field, and produced a number of zealous 
observers, who have not only extended our knowledge of the 
structure and contents of this locality, but of the United King- 
dom and its dependencies." Fleming, one of the very few re- 
maining of the Wernerians of Jameson's standing, did more 
good to his country in forwarding the correct method in 
describing natural bodies, in his work on the Philosophy of 
Zoology, than any man living at that time. This work will 
always be highly appreciated as a standard work of reference. 
The extent of Jameson's lectures on Natural History, which 
embraced general views and particular details in Meteorolo- 
gy, Hydrology, Mineralogy, Geology, Botany, and Zoology, 
will be seen from the following condensed and short outline 
of them. 


1. General Properties of the Atmosphere. — Pressure — Figure — 
Height — Temperature — Colour — Light — Transparency — Refrac- 
tion and Twilight — Temperature of Space — Transparency of Space— • 

2. Aqueous Meteors. — Evaporation — Dew — Hoarfrost — 
Aqueous Fog — Dry Fog — Clouds — Rain — Hail — Sleet — Snow — 
Snow line — Glaciers — A valanche — Iceberg. 

3. Luminous Meteors. — Rainbow — Halo — Parhelion and Para- 
selene — Corona — Shadows — Unusual Atmospheric Refractions — 
Atmospherical Electricity — Fireballs — Falling or Shooting Stars — 
Aurora Borealis — Zodiacal Light. 

22 Biographical Memoir of 

4. Winds. — Force — Velocity — Direction. 

5. Sound. — Different kinds — Propagation — Intensity — Velocity 
— Transmission — Reflection — Echoes — Physical and Moral Effects 
on Man. 

6. Atmospheric Zoology and Botany. — Characteristics of Atmo- 
spheric Animals and Plants, as determined by the Microscope — Con- 
nection of their Organism with the Healthiness of Places — their Geo- 
graphical Distribution. 

7. Prognostics of the Weather. — From the Sun — Moon — Stars 
— Atmosphere — Ocean — Lakes— Springs — Animals — Plants and 

8. Meteorological Instruments. — Barometer — Thermometer — 
Actinometer — Cyanometer — Electrometer — Rain Gauge— -Anemo- 
meter — Vane — Magnetic Needle — Professor Leslie's Meteorological 

9. Climate. — Physical Seasons — Climate in General — its Differ- 
ent Kinds — Climate from the earliest Historic Time — the present 
Climate of the Globe — Climate of Great Britain — Subterranean and 
Submarine Atmospheres. 

10. Ancient or Geological Meteorology. 


1. Water. — Colour — Form — Distribution — Importance in the 
Economy of Nature and to Mankind. 

2. Ocean. — Level — Colour — Transparency — Temperature — Depth 
— Air in Sea Water at different depths — Visibility of Shoals — Com- 
position — Sea Ice — its Mineralogical and Geological Characters — 
Luminousness — Motions — Waves — Currents — Gulf Stream — Whirl- 
pools — Tides, their Phenomena and History — Propagation by Sound 
in Water — Vision under Water — Oceanic Scenery and Climate — 
Oceanic Terraces. 

3. Springs — Different kinds of Springs — Magnitude — Tempera- 
ture — Colour — Composition — Rocks formedby Springs during differ- 
ent periods of the Earth's Formation — Influence of Earthquakes on 
Springs — Geognostical Situation — Geographical Distribution — 
Theory of Springs — Artesian Wells — Uses to Mankind in the 
Economy of Nature. 

Lakes. — Different kinds of Lakes — Situation — Distribution — 
Number — Magnitude — Depth — Temperature — Colour — Occupation 
— Agitations and the Rise and Fall of the Waters of Lakes — Float- 
ing Islands in Lakes — Lake Noises — Water of Lakes — Formation 
of Lakes — Theory of Lakes — Lake Scenery and Climate. 

5. Rivers — Different Classes — River Districts — Direction — Fall — 
Velocity — Eddies— Retardation — Drying up or Desiccation — Oc- 
cultation — Colour — Temperature — Effect of the clearing of Land on 
the Running Water of a Country — Iliver Ice — Beds of Rivers and the 
Materials they carry along with them — Quantity of Sediment — Rise 
of the Bottom — Inundations — Magnitude — Deltas — Bars at the 

the late Professor Jameson. 23 

mouths of Rivers — Cascades — Water — its Varieties and Composi- 
tion — River Terraces — River Scenery and Climate. 


Preparative Part of Mineralogy . — Physical Properties of Mineral- 
ogy — Morphological Characters of Minerals — Systematic Arrange- 
ment of Minerals — A System founded partly on External and partly 
on Chemical Characters adopted. — In this system there are three 
Classes; — Class 1. Acrogenous — On Surface-formed Minerals — 
Gases — Waters — Acids, and Salts. Class 2. Geogenous, or Minerals 
of which the known Solid Part of the Earth is chiefly composed — 
divided into Haloidal Minerals or Tasteless compounds of Earth 
and Acids, and Tasteless Compounds of Metals and Acids ; Terri- 
genous or Earthy Minerals — Metalliferous Minerals. Class 3. Phy- 
togenous Minerals — Minerals chiefly formed of Mineralized Vege- 
table Matters. 

Descriptions of Simple Minerals — Uses of Simple Minerals in the 
Arts — Medicine — Agriculture — and in the Economy of Nature, Phy- 
sical and Geographical — Distribution of Simple Minerals. 


Cosmical Properties of the Earth. — Figure ; Magnitude ; Den- 
sity ; Electricity ; Magnetism ; Luminousness ; Temperature ; Vol- 
canism, including Earthquakes, Volcanoes ; permanent upraising 
and subsidence of the Land ; Theory of Earthquakes and of Vol- 
canic Eruptions ; and Account of Salses, Gas Springs, and Hot 

Morphology or Physiognomy of the Earth, including descriptions 
of Continents, Islands, Peninsulas, High Lands, and Low Lands ; 
Plains, including Landes, Steppes, Deserts, Llanos, Selvas, Pampas, 
and Oases ; Mountains, including Single Mountains, Chains of 
Mountains, Groups of Chains of Mountains, Chains of Groups of 
Mountains, Hilly Land ; Valleys ; Caves, Caverns ; inequalities of 
the Submarine land. 

Structures observable in the Solid Mass of the Earth. — Struc- 
ture in general ; structure of Mountain-Rocks, Mountain Masses, 
Mountain Groups, and Crust of the Earth ; uses of the Compass 
and Quadrant explained. 

Known thickness of the Crust of the Earth. 

Materials of which the Earth is chiefly composed, as Water, Silica, 
Alumina, Rocks, Quartz, Felspar, Mica, Hornblende, Limestone, 
Gypsum, and Coal. 

Petrography or description of the different kinds of Rocks, ac- 
cording to Composition and Structure. Crystalline Rocks. Sili- 
ceous Rocks. Silicate Rocks. Haloidal Rocks. Mechanical or 
Conglomerated Rocks, &c. Zoogenous Rocks. Phytogenous Rocks, 
Clays, Sands, &c. 

Rocks, as to modes of Formation, viz., Plutonian, Metamorphic, 
Neptunian, Volcanic, and Contemporaneous. 

24 Biographical Memoir of 

Rocks according to Position, viz., Primary, or Azoic, Transition, 
or Palaeozoic, Secondary, Tertiary, Alluvial, Volcanic. 

General Palseontology. Formation of Mountains, Valleys, Plains, 
and Caves. 

Geognostical Groups of different Countries compared as to magni- 
tude. Theories of the Earth. Hutton, Werner, &c. &c. 

Soils — their Physical and Chemical Characters; Description 
and Arrangement. The Connexion of Geology with Agriculture, 
Planting, and the Characters and Distribution of Diseases. Ac- 
count of the Planetary System. 

Comparison of the Form, Magnitude, Weight, Surface, Light, and 
Atmosphere, of the Sun, Moon, and other members of our Planet- 
ary System, with those of the Earth. Fixed Stars, as seen by the 
naked eye and the telescope ; and the various groupings and arrange- 
ment of these, constituting the Grand System of the Universe. 

Geognostical Structure of Scotland, England, and Ireland. Modes 
employed in searching for Useful Minerals. Mode of conducting 
Mineral Surveys, of constructing Geognostical Sections and Maps, 
and of modelling Mountains, Hills, and Plains. 


General account of the Structure, Physiology, and Systematic 
Arrangement of Plants. Physical and Geographical Distribu- 
tion of Plants. 

Distribution and Characters of Fossil Plants in Transition, Se- 
condary, Tertiary, and Alluvial Formations. Comparison of the 
present Distribution of Plants with that exhibited by Fossil Plants. 
Changes in the climate of the Earth, as disclosed by the Physical 
and Geographical Distribution of Living and Fossil Plants. Natural 
History of Coal illustrated by the phenomena exhibited by Fossil 
Plants. Connexion of the Geography of Plants with the Political 
and Moral History of Man. 

Influence of the Phenomena of Vegetation on the Taste and Ima- 
gination of Nations. 


Fundamental Principles of Zoology ; General Properties of Or- 
ganised Bodies ; General View of Homological Anatomy ; Functions 
and Organs of Animal Life; Intelligence and Instinct; Motions of 
Animals; Nutrition; Circulation; Respiration; Secretion: Em- 
bryology; Peculiar Modes of Reproduction; Metamorphoses of 
Animals; General Geographical, Physical, and Geognostical Dis- 
tribution of Animals. 


Characters by which Man is distinguished from the lower animals ; 
Division into Male and Female, the general and particular cha- 
racters of each ; there is but one species of Man ; The species Man 
is divided into Races, Sub-races, Kinds, Families, and Varieties. 
These defined and described; Man considered as to Colour, Stature, 

the late Professor Jameson. 25 

Size, Strength, Longevity. Geographical Distribution of Man ; 
physical Distribution of Man ; Population of the Globe ; Age of 
M an — 1. Historically considered — 2. Geologically considered. 


Vertebrata ( Vertebrates) . 
Characters of this Sub-Kingdom enumerated. 
Class I. Mammalia. 
Embryology ; Characters used in the Description, Arrangement, 
and Determination of the Species. 

Account of the Orders, viz., Omnivora ; Carnivora ; Uerbivora ; 
and Cetacea, with the principal Genera and Species. Fossil Mam- 

Class II. Aves (Birds). 
Embryology ; Characters used in the Description, Arrangement, 
and Determination of the Species. 

Account of the Orders Accipitres — Insessores — Scansores — Gy- 
rantes — Cursores — GralJatores — Palmipedes ; with the Genera and 
Species, as far as is necessary for the Students. Fossil Birds. 
Class III. Reptilia (Reptiles). 
Embryology ; Characters used in the Description, Arrangement, 
and Determination of the Species. 

Account of the Orders, viz., Rhizodonta (Rhizodonts) ; Lacerta 
(Lizards) ; Ophidia (Serpents) ; Chelonia (Turtles) ; Batraehia 
(Frogs), with the principal Genera and Species. Exhibition of 
Specimens. Fossil Reptilia. 

Class IV. Pisces (Fishes). 
Embryology ; Characters used in the Description, Arrangement, 
and Determination of the Species. 

Account of the Orders, viz., Ganoidea (Ganoids) ; Placoidcea 
(Placoids) ; Ctenoidcea (Ctenoids) ; Cycloidoea (Cycloids), with the 
principal Genera and Species. 
Fossil Fishes considered. 


Articulata (Articulates). 
Class I. Insect a (Insects). 
Embryology ; Orders. — Culeoptera ; Dermaptera ; Orthoptera ; 
Heiiiiptera ; Neuroptera ; Hymenoptera ; Lepidoptera ; Rhipiptera ; 
Diptera ; Syphonaptera ; Parasita ; Thysanoura. 
Arachnida (Spiders, fyc.) 
Orders. — Pulmonata ; Tracheata. Fossil Arachnida. 

Myriapoda (Centipedes, fyc.) 
Orders. — Chilopoda ; Chilognatha. Fossil Myriapoda. 

Class II. Crustacea (Crustaceans.) 
Orders. — Decapoda ; Stomapoda ; Amphipcda ; Lsemodipoda ; 
Isupoda ; Branchiopoda ; Prccilopoda ; Cirrhipeua ; Trilobites ; Fos- 
sil Crustacea. 

26 Biographical Memoir of 

Class III. Annelida {Annelids, or Red-blooded Worms). 
Orders. — Tubieolrc ; Dorsibranchia ; Abranchia. Exhibition of 
Specimens. Fossil Annelida. 


Class T. Cephalopoda (Cephalopods). 
Orders. — Sepiacea, Cuttlefish ; Ammonita) ; Nautilacea. Fossil 

Class II. Gasteropoda (G aster opods. Univalves). 
Orders. — Pulmonea (Pidmonates) ; Branchifera (Branchifers) ; 
Pteropoda (Pter opods). Fossil Gasteropoda. 

Class III. Acephala (Acephals, Bivalves). 
Orders. — Lamellibranchiates (Lamellibrianchiats) ; Brachiopoda 
(Brachiopods) ; Bryozoa. Fossil Acephala. 


Radiata (Radiates). 
Class I. Echinoderma (Echinoderms) . 
Orders. — Holothurida ; Apoda ; Ediinida ; Asterida; Crinoida. 
Fossil Echinoderma. 

Class II. Acalepha (Acalephs, Sea- Jellies or Medusae). 
Orders. — Palliograda ; Physograda ; Ciliograda. Fossil Acale- 
pha. Exhibition of Specimens. 

Class III. Polypifera (Polyps). 
Orders. — Hydrozoa (Hydroidsj ; Anthozoa ; Rhizopodia {Rhizo- 
pods). Fossil Polypiferse. 

Class IV. Entozoa (Intestinal or White-blooded Worms). 
Orders. — Cselelmintha (Owen), Vers intestinaux cavitaires(CW), 
Sterelmintha (Owen), Vers intestinaux parenchymateux (Cuvier). 
Class V. Polygastrica (Polygastrics or Animalia Infusoria, 

Orders. — Diacaela ; Cylocsela ; Anentera. Fossil Polygastrica. 

Class VI. Poriphera, or Amorphozoa {Sponges). 
Orders. — Keratosa, with corneous spicules, ; Leuconida, with cal- 
careous spicules,; Halinida, with siliceous spicules . Fossil Poriphera. 

In the same year that Mr Jameson was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh, he 
published his Mineralogical Description of Scotland, vol. i., 
Part 1st, in octavo, with map and plates. This volume 
contained an account of the Geology of the County of Dum- 
fries, and was the first systematic, scientific description of 
any of the counties of Scotland. It was Jameson's in- 
tention to have published geological accounts of all the 
counties in Scotland. But his unwearied labours in the 

the late Professor Jameson. 27 

museum, and the publication of a System of Mineralogy, and 
volume on the Characters of Minerals, fully occupied all his 
leisure time. Both of these works were highly thought of, 
and ran speedily through large impressions. 

In 1808, he founded at Edinburgh the Wernerian Natural 
History Society ; a society which has eminently contributed 
to the great advancement which has taken place in our na- 
tional cultivation of those sciences ; and he was elected per- 
petual President, — Dr Neill being the devoted secretary* of 
the Wernerian Society. Seven volumes of Transactions and 
Memoirs have been published, to which the Professor was a 
frequent and efficient contributor. 

In 1809, he gave the world, in one volume octavo, the 
" Elements of Geognosy," the whole impression of which was 
sold off in a few months. The doctrines of the Wernerian 
school were unknown to Dr Hutton ; nor were they intro- 
duced effectively in England till the publication of Professor 
Jameson's Elements of Geognosy in 1808 ; the professed ob- 
ject of that work being to make known the view of his mas- 
ter respecting the composition and structure of the globe. 
But the Neptunian theory, as modified by Werner, was so 
intimately incorporated with the system, that it was scarcely 
practicable in discussion to separate the doctrine from the 
facts. The result was a division of the northern geologists 
of Britain into the Wernerian and Huttonian doctrines ; and 
their warfare, though party-spirit may for a time have caused 
some inconvenience, was ultimately useful, by exciting at- 
tention and diffusing a taste for geology. The Wernerians 
had very much the advantage over most of their opponents, 
in their acquaintance with the character and relations of 
rocks. The progress, therefore, which geology for some 
years made under their hands, no doubt had been much more 
rapid, but in the theoretic trammels much incumbered them.t 

* It is much to be regretted that we have not as yet a biography of our ex- 
cellent friend and highly esteemed citizen. — Edit. 

t Ami Boue, in speaking of the Wernerian and Huttonian views, says : " Pro- 
fessor Jameson well deserves high honours conferred on him by his city and 
country, for the services he has rendered to science. He has spread valuable 
working pupils all over the world, and he was the electric spark which origi- 
nated the beginning of true geology in Great Britain. The battles of his Wer- 

28 Biographical Memoir of 

The celebrated Mr Hopkins says, " Much has been written 
against the theoretical deductions of Werner ; but however 
inconsistent they were, those which have been founded on 
the assumed igneous agency are much more arbitrarily 
drawn, most irregularly applied, and totally irreconcilable 
with the observed phenomena, and have tended quite as 
much as the dogmas of our predecessors to bring the geolo- 
gical science into disrepute. Indeed, the science may be con- 
sidered at present as Fossil Geology, combined with Com- 
parative Anatomy. If we refer to the descriptions of the 
primary rocks, we find them so imperfect and in so inappli- 
cable to their general structure, and mixed so much with 
hypothetical ideas, that those who derive all their knowledge 
from books must imagine these rocks as confused igneous 
masses void of all order. Those who are practically ac- 
quainted with the subject, know that the crystalline rocks 
possess an harmonious symmetrical structure." 

In 1813, Professor Jameson advised the translation from 
the German of a publication of travels through Norway and 
Lapland, during the years 1806, 1807, 1808, in one volume, 
quarto, by Baron Leopold von Buch, the distinguished tra- 
veller and geologist. This was well executed by Mr Black ; 
and Professor Jameson added to the interest of this very 
valuable work, by an account of its author, and various notes 
illustrative of the natural history of Norway. Mr Jameson 
intended this volume as one of a series of translations, par- 
ticularly from the German, of the travels of men who, like 
Von Buch, could describe the appearance and geological 
structure of the countries they visited, and also convey to the 
reader delightful pictures of the climate, state of society, and 
of the nature of the animal and vegetable kingdom. 

In 1816, another edition of the System of Mineralogy made 
its appearance, in three volumes, and was for the time the 
most complete work extant upon the subject. A new edition 
of his " Characters of Minerals" was also called for at the 

nr-rian school with the Iluttonian army was a true benefit to science — the un- 
qualified lluttonians were shot down and only the host remained. If many 
fine fellows of the Wernerian school did fall also, Professor Jameson remained, 
and was the first to shake hands with hia former enemies." 

the late Professor Jameson. 29 

same period ; and again, in 1820, other editions of both pro- 
ductions were demanded and produced. In these the Natural 
History mode and arrangement was adopted, and great im- 
provements and additions were made. " In the spring of 
1818," said the late Professor Mohs, " I had the pleasure of 
seeing my much respected friend, the celebrated Professor 
Jameson, at Edinburgh, to whom mineralogy has been so 
much indebted, both by his extending the knowledge of it 
in Great Britain, and by his exciting a general interest in 
it in that country where so much has already been done, 
and where it may be expected that in a short time so much 
more will be accomplished. I found him occupied with ideas 
respecting the Natural History of the Mineral Kingdom, 
which were similar to my own ; and we soon came to agree 
with one another with regard to its most important points, 
because, in fact, our opinions had in a great measure coin- 
cided, before being mutually communicated." 

In 1821, Jameson published a Manual of Minerals and 
Mountain Rocks, — a work of great value, and which was con- 
sidered by all competent judges as the best text-book of its 
time. An edition of fifteen hundred copies was sold in the 
course of a few months. In 1819 he commenced the Edin- 
burgh Philosophical Journal. For the first six years he con- 
ducted it with Sir David Brewster, but since that period he 
has been the sole editor. This work was planned by Brewster 
(now Sir David) and Jameson, at the suggestion of the late Dr 
Neill, and countenanced by Constable. It now extends to 
seventy volumes, and is, we believe, admitted to be the most 
valuable repository of scientific information in Britain for 
the period of its existence. The earlier volumes contain not 
a few contributions from himself; and besides numerous 
original articles from other hands, the Journal comprehends 
translations of memoirs from the French, German, Italian, 
and Swedish languages, with many communications from 
foreign correspondents on all the branches of Natural His- 
tory. It will form one of the most durable monuments of his 
talents and industry. 

Busy as his life was, and while always delivering two 
courses of lectures per annum (a winter and a summer one), 

30 Biographical Memoir of 

he yet found time for extra labour in other directions. In 
1813, appeared Cuvier's celebrated Discourse on the Theory of 
the Earth, with numerous illustrations, " translated by a gen- 
tleman, 1 ' says Jameson, " well known to the philosphical 
world by his various useful writings, the late Mr Kerr, whom 
a sudden death has snatched from this transitory scene. The 
notes I have added, will, I trust, be found interesting ; and 
the account of Cuvier's Geological Discoveries, which accom- 
panies them, will be useful to those who have not an oppor- 
tunity of consulting the great work." This elegant and popu- 
lar volume produced an excellent effect in our country. 
Cuvier, with all his genius and fame, was but partially heard 
of in Britain till this essay appeared, and it made him more 
familiar to our libraries than all his own invaluable writings 
put together. It ran through five impressions (upwards of 
six thousand copies) within a very short period. Mr Kerr's 
translation was a work of 190 pages, but Jameson, in the 5th 
edition, completely remodelled the whole, and extended it to 
550 pages. To the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," Napier's 
edition, he contributed the articles Mineralogy, Geology, and 
Organic Remains ; and to the " Edinburgh Encyclopaedia," 
the following articles, — Adelfors, Ailsa, Alabaster, Altai, 
Alleghany Mountains, Amber, Ambergris, Ammoniac, Ammo- 
nites, Amphibia, Amphibious, Arran, Diamond, Hartz, Miner- 
alogy, and the other articles in that work bearing the signa- 
ture (r). 

On the return of Captain Parry from his polar expedition, 
and at the request of that gentleman, he drew up from the 
specimens brought home a sketch of the geology of the differ- 
ent coasts discovered and touched upon by our enterprising 
navigator ; which was published, together with the botanical 
observations of his friends, Brown and Hooker, and formed 
the scientific companion to Parry's interesting narrative. He 
drew up for the Cabinet Library an account of the Geology 
of the Arctic Regions visited by Captain Parry. He wrote 
excellent articles on the Physical Geography of Africa and 
India, which appeared in the Edinburgh Cabinet Library. 

He edited an edition of Wilson's American Ornithology, 
which appeared in four volumes. The whole was revised and 

the late Professor Jameson. 31 

arranged in a scientific manner by Professor Jameson, and 
made suitable for a text-book in our universities, and also in 
our schools. 

We have now pretty accurately enumerated the literary 
productions for which the public are indebted to the great 
talent and indefatigable industry of Professor Jameson ; they 
are such as to reflect honour upon himself, upon his school, 
and his country. Many of his pupils rose to distinction. For 
example, Professor James Forbes, the highly distinguished 
and celebrated Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Edin- 
burgh University ; Professor Edward Forbes, Regius Profes- 
sor of Natural History in the same university, and successor 
to the late Professor Jameson ; Earl of Cathcart, the distin- 
guished military and famous geologist; Charles M'Laren, 
Esq., our distinguished geologist ; Dr Grant, zoologist and 
geologist, one of the first of the present day ; the late Sir 
George Mackenzie, author of " Travels in Iceland ;" the late 
Dr Hibbert, author of the " History of the Shetland Islands ;" 
Professor James Nicol, Regius Professor of Natural History 
in the University of Aberdeen ; Professor Harkness, Profes- 
sor of Queen's College, Cork ; Dr Fitton, late President of 
the Geological Society of London ; Dr Richardson (now Sir 
John), the companion of Franklin ; Mr Crawford, the author 
of the valuable work on the " Islands in the Indian Sea ;" Dr 
Scoresby, the celebrated voyager, whose work on the Arctic 
Regions and voyage to Greenland have obtained much de- 
served applause ; the late Dr Oudney, the African traveller, 
the companion of Denham, and of the Professor's friend 
Clapperton ; the late younger Park, the son of Mungo Park, 
the celebrated African explorator ; M. Necker de Saussure, 
author of the interesting " Geological Travels through Scot- 
land," in three volumes, and of many important Memoirs 
published at Geneva ; Dr Boue, lately President of the Geo- 
logical Society of France, and one of the most distinguished 
living geologists ; the late Dr Turner, Professor of Chemistry 
in University College, London, and author of the famous 
Text-Book on Chemistry; the late Professor MacGillvray, 
Regius Professor of Natural History in Aberdeen, and many 
others in whose welfare Jameson had taken a warm concern, 

32 Biographical Memoir of 

and who have gone from his class-room imbued with an 
ardent love for those sciences in which he had been their in- 


The first indication we have of a museum was made by Sir 
Andrew Balfour, who died in 1694, in the 63d year of his age, 
and bequeathed his extensive collection to the University of 
Edinburgh. The Rev. Dr John Walker, Professor of Natural 
History in the University of Edinburgh, in speaking of 
Balfour's Museum, states that it was deposited in the Hall 
of the College, which was afterwards the Library. It is 
melancholy to relate the fate of this Museum, that had cost 
Balfour forty years' labour, and was at the time believed to 
be the finest collection in Europe. It lay for many years in 
the University Hall, useless and neglected, some parts of it 
crumbling into dust and inevitable decay, and others ab- 
stracted ; yet, even after the year 1750, it still contained a 
considerable collection. Soon after that period it was dis- 
lodged from the Hall where it had been long kept, was 
thrown aside, and exposed as lumber ; was further and further 
dilapidated, and at length almost completely demolished. 
In the year 1782, out of its ruins and rubbish, Dr Walker 
extracted many specimens, still valuable and useful, and 
placed them in the College Museum, to remain there as 
precious relics of the first naturalist, and one of the best 
and greatest men of his time. 

But the Doctor's anticipations were not destined to be 
realized. He had collected for the use of his class a number 
of specimens, which he added to the pitiful remains of Bal- 
four, but he had not the generosity to bestow them on the 
public, or perhaps did not consider them worth a bequest ; 
and at his death, the Museum, and the remains he seemed 
so eager to preserve, underwent a second spoliation, and the 
miserable fragments left were of little benefit to Jameson, 
his more eminent successor, who deposited in the Museum 
the whole of his own valuable private collection, and may 
now be considered the founder, as well as the builder, of that 
splendid Museum, which is the boast of our University, and 
one of the most attractive as well as important objects of 


the late Professor Jameson, 33 

curiosity in our city, and highly useful in many points of 
view, as a stimulant towards improvement and progress in 
science and art, and a source of innocent recreation for the 
community — a place where all may derive sound and bene- 
ficial knowledge, an access to social blessings, and a wel- 
come relief from social miseries. 

From the valuable records of the Town we learn that in 
1765 the Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Council, took a deep 
interest in the University Natural History Museum, selected 
a room adjoining the Old College Buildings, fitted it up for 
that purpose, and voted several hundred pounds for glass 
cases, drawers, &c, and for purchasing and preserving speci- 
mens of natural history. 

In 1785 many of the county gentlemen also took a warm 
interest in the formation of a Museum, and were anxious 
that it should be established on a firm basis, not only for the 
benefit of the city, but for Scotland in general. Among these 
we may mention the names of a party who presented six hun- 
dred specimens of Natural History to the Museum, viz., the 
Duke of Buccleuch, Lord Hailes, Lord Daer, Earl of Hope- 
toun, Bailie James Dickson, Dr Monro, Dr Cullen, Captain 
Cook, and others. At this period, and up to 1812, the 
Museum was under the patronage of the Town, and all ex- 
penses connected with it were paid out of their exchequer, 
and a yearly sum granted to the Professor to procure speci- 

At the death of Dr Walker the collection in the Museum 
was almost entirely removed by his trustees. Jameson informs 
the Royal Commission, in 1826, that he had no power then to 
interfere with that collection, as it was under the control of 
"Walker's trustees ; and on being questioned by the Royal 
Commission in regard to it, he says, that " the portion left 
for the Museum was very small, and there was now scarcely 
anything left, nearly the whole of the collection having been 
thrown out. A few things were kept for a year or two ; 
they gradually gave w r ay, in consequence of having been badly 
prepared. There are a few rocks, and articles of Indian 
dress which still remain, the only articles left of any conse- 


34 Biographical Memoir of 

In 1812 the management of the Museum underwent a com- 
plete revision. The great increase in all the departments 
of Natural History now called for a much larger sum of 
money for its actual support than any of the authorities were 
willing to grant. 

Professor Jameson earnestly appealed to the Crown 
for a grant of money for the support of the Museum. After 
a great deal of anxiety of mind and toil, he succeeded in 
obtaining £100 per annum, for expenses incurred in its 
preservation, and for the purchasing of specimens. At 
this period he shewed that the collection consisted of 2290 
specimens of quadrupeds, birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, and 
shells, and about 19,000 specimens of minerals and rocks, 
the whole of which had been accumulated by his unceasing 
energy, and an outlay of heavy private expenses. 

In 1819 the famous Dufresne collection was purchased at 
the recommendation of Professor Jameson. He ascertained 
that M. Dufresne was anxious to dispose of it to the Edin- 
burgh University. Both the Emperor of Austria and the 
Emperor of Russia offered a much larger sum for it than that 
proposed by Jameson, but still Dufresne gave Edinburgh the 
preference. The labour and anxiety Jameson had in unpack- 
ing and arranging this collection for public exhibition was 
great. When this magnificent collection was arranged, 
Jameson, at the recommendation of the Town-Council and 
Professors, opened the great halls of the New Museum to 
the public, on each visitor paying two shillings and six- 
pence admission money. This experiment, which met with 
much opposition at first, turned out well, as Jameson soon 
became able by this means to keep the Museum open to 
the public, and to carry on the whole establishment in an 
efficient style, without incurring public debt. 

In 1826 Jameson reported that he had filled with objects 
of Natural History the great halls and galleries of the West 
Museum, and five galleries of the East Museum. 

In July 1834 the Town-Council reduced the fee of admis- 
sion to one shilling, with the view of increasing the income. 
Jameson, guided by his long and unwearied experience, 
stanchly opposed this measure, but it was carried against 
him. The experiment, however, did not meet with that success 

tTie late Professor Jameson. 35 

which was expected, and the income of the Museum yearly di- 
minished; the revenue, which at one time was £600 per 
annum, being now reduced to £130 per annum ; but still all 
this had no effect on Jameson, which shews well his high 
spirit and determination, not to allow even a trace of retro- 
gression, far less to allow his noble Museum to fall into in- 
evitable decay for want of means and public support. 

He now made another appeal to Government for an increase 
of allowance, and without much difficulty got the one hun- 
dred per annum raised to two hundred per annum ; this, 
along with the scanty means he derived from the door fund, 
again restored matters, and allowed him to carry on the 
movements of the Museum up till the hour of his death, 
but not without great private outlay. In short, the whole 
comes to this, that the present Museum was founded, cre- 
ated, arranged, and exposed for public exhibition by the 
head and the industrious hands of one man — Jameson. We 
have still to learn what the public have to say for all this. 
In fact, if Jameson had received the whole amount granted 
by the Exchequer for his own toil and labour, he would have 
been, even then, ill paid. But let it be understood that he 
has accounted by vouchers for the whole Exchequer money. 

It has been mentioned that Jameson, in 1826, had already 
filled all the halls and galleries of both Museums, and at that 
time he had exerted himself much to get the Museum ex- 
tended to the west. He reported and memorialized the 
Crown, the Town, and the Senatus on the subject, but with- 
out success. Still we find he never dropped the matter ; and 
we hope to be able hereafter to shew that before his death 
he actually carried his long-wished-for scheme into effect — 
and that was to extend the Museum to the west, and to con- 
vert the whole into a National Museum. 

It must not, for a moment, be supposed that he was adverse 
to the Museum being thrown open to the public free of charge ; 
on the contrary, he was ever most willing and anxious, but 
as he had no means for its support, it was not in his power 
to gratify the public. But he carried his feelings out as far 
as he pos sibly could, by admitting now and then large and 
numerous bodies of operatives — and on one occasion, at the 
request of the Lord Provost, by throwing open the Museum 


36 Biographical Memoir of 

one whole day to the industrious artizans of the city only, 
which #ave him much delight. 

The following extracts from his evidence before the Royal 
Commission, the one on the History of the Museum, the other 
on the funds, confirm what has just been said : — 

History of the Museum from the year 1804 to 1826. 

" On my appointment to the chair of Natural History in this Uni- 
versity, in the year 1804, the Museum was so inconsiderable, that 
the whole of the articles were contained in a few cases. The speci- 
mens were of birds, serpents, minerals, and dresses and weapons of 
savage nations. The birds were in so decayed a state, that 1 was 
forced very soon to throw them out, and thus the original collection 
was reduced to a few glasses of serpents, a small collection of mine- 
rals, and the arms and dresses already mentioned. The collection 
of natural history of my predecessor, Dr Walker, which contained 
many interesting objects of natural history, was removed from the 
college by Dr Walker's trustees. I placed my own collection of 
natural history in the Museum, and continued collecting in always, 
as far as my influence, and the funds in my possession, would admit 
of, from 1804 to 1819. I even found the accommodation too small, 
and therefore applied to the Town-Council for further accommoda- 
tion. This was granted to me, and a very spacious and handsome 
Museum was fitted up for the reception of the articles of natural 
history. During this period the Museum was also materially en- 
riched by the addition of a collection of minerals and books (the 
latter of which have since been placed in the College Library), left 
to the University by the late Dr Thomson of Palermo, and by the 
collection of minerals of the late celebrated Dr Hutton of Edinburgh. 
In the year 1807, on my suggestion, an application was made to the 
King for His Majesty's permission to have circulated from the dif- 
ferent public offices, printed instructions for collecting objects of na- 
tural history for the Museum. This request was graciously granted, 
and those instructions were speedily widely circulated, and have 
proved most beneficial to the Museum. The collection towards the 
close of this period had increased so much that I was forced, as before 
the fitting up of the second Museum by the Town-Council, to pack 
up the articles of natural history, and stow them away in cellars and 
garrets, every case being literally crammed with specimens. It was 
now necessary to look out for another Museum, and fortunately the 
buildings in the New College, intended for the Natural History de- 
partment, were in progress. I stated to the Commissioners for the 
College Buildings my wants, and the certainty of the destruction of 
many of the specimens, if kept much longer packed up in the man- 
ner already mentioned. The Commissioners being convinced of the 
urgency of my demands, gave orders for the speedy finishing of the 
spluidid halls and galleries of the New Museum. During the fitting 

the late Professor Jameson. 37 

up of this Museum, an interesting and valuable collection of objects 
of Natural History, the property of Mons. Dufresne, assistant in the 
Garden of Plants in Paris, was offered for sale. This collection was 
carefully examined by agents, sent by the College to Paris, and being 
found fully worth the sum demanded for it, was purchased by the 
Professors for the Museum. About the same time a good many 
valuable articles of Natural History were purchased by the order of 
the Professors at the sale of the cabinet of the late Mr Bullock. 
These collections, and those contained in the first and second Mu- 
seums, were brought together and arranged in the Museum in the 
New College, in the year 1820. Since that time the Museum has 
increased more than at any former period, so that the collection is 
nearly double what it was in 1820. About a year ago I again 
stated to the Commissioners for College Buildings, that further ac- 
commodation for objects of Natural History was wanted, the cases 
in the New Museum being completely filled. The Commissioners, 
with their usual liberality and activity, after considering my pro- 
posal, ordered a suite of rooms, five in number, to be immediately 
fitted up. This series of rooms, at the time this report is 
writing, is nearly filled with beautiful and interesting objects of 
Natural History. The Museum is rapidly increasing, and will, ere 
many years pass, equal in extent and splendour some of the most 
distinguished museums in other parts of the world. 

" In order, however, to enable me to realize those hopes, another 
series of rooms must be provided. The Commissioners for College 
Buildings, to whom I have again applied, are now considering of 
the propriety of erecting another Museum of Natural History, on the 
ground to the westward of the present Museum." 

History of the Funds of the Museum from the Year 1804 
to 1826. 

" At the period of my appointment to the chair of Natural History, 
that is, in 1804, there was no regular allowance for the maintenance 
and increase of the Museum, and the only resources 1 had to look to 
were occasional assistance from the Town-Council and my own pri- 
vate funds. From the year 1804 to the year 1812, the expenses 
of the Museum, in collecting, receiving, and preserving objects of 
Natural History, servants, and other expenses, were partly paid 
by the Town-Council and partly by the Professor of Natural His- 
tory. The increasing expenditure of the Museum, and the want of 
regular funds, induced me in the year 1812, to lay a statement on 
this subject before the Honourable the Barons of His Majesty's Ex- 
chequer in Scotland. 

" The result of this application was a gracious order from His Ma- 
jesty, that £100 should be paid annually to the Professor of Natural 
History for the use of the Museum. From the year 1812 to the year 
1820, when the Museum was for the first time open to the public, 
the Museum funds were, — the annual grant of £100, occasional al- 

38 Biographical Memoir of 

lowances from the Town-Council, and my own funds. In the year 
1820, the debt on the Museum having accumulated considerably, 
and being further increased by the annual payment of the interest 
of £3000, borrowed by the Professors from the Banks, for the 
payment of the Dufresne and Bullock collections, it was found neces- 
sary to make some arrangements to meet these difficulties. At a 
meeting held in the Museum, attended by representatives from the 
Court of Exchequer, the Court of Session, the University, and the 
Town-Council, I was ordered to open the Museum to the public, 
and to see that each visitor paid two shillings and sixpence of ad- 
mission money. From the year 1820 to 1826, the Museum has 
been supported by the money collected from visitors ; the royal 
annual grant, and advances by the Professor of Natural History ; the 
Town-Council, from the period of opening the Museum to the public, 
having considered it unnecessary to grant any further pecuniary 
aid to the Museum establishment. 

" Although this fund has been productive, still it is not sufficient, 
even in its present state, and when aided by the royal annual grant, 
to keep the establishment free of debt. This being the case, it is 
evident that some certain and permanent income must be provided, in 
order to secure the Museum already formed, and to afford the means 
of preserving and of purchasing such specimens as are absolutely 
required, in order to keep the Museum up with the progress of 
Natural Science." 

To shew further the difficulties Jameson had to contend with from 
want of funds, he reported to the Royal Commission that *• the Mu- 
seum — the most interesting in Great Britain — the result of upwards 
of twenty years' labour on my part — is now in so low a condition as 
to pecuniary means that I (a keeper without a salary) was forced 
some time ago to part with my assistant, and to take on myself the 
whole duties of this important and extensive department of the Mu- 
seum. The present establishment (1830) for the Museum is the 
Professor of Natural History, assisted by a man to keep the door 
and stove, and a woman to wash and dust the room." 

Here we find Jameson supporting the now National 
Museum by his own energy and his own purse. Has he ever 
for all this received a debt of gratitude from his country \ 
No ! But Europe expects it. 

The introduction of the new Heating Apparatus. 

Jameson lodged many complaints with the Authorities for 
^ long series of years, in regard to the inefficient manner in 
which the halls and galleries of the Museum were heated ; 
and he pointed out the certain destruction of the collections, 

the late Professor Jameson. 39 

either if some alteration on the old system was not adopted, 
or a new system altogether introduced. This led to a com- 
mittee being appointed to inquire into the matter. The com- 
mittee ordered the furnace to be pulled down, and recon- 
structed on a plan more likely to throw a larger volume 
of heat into the halls, and less dust ; but the experiment 
proved a complete failure. A new system of heating alto- 
gether was recommended, which had been in use several 
years, viz., that of Perkins. Jameson, after a good deal of 
anxiety and trouble, obtained the sanction of the Patrons of 
the University and the Senatus Academicus to introduce 
this admirable and truly useful system of heating into the 
Museum, and to remove the old system entirely, which was 
agreed to. 

The halls and galleries are now well heated and perfectly 
free from dust. Still, I may add, that it would require two 
more coils to supply the whole apartments of the west Mu- 
seum with a proper temperature, viz., a coil in the British 
gallery, and a coil in the class-room, which might be intro- 
duced at a small expense. I hope the patrons will not lose 
sight of this, as the perfect safety and durability of the col- 
lection will depend on it. 

Museum extension is a subject that Jameson has urgently 
moved in since 1826, but his anxious call was never listened 
to ; nevertheless he went on extending and improving the 
Museum in all its departments in his usual way. 

In 1852 he drew out a statement of the many thousand 
valuable specimens that could not be exhibited for want of 
proper accommodation, and laid this before the Town-Coun- 
cil, who at once entered into his feelings, and saw the actual 
necessity of urging Government for a grant to extend the Mu- 
seum to the west. The Lord Provost, Magistrates, and Coun- 
cil, submitted to the Right Honourable the Lords Commis- 
sioners of Her Majesty's Treasury, a memorial for Museum 
extension, and for converting the present Museum into a 
National Museum for Scotland. Jameson, as keeper of the 
Museum, forwarded a strong memorial of the same nature. 
Government appears to have taken those memorials into se- 
rious consideration, as it is now understood that the feelings 
of the Government are awakened on this important subject, 

40 Biographical Memoir of 

and tbat ere long we may expect to see the foundation-stone 
laid for the new Museum. 

Jameson has left all the collections in the Museum, both 
of the animate and inanimate kingdoms of nature, in the 
best order. It is true that many complaints have been 
made in regard to the apparent confusion the collections ap- 
peared to be in, but this was altogether owing to the want of 
accommodation. For example, the Mammals could not be 
classified and systematically arranged in the same hall, owing 
to the want of glass-cases to contain the smaller quadrupeds ; 
the collection is therefore distributed throughout the dif- 
ferent apartments of the Museum, entirely for convenience. 
The same applies to the birds, fishes, and reptiles. The mine- 
ral collection, as every mineralogist knows, is arranged in the 
highest systematic order. Neither the public nor naturalists 
have any reason to complain of the apparent want of syste- 
matic arrangement of the collections, as Jameson had to re- 
strict the arrangements to suit the accommodation of speci- 
mens; but let it be remarked that the natural grouping is 
always carefully preserved, with a few exceptions, confined 
not only to specimens exhibited, but also to those unexhi- 
bited ; therefore, the whole collection may be considered in 
order either for arranging and cataloguing, or for transfer- 
ring to the new Museum when completed. 

Numerical Statement of the Museum Collection. 
The following numerical list will shew the vast extent of 
the collections that have been deposited in the Museum dur- 
ing the reign of Jameson, by far the greater part of which 
cannot be exhibited for want of proper accommodation. 


Mammals stuffed and in skins, . . 619 

Birds stuffed and in skins, . . 855 8 

Fishes, ..... 500 

Reptiles, .... 400 

Invertebrate animals, . . . 500 


We give more in detail the mineral ogical, geolo- 
gical, osteological, testaceological collections, and 

the collections of fossil organic remains : — 

Carry forward, . 10,577 

the late Professor Jameson. 
Brought forward, 



Collection of specimens laid out and arranged for 

study, .... 3973 

Collection' of specimens in drawers, upwards of 3000 

Total, . . 


Specimens from Jan Mayen Island and Spitz- 

bergen, . . . . 100 

Iceland, ..... 400 

Norway, . . . . . 700 

Finland, ..... 75 

Uralian Mountains, . . . 165 

Scotland, including the counties of Caithness, 
Sutherland, Cromarty, Ross, Inverness, Perth, 
Banff, Aberdeen, Kincardine, Argyle, Ayr, 
Lanark, Roxburgh, Dumfries, Wigton, Gal- 
loway, Clackmannan, Mid-Lothian, East-Lo- 
thian, West-Lothian, and also the Orkney and 
Shetland Islands, &c. ; the Hebrides, as Skye, 
Canna, Bum, Eigg, Coll, Tiree, Iona, Mull, 
St Kilda, Basay, Pabba, Arran, Bute, and 
Cumbray, .... 5000 

England and Wales, . . . 2000 

Jersey, . .. . . . 150 

France, ..... 1500 

Vosges, ..... 302 

Spain, ..... 300 

Gibraltar, .... 200 

Germany, including Hanover, Hessia, Bhineland, 
Saxony, Wurtemberg, Thuringia, Bohemia, 
Moravia, Bavaria, Austria, Hungary, . 4000 

Switzerland, . . . . 200 

Italy, Greece, and the Greek Islands, . 300 


Egypt, . . . . . 150 

Sierra Leone, . . . 150 

Cape of Good Hope and Caffraria, . . 600 

Azores, Madeira, Canary Islands, St Helena, 

Mauritius, .... 200 



Carry forward, 



Biographical Memoir 


Brought forward, 


Persia, ...... 


Armenia, .... 


Continent of India, 


Indian Islands, as Java, Singapore, 







Hudson's Bay, 


Nova Scotia, 


United States, 












Australia and Polynesia. 
New Zealand, Otaheite, Sandwich Islands, and 

other islands in the South Seas, . 350 

Australia, . . . 1200 

In addition to those enumerated above, there are 
in the Museum collections made during the voyages 
of Captain Ross, Captain Parry, Lord Byron, Sir 
John Richardson, and Captain Fitzroy, and various 
others. The specimens of English and Irish rocks 
and fossils promised to Professor Jameson by Sir 
Henry de la Beche are lying in the Economic Geo- 
logical Establishment of London. 


Skeletons of mammals, birds, fishes, and reptiles, 118 
Human skulls in comparison, . . 199 

Crania of quadrupeds, birds, fishes, and reptiles, 531 



Fresh or recent shells, 


Carry forward, 








the late Professor Jameson. 43 

Brought forward, . . 47,600 


Tertiary Fossils. 
Tertiary fossils from Scotland, England, France, 
Sweden, Italy, Bessarabia, Persia, Egypt, India, 
— all named and arranged, . . 2939 

Secondary Fossils. 
Secondary fossils from Scotland, England, Ger- 
many, France, Belgium, Bohemia, . 5034 

Silurian Fossils. 
Silurian fossils from Scotland, England, Ger- 
many, Bohemia, 
Fossils not yet arranged, 

Insects, ..... 

Birds' Eggs, 

Drawings, maps and models, upwards of 


A high mark of honour was conferred upon Jameson by 
the members of the Wernerian Society, some of his col- 
leagues, and many of our most distinguished citizens, in get- 
ting a bust of him executed in marble by our far-famed and 
celebrated artist Mr Steel. This noble piece of masterly 
art of Mr Steel is the most truthful likeness of the veteran 
Jameson that now remains. It is true that we have lost 
his spiritual vitality, but still we have the true image with 
the spiritual features, or the inanimate matter spiritualized 
by the hand of man in Steel's bust. The bust stands on a 
white marble pedestal in the centre of the Upper Hall of 
the University Museum, a position where his fellow citizens 
will, I am sure, be proud to see it. 

In addition to what we have said of Jameson we now add 
four letters, one received from his old pupil, Earl of Cath- 
cart, one from L. Elie de Beaumont, who writes in the name 
of the Institute of Paris, a third letter from A. Baum- 
gartner, who writes in the name of the Imperial Academy of 
Science of Vienna ; and a fourth from the University of Bonn. 

44 Biographical Memoir of 

We are in possession of many highly important letters from 
other European academies, but have not space for more at 

The Earl of Cathcart, in his elegant epistle remarks, 
" There is no person more willing than I am to render honour 
where honour is so justly due, as it is to the highly venerated 
Jameson. 1 ' His Lordship continues, "it will be difficult to 
find a successor to one who has done more than any man 
now living, by his laborious exertions, to enlighten his fellow- 
countrymen, and the world at large, in a department of 
science, which at the commencement of his labours, was in 
its infancy ; and involved in a labyrinth of vague theories, 
that required all the powers of a mind like that of Professor' 
Jameson, ardently devoted to the cause of science, to find 
a clue to the path, which by a careful and impartial collation 
of the new facts which were daily developing themselves, 
would ultimately lead to the truth. The exemplary patience 
with which he proceeded, step by step, in the progress of the 
mission he had undertaken, was only equalled by the candour 
with which he was always ready to acknowledge an error, 
even to the sacrifice of the cherished opinions in which he 
had been early educated, under the celebrated Werner, when 
he found them to be no longer tenable. An instructor, with 
a mind so trained and disciplined in the search of truth, 
could not fail to secure the esteem and confidence of his 
pupils, and to impart to them the same love and ardour in 
the pursuit of science, that he himself possessed ; amongst 
whom, during the long course of upwards of fifty years, may 
be reckoned many of the most celebrated naturalists, not 
only of his own country, but in all parts of the world in 
which natural science is cultivated. For myself, who have 
had the privilege of attending Professor Jameson's class, 
and of accompanying the Professor in some of his geological 
excursions, I cannot say which gave me most pleasure to 
witness, the devoted attention of his pupils to the lucid 
explanation of the phenomena which had come under our 
observation ; or the affectionate regard we all felt for the 
amiable qualities of our venerable instructor. Although 
Professor Jameson has preserved his mental faculties in 

the late Professor Jameson. 45 

their full vigour, to a much later period than is allotted to 
most men, their constant exertion in such severe labours 
must necessarily impair, be prejudicial to health, and tend 
to produce bodily infirmity. His time is now come when 
he should retire from public life, and pass his latter days 
in calmness and repose. 

" And I most earnestly hope that the proposed appeal to 
Lord Aberdeen may be successful in obtaining for him some 
honourable distinction, to mark the estimation in which the 
eminent services he has rendered to science is appreciated 
by a grateful country, during his lifetime. Hereafter no 
name will be handed down to posterity with more lasting 
honours than that of Professor Jameson. Believe me, my 
dear sir, always very truly yours, Cathcart." 

" Paris, April 1854. 

" I deeply regret," says M. L. Elie de Beaumont, " for the 
cause of science, that Jameson is not able to carry on his bril- 
liant prelections, being unable to struggle against the weight of 
years ; but I am sure that all friends of science, deeply grate- 
ful for his noble and persevering exertions, would much de- 
plore if he were to hazard his health by resisting too long to 
the inevitable blows of time ; and I am at the same time 
convinced that they would regret that the period of repose, 
now so necessary to him, should commence without being 
signalized by a great and honourable tribute of gratitude, 
which is due to him for the services he has rendered to his 
country, his university, and, I may add, to the whole of 
Europe, by having powerfully contributed, by the splendour of 
his instructions, and by his learned labours, to exalt the study 
of natural history. 

" Such indeed is the sentiment of all the members of the 
Academy of Sciences of Paris, who have cultivated those 
branches which Professor Jameson, by his labours, has most 
advanced ; and I may add, that the Academy, along with 
myself, should feel most happy if a public mark of respect 
was bestowed on the illustrous author of so many famous 
works, well known to the whole of Europe — the learned edi- 
tor of the Philosophical Journal — a journal much prized by 

46 Biographical Memoir of 

every lover of science, and by all our academies — the eminent 
Professor, who has formed so many students, and who in 
their turn became celebrated savans — and for the enlighten- 
ed and benevolent guide from whom I myself had formerly 
the honour of receiving instructions in that very locality, 
when under his auspices I visited the spots in the neighbour- 
hood of Edinburgh, which, by his beautiful observations have 
become classic ground to the geologist. I remain, my dear 
sir, yours sincerely. 

" M. L. Elie de Beaumont, 
" I join with great pleasure,'' says " M. Flourens, Per- 
M. Flourens, " the sentiments of high petual Presidents 

esteem expressed by M. Elie de Beau- of the Academy, 

mont, in his wishes that a just and Ch. Coumbes, Pre- 
honourable tribute of respect should sident. 

be paid to Jameson by his country." 

" Milne -Edwards. M. Dumas. 

A. Valenciennes. M. de Senarmont. 

boussingault. constant prevost. 

Payen. Adl. Brongniart. 

Gasparin. Jules Decaisn. 

Francois Delessert. M. Faye. 
Baron Charles Dupin. 


Balard. Babinet." 

The Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna, in a letter 
received, say, — " We have the honour to lay before you the 
expression of their high feelings and high personal regard in 
the important benefits Professor Jameson has bestowed on 
science. The Academy has a lively sense of the relations 
that at one time existed between Jameson and the celebrated 
Frederick Mohs of Freyberg, while under the tuition of 
Werner, as well as of that later scientific intercourse, which 
induced one of our most active members, M. Haidinger, to 
publish in Edinburgh the English edition of Mohs' well- 
known System of Mineralogy. These observations point out 
the intimate relations which existed in earlier times be- 
tween Jameson's labours in the field of the modern period of 

the late Professor Jameson. 47 

mineralogy and the history of that science in our own 

" Well may a man in the evening of his life experience 
some satisfaction, if, like Jameson, he is able to look to a 
long uninterrupted period — by his intellectual activity a period 
amply filled up by his own labours and works which pro- 
moted and advanced science — by the establishment of a 
learned society (Wernerian) that the country derived so 
much good from — and by the founding of a journal of inde- 
pendent character, which has been a great boon to the country 
for more than 35 years. 

" We are happy on our part to express, in the name of the 
Academy, the high position which Jameson held for his 
brilliant services to his sovereign and country. 

" A. Baumgartner. 


General Secretary of the Imperial Academy." 

" Vienna, May 3d, 1854. '' 

From these letters, and many others, we find that Jame- 
son's reputation early in life depended in a great measure 
on his mineralogical and geological knowledge. 

At the commencement of his career he devoted much time 
and close investigation to the structure of rocks, and would 
have worked out many useful results had he continued, be- 
cause it is undoubtedly true that a close investigation of 
structure will lead us to the laws, from the operation of 
which the harmony pervading nature results. The old 
school of geology was too much inclined to ascribe the 
varieties of structure to increased or diminished pressure ; 
but there appears to be in nature causes independent of va- 
riations in pressure — the cause of these changes still puzzle 
and perplex the best of our geologists. Studer and Keilhau 
tell us that chemistry fails to account for them. We hope 
soon to see truly valuable results, derived from the micro- 
scopical examination of rocks. If the beautiful experiments 
of Ebelmen had been known when the battle of the Hutton- 
ians and Wernerians was at its height, they would have been 
highly prized, as they would have settled the keenly con- 
tested question as to how apparent infusible substances could 

48 Biographical Memoir of the late Professor Jameson. 

be fused, and how fusible and infusible substances occurred 
together. We now know from his experiments that fusible 
substances contain dissolvents which act on the infusible 
substances and dissolve them. 

Jameson was the first who observed a concentric laminar 
structure in granite ; and he was the first who started the 
notion of the contemporaneous formation of rocks in this 

We have now given a very brief outline of Jameson's 
career, and we trust his last and dying feelings in regard to 
his Museum, so well known to the Patrons of the University 
and his Colleagues, will be ultimately realized, and fully 
carried out. We have further shewn that Jameson has led 
a long, a highly useful, and, I may add, a truly happy life, — 
a life that has reaped enjoyments on this earth of an order 
of immortal beings, — a being, although clothed with mor- 
tality, and subject to the ordinary passions, infirmities, and 
possessing a mind that craved unceasingly for the expansion 
and improvement of the intellect that God had given him to 
elevate and enoble his mortal existence ; and a mind that, even 
while so imprisoned, could grasp the whole of nature, and turn 
his knowledge to the progress, improvement, and benefit of 
his fellow-creatures. Such powers and faculties in a perishable 
fellow-creature, are enough to excite man's highest admira- 
tion, and to lead him to feel that such gifts and faculties are 
not doomed to perish, but that the mind of man is imma- 
terial and immortal. His soul is now safe in its immortal 
habitation, where there is neither death nor sorrow. Death 
knocked at the door, and it opened, and his finer being was 
transferred from a lower to a higher state of existence, to 
immortal happiness. 

The feelings of the University of Bonn as to the value and 
worth of the late Professor Jameson appears in the following 
address, received from the Professors of that University : — 

" At a time when the oldest of the undersigned were still 
boys, and the youngest not even born, Professor Jameson was 
a student in the celebrated Mining Academy of Freybreg. 
He, along with many distinguished foreigners, was attracted 
thither to study under the famous Werner. Jameson was 

Biographical Memoir of the late Professor Jameson. 49 

one of Werner's most zealous pupils ; he supported his doc- 
trines throughout life, but at the same time shut neither his 
eye nor his ear to the progress of science in those phases 
through which it passed in the course of time. Jameson mani- 
fested his devotion and gratitude to that never-to-be-forgotten 
teacher, Werner, by the establishment of the Wernerian Na- 
tural History Society, to which Europe is deeply indebted, by 
the many treasures he collected there in the field of science. 
Jameson was highly favoured for half a century as a great 
teacher, as an author, and as a distinguished philosopher, with 
perfect success. Great as is the number of those who, by 
word and doctrine, were instructed by him, it is still far sur- 
passed by the number of those who derived manifold instruc- 
tions from his numerous and valuable writings. 

" The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal is a marked 
proof of Jameson's talents and unwearied industry, — a jour- 
nal so rich in its contents, and in having kept pace with the 
progressive discoveries and improvements in the arts and 
sciences, — and a journal that will at all times maintain a most 
prominent position in the libraries of the learned. Such 
merits, joined to great urbanity, benevolent, and noble cha- 
racter, could not fail to be appreciated ; and the great esteem 
and respect in which his name is upheld by all the academies 
and learned societies in Europe, America, East and West 
Indies, to which he belongs, is a decided proof of this. 

" May his God soon improve his suffering state of health, 
and may He give him many years of calmness and repose. 

" Dr Buker, Dean and Professor of Mathematics 
and Physic. 
Dr Gustave Bischof, Privy Mining Councillor, 

and Professor of Chemistry. 
Dr Noeggerath, Privy Mining Councillor, and 

Professor of Mineralogy. 
Dr Fr. Argelander, Professor of Astronomy, 
and Director of the Observatory. 

L. J. 

" Bonn, YSth May 1854." 

50 Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone 

On the China-stone and China-clay of Cornwall. By Mr H, 
M. Stoker, of St Austel, Cornwall. 

(Continued from vol. lvi., p. 102.) 

Kaolin is found intermixed with quartz and scales of mica, 
in most valleys contiguous to the decomposing hills of the 
primary strata of our county, and is not, so far as is at pre- 
sent known with regard to China-stone, confined to any par- 
ticular district, being now obtained or obtainable, though of 
different qualities, on the south-western sides of either of the 
granite districts ; yet, of course, poorest near those beds of 
China-stone which I before described as free from most dete- 
riorating substances, as in the parish of St Stephens. 

It exists in these beds or stopes, as they are designated, 
as an amorphous, whitish-blue, opaque powder, which, from 
the softening influence and rainy character of the south- 
westerly winds, are most frequent in valleys situated on the 
same aspect ; often lying on the contiguous borders of the 
granite and killas, clay-slate, greywacke or transition strata, 
by which this is surrounded; where, being exposed to the 
action of lodes and co-existing springs, on the occurrence of 
the slightest convulsion, it has slid to the adjacent valleys, 
where its presence is indicated by the generally smooth and 
flattened appearance of the surface, — by the vegetation on it, 
which is often luxuriant, especially if the clay contain an ex- 
cess of potash, — -and by the number of springs to which it 
gives rise in the immediate vicinity, their height above the 
level of the sea being necessarily limited by that of the val- 
leys in which the clay is deposited. 

The character of the clay very much assimilates to that of 
the granites from which it has been formed by the disinte- 
grating process to which I referred while speaking of the 
formation of China-stone, not only as to the quantity obtain- 
able from a given amount of clay-stope, but also as to the 
purity of the article and its whiteness, the whitest clay being 
formed from that granite which has the whitest felspar, and 
is most free from iron, the presence of this giving the ma- 
nufactured wares an appearance termed " foxey ;" while, 

and China-clay of Cornwall. 51 

lastly, the amount of mica scales, which give to them their 
tenacity or strength of body, considerably influence the cha- 
racter and value of the clay ; so that, as a general rule, we 
can form a very good diagnosis of the character of the clay 
by an examination of the granite from which it has been 
formed ; and in doing this, I would advise the use of a good 
microscope, by which only the clay producer can hope to ob- 
tain an accurate knowledge of the value and purity of our 

The kaolin of both Devon and Derbyshire is of good work- 
ing quality, but can by no means compare with that of our 
county either for whiteness or strength ; it contains 60 of 
alumina, 20 of silica, and 20 of potash (Wedgwood) ; and to 
this peculiarity of constitution (excess of silica) is due its 
property of being infusible and unchanged at the highest 
temperature. It is extremely tenacious of moisture, and 
hence one great difficulty in its preparation ; — to be hereafter 

The clay beds, or stopes, are formed by small irregular 
crystals of quartz, the edges of which are by no means so 
well marked as in the granite, nor is their opacity so great : 
the mica is apparently unchanged, consisting of silicic acid, 
potash, and alumina, in the form of double silicate ; while the 
felspar of the granite or China-stone, by the loss of its pot- 
ash, has become converted into the amorphous powder I have 
just described; a singular instance of the effect of slight na- 
tural chemical changes giving rise to the formation of two 
such dissimilar bodies, when fused, as biscuit China, white, 
glassy, sonorous, and translucent ; when, if the disintegrat- 
ing process have but just overstepped this limit, we find, on 
fusion, a brick-like mass, white, opaque, adhering to the 
tongue, tenacious of moisture, and earthy on fracture. There 
are, however, as I before stated, many and varied interme- 
diate productions, from the pasty pipe-clay or tile, to porce- 
lain or glass, which is but another form of a fusible silicate. 
The clay stopes are oftentimes rendered useless by the pre- 
sence of some iron lode, which causes them to become 
loosened in texture, and reddened ; the stope is then termed 
" brawny," and this has to be thrown aside as useless. 


52 Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone 

Having thus briefly given a general outline of the nature, 
composition, and history of these clays, I shall proceed to 
the notice of the mode of preparation of them in this county, 
which, though simple in theory, requires much care and at- 
tention in its execution, and consists essentially in the sepa- 
ration of the quartz from the mica and kaolin, and the sub- 
sequent collection of the latter. The execution of this pro- 
cess in any of the extensive works in St Stephen's parish, 
one of which would cover from 10 to 13 acres of ground, and 
from which 2000 to 3000 tons are annually raised, and fitted 
for the market, forms a curious and interesting spectacle of 
whitewashed, happy industry, for the contemplation of the 
traveller during the months of summer. 

Distant from five to eight miles from St Austell, situated 
in the centre of barren, rugged, heathery wilds, inclosed by 
stone walls, and bounded on every side by cold, bleak, and 
rugged hills, these works have a very picturesque appear- 
ace. In one part of them may be seen from 30 to 40 men, 
boys, and women, who, with their white bonnets, white aprons 
and sleeves, carry the still whiter clay, in large junks, to the 
surrounding hills or drying grounds, to be exposed to the 
warm rays of the sun, the dry winds, and the bleaching power 
of the air ; in another may be seen other parties scraping the 
clay, prior to its being packed in casks, to be sent to various 
parts of the old and new world. Circular or oval pits and 
square pans are lying in all directions ; their continuity here 
and there disturbed by one or two water-wheels in incessant 
motion, or piles of dried clay covered with reeders, or lying 
in sheds ; while at one extremity of the work may be seen a 
number of men and boys employed in excavating the clay 
stope, removing the overburden, or shearing the stope to 
wash away its clay ; the sand at the same time being re- 
moved to the drying ground by means of a tram-road, the 
waggons passing along which are worked by the aid of water- 
power ; while over head launders attached to pumps for va- 
rious purposes seem to form a skeleton roof to the whole. 

The beds of clay stope are exposed by the removal of the 
overburden, which varies in thickness ; in some places lying 
but a few feet from the surface, while in others the only bed 

and China-clay of Cornwall. 53 

fit to be washed is placed at a depth of from 10 to 20 fathoms 
from the surface. The removal of the superimposed earth 
is effected by a number of men with their pickaxes and sho- 
vels, which, by their barrows, they transport to the adjacent 
rugged country, so as to render it smooth and level, in order 
to form drying fields for the summer. While this is in pro- 
gress, the clay stope, over the top of which flows a small 
stream of water, is being excavated by another set of men, 
which, as the water passes through, has the clay suspended 
in it by the treading action to which the stope is subjected, 
by means of the large boots, often seven pounds weight, with 
which the clay streamers are supplied ; the sand is thus se- 
parated from the clay and mica, which are carried on by the 
water, and the sand is then carried by rail or carted to the 
top of the work, whence it is taken to be spread over the 
drying grounds, or is thrown into the pits and pans. 

The water to be supplied to the clay stope should consist 
of two-thirds of spring to one-third of rain water, this mix- 
ture causing a deposit of the suspended clay much more 
readily than any other. Great attention is often necessary 
in this part of the process, as, from an excess of rain-water, 
it is often requisite that it should be saturated with some 
earthy base. Common alum is at present used for this pur- 
pose, though any other cheaper salt would answer the pur- 
pose, as it is only necessary to saturate the water fully with 
earthy bases, when the clay speedily becomes thrown down ; 
a law not generally known. 

As a substitute for this, I have at times had recourse to 
finely-ground peat, or wood charcoal, which, thrown over the 
surface of a pit, on which it floats, by a process of angular 
attraction or repulsion, causes the clay to be deposited, even 
from distilled water, far more readily than by the addition 
of any soluble earths, as may be demonstrated, with ease, by 
experiment in two or three tumblers ; but as I am rather in 
advance of the water in which I left the clay and mica sus- 
pended at the bottom level of the clay work, I must return 
thither, till, by the aid of wooden or iron pumps, from 40 to 
80 feet deep, worked by a powerful water-wheel, this milky- 
looking fluid is elevated to the level of the large mica laun- 

54 Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone 

ders, where the clay, being lighter than it, leaves it deposited 
in these inclined pits, which are generally three or four in 
number, placed in tiers, with a slight elevation at the upper 
end of each. They vary in length from 10 to 20 feet, are 
generally 3 feet in breadth, and 6 or 9 inches deep, though 
both the number, size, and degree of inclination vary with 
the size and rapidity of flow of the shear of water, though no 
less than with the amount of mica contained in the stope. In 
some clay works the shear is so large that most of the mica 
is carried on with the clay, so that it possesses, when fused, 
a greater degree of tenacity, though of an inferior quality as 
to whiteness, plasticity, &c. In the separation of the best 
clays, these pits require that the motion of the shear through 
them should be slow and equable ; the shear of small size, 
and the launders should be tapped or cleared out once in 
every six or seven hours ; a careful attention to which well 
repays any amount of labour in the production of a good ar- 
ticle. That portion of the mica collected in the first of 
these launders often being mixed with scales and crystals 
of hornblende, or diallage, is thrown aside as useless, while 
that collected in the others is generally sold as a second quality 

The clay water, having left the mica, now flows on to a 
large circular or oval collecting pit, 30 or 40 feet in circum- 
ference, and from 6 to 10 feet deep, where the clay subsides, 
forming an under-stratum of the consistence of cream, the 
supernatant water flowing off from the top of the pit, until it 
is filled. As soon as this happens, the clay is allowed to pass 
out by a trap-hatch to the pans below it ; or, should there be 
none at this level, recourse is had to the pumps, by means of 
which, and attached launders, the clay is passed to the dry- 
ing-pans in any portion of the work. Of these there should 
be from ten to twelve capable of holding from 40 to 50 tons, 
to each large collecting pit ; they have been made, till lately, 
on any part of the adjacent ground, frequently on that co- 
vering the clay bed, where the surface, after being levelled 
and covered with fine loose gravel, is hedged in by walls of 
granite, the joints of which, as well as those of the pits, 
are rendered impervious by interposed moss ; they are gene- 

and China-clay of Cornwall. 55 

rally from 20 to 40 feet square, and 2 deep ; the pans, when 
two-thirds filled with clay, are thus exposed to the heat of 
the sun, or the dry winds of March, to the aid of which alone 
the proprietors of the majority of these works have hitherto 
had recourse. 

In the model which I have sent for the inspection of the 
Committee of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, I have 
employed drainage as an additional means of aiding the dry- 
ing of clay, by forming a kind of filter of the clay pan. A 
substratum of large pebbles, increasing in depth from behind 
forwards, but with the surface level, is first laid down above 
this coarse gravel, between which and the clay to be dried is 
a thin layer of fine sand ; through this the water quickly runs 
to the corner, towards which the inclined bottom is made to 
fleet, which communicates with the country by means of a 
launder, over the inner end of which is placed a wire-gauze 
grating. By the employment of these, from experiments I 
have made, I have ascertained that the clay can be dried 
thrice as rapidly as by the ordinary methods ; in addition to 
the introduction of which I should recommend to the notice 
of parties employed in these operations, the propriety of 
placing these pans as closely together as possible, so that, on 
the occurrence of heavy showers of long duration, or in the 
heavy dews of the nights of summer, the clay may be kept 
from this accession of moisture by some cheap covering, as 
these obstacles very much increase the difficulty of drying 
clay in any given period. 

The kaolin is by this means only partially deprived of mois- 
ture, in order to effect the complete removal of which it is 
taken from the pans, where it has been allowed to remain for 
from three to four months, to the drying grounds, on the ad- 
joining hills, in summer, in cubic blocks about 1 foot square. 
In order to effect its removal from the pans, a number of 
parallel incisions are made the whole length of the pan, in 
one direction, by means of a perpendicular knife attached at 
right angles to a long handle. These long blocks are then 
divided transversely by men, who with spades throw them 
on a board, on which they are carried by women and boys to 
the sandy drying-yard, where they soon become perfectly dry 

56 Mr H. M. Stoker on the China-stone 

and white ; but as this can only be done in summer, and not 
even then if a wet season, it has become necessary that re- 
course should be had to other means : those hitherto em- 
ployed have all required the use of a fuel obtainable only 
from Newport, or some distant coal tract, and hence requir- 
ing considerable outlay, so much so, in fact, that but few 
persons are able or willing to make use of it. The heat, in 
these cases, is applied by means of a large kiln, or by passing 
the clay over a heated drum, neither of which methods could 
be made available in the return of several thousand tons of 
clay annually. 

But it occurred to me that the deleterious floods of the 
winter, or the wind on the adjoining hill, might be rendered 
available as a motor power, provided it could be employed in 
the construction of a kaolin drying-machine. The success of 
my attempts will be best learned by a few turns of the handle 
of the accompanying model made and invented by the author. 
By a machine twelve times the size of the model, two tons of 
clay can be dried completely every five minutes. It consists 
of a number of perforated fans, having on them shelves simi- 
larly perforated, or made of wire-gauze, which are kept ro- 
tating two hundred times a minute, or faster if necessary, by 
the four attached multiplying wheels. These wheel-fans 
have six perpendicular screw-like arms, on each of which are 
a number of transverse shelves for the carriage of the clay, 
where, from the rapid motion of the wheel, and the opposed 
currents of air it causes to be thrown against the clay, it ra- 
pidly becomes dry. 

The fact of doing away altogether with fuel, and the sub- 
stitution of a power which can be obtained with the greatest 
ease, on the occurrence of a very rainy season, render it at 
once a cheap and advantageous substitute, either for the 
labour at present employed, or for the still more expensive 

The junks of clay, after being again collected, are now 
piled away in sheds, under a number of thatched gates or 
reeders ; or are placed in some sheltered spot, so that they 
may, nevertheless, have a constant current of cold dry air 
surrounding them, and be at the same time kept from rain. 

and China-clay of Cornwall. 57 

When required for exportation, these square blocks are 
scraped by a number of the clay women, who, armed with 
their " Dutch Hoe"-like instruments, as they surround their 
scraping tables, present a rather formidable appearance ; 
after this the clay is piled in waggons, to be sent from one of 
the nearest ports, or is packed in a number of small casks, 
each capable of holding about half a ton, in which it is 
sent off. 

The prices of these clays vary much with the quality of the 
article, though those of a superior stamp seldom alter, as 
they have held their price for the last ten or fifteen years, 
and always command an excellent sale in the market at from 
36s. to 46s. per ton ; while those of an inferior quality may 
be procured at any price below this down to 17s. per ton, 
varying with their purity, hardness after calcination, degree 
of whiteness both in and out of water, and, lastly, the degree 
of shrinking they undergo on calcination or fusion. 

Having already entered, as fully as the limits of the pre- 
sent essay will permit me, on the subject of the uses of kao- 
lin, further information on that head must be dispensed with ; 
but, before concluding, I must introduce to your notice a few 
facts, bearing directly on the influence the preparation and 
production of this article exercises on this, the central por- 
tion of the county. The first and most important of which 
is the number of people employed in its preparation, and the 
amount of capital expended annually in labour ; next, I shall 
shew the amount of the cost of land dues ; thirdly, that of 
land carriage, which will necessarily afford additional aid to 
the labourers in the vicinity, as the whole of this work is 
executed by a number of small farmers, each of whom is ge- 
nerally provided with his waggon and team of from three to 
four horses. The cost of cooperage and quay-dues is next 
on the list, forming a total of £240,500 spent in the prepa- 
ration and production of this article in this county alone. 
But it should also be recollected that no less than 80,000 la- 
bourers are employed in the neighbourhood of the Stafford- 
shire potteries, and 20,000 more in those of Derby, Worces- 
ter, Wales, and Bristol, in its subsequent manufacture ; for 
which, prior to its arrival in or at either of these districts, a 

58 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

sum of 12s. per ton, for carriage by sea and canal, is entailed, 
forming a total of about £300,000 spent on China-clay and 
stone before they arrive in the potteries, where an immense 
amount of capital is again spent in their manufacture. 

Yearly Expenditure. 
Labour, 7200 men, women, and children, at Is. 6d. 

per diem, £197,100 

Carriage of clay and stone to one of the nearest 

ports, at average price, .... 22,000 

Dues to landowner, ..... 14,000 

Dues to proprietors of harbours, . . . 2,500 

Cooperage on best clays, .... 5,000 

Land and canal carriage, at 12s. per ton, . 58,800 


Having thus, as briefly as possible, stated the chief facts 
with which I am acquainted relative to the history, prepara- 
tion, and commercial importance of these articles, and pointed 
out the advantages to be derived, and the field of improve- 
ment which is offered for the contemplation, study, and en- 
terprise of Englishmen, by substituting machinery for the 
great amount of manual labour and cost, at present necessa- 
rily entailed by the existing want of information on this sub- 
ject, I must conclude by again calling attention to the dis- 
tance of these beds from the potteries and their surrounding 
beds of fuel, and suggesting that substitution of the trans- 
fer of materials, at a subsequent period, may considerably 
alter the present state of the central portion of the county, 
and with it the price of the various articles of pottery so ne- 
cessary to our comfort and convenience. — From the Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Polytechnic Society of Cornwall. 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

Continued from Vol. lvi., No. cxii. 

The so-called gelbbleieeze or molybdates of lead are the 
most remarkable products of the decomposition of galena, for 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 59 

with regard to their formation the question arises, whence 
did their molybdic acid originate 1 It is scarcely admissible 
to assume that molybdic acid or molybdate of lead were 
introduced into the lodes ready formed, since under all cir- 
cumstances the molybdates are implanted upon the galena, or 
occur as pseudomorphs after it, like other minerals of the 
kind, with regard to the source of whose acids there is no 
doubt. It would seem that the molybdenum previously 
existed in some decomposed mineral which has not as yet 
been met with. Chemical examination of the galena itself 
did not show the presence of any molybdenum in it. 

The zinc-blende of this formation is generally of the 
brown, rarely of the red or yellow colour, and never black. 

Copper pyrites occurs in small quantity as one of the oldest 
members of this formation. A great variety of decomposition 
products of it and of galena conjointly occur, particularly in 
the upper parts of the lodes. 

XV. Barytic Copper Formation. — It has already been 
pointed out that copper pyrites occurs frequently in forma- 
tions whose principal bedding is barytite. Variegated and 
ordinary copper pyrites, together with copper-glance, occur 
in considerable masses in barytite lodes, without any other 
minerals so as to constitute what may justly be regarded as 
a special formation. 

XVI. Silver Formation. — As in the previously mentioned 
quartz formation, the argentiferous and auriferous pyrites 
are almost invariably associated with mispickel and quartz, 
they may be regarded as constituting a separate formation, 
more especially as their age is undoubtedly very great. 
However, argentiferous minerals are elsewhere more abun- 
dant, and so decidedly associated with and accompanied by 
the very recent barytite, that they may likewise be regarded 
as a separate formation. It resembles the pyritic formation 
in being frequently transferred into the adjoining rock, 
although not in such considerable masses, and the rock is 
less disintegrated. Silver glance has been found between 
the planes of cleavage of undecomposed gneiss. The minerals 
containing gold or silver which belong to this formation are 
generally of very recent formation, and are consequently 

60 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

implanted upon most of the previous groups, except the 
titanium and manganese group, and probably the spathic 
iron, tin, cobalt, and nickel-silver group, and that in zech- 
stein, &c. The formation is most considerable when bedded 
in barytite. The enormous quantity of silver ore yielded in 
1477 by the mine Ritter St George, at Schneeberg, was 
situated at the intersection of several lodes of heavy spar. 
The rich ores of Peru, Chili, and Mexico, were mostly found 
in heavy spar lodes, with and without quartz. 

XVII. Barytic Mercury Formation. — Cinnabar stands in 
the same relation to heavy spar as the cobalt and nickel mine- 
rals. This is also true even of the mercurial fahlerz, it being 
older than the heavy spar. This formation is most charac- 
teristic in the rich auriferous sandstone of Rhenish Bavaria. 

XVIII. Zeolite Formation. — Several zeolites occur in 
todes, even in those bearing metallic ores, and their forma- 
tion has taken place during a period more recent than that 
of the other lode substances. Their appearance here is so 
peculiar as perfectly to justify the assumption of a zeolite 

It is remarkable that they occur not only in the more 
recent eruptive rocks, in whose vesicular cavities they are 
especially at home, but also in much older rocks. But in all 
cases, it is probable they can only be products of extraction 
and lateral secretion. The absence of magnesium and iron 
is characteristic of the zeolites, and neither the vesicular cavi- 
ties nor the lodes in which they occur contain at the utmost 
more than a trace of minerals containing these radicals. 

XIX. Phosphate Formation. — The minerals mentioned 
when treating of thedescension theory belong to this formation, 
but we cannot assume that they were formed at any particular 
period. There is no doubt that many are formed at the 
present time. (Vivianite, pyreneite, wavellite.) It likewise 
appears fit here to enumerate the several species of phos- 
phates, rather than to seek for other groups, especially as it 
is probable that none of the phosphoric acid is derived from 
the adjoining rock, or from the apatite in other lodes. 

The uranites occur in lodes in granite and such as separate 
granite from schistose rocks. Calcareous uranite is accom- 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 61 

parried only by quartz at two places, near Schneeberg, at 
Steinig (Voigtland), and likewise in iron and manganese 
lodes in some mines at Johanngrogenstadt, generally upon 
red jasper. Chalcolite occurs in the same lodes on quartz 
or red jasper. The circumstances of their occurrence render 
it probable that the granite on both sides of such lodes con- 
tains a uraniferous mineral, disseminated so finely that it has 
not yet been recognised. Such uraniferous minerals have 
been found imbedded in granite, as at Redruth in Cornwall. 
The beraunite, kraunite, kakoxene, &c, in lodes of slight 
depth in Bohemia, have perhaps likewise derived their phos- 
phoric acid from the surface. 

Pyromorphite and the phosphates of copper belong here as 
the most recent products of the decomposition of cupreous 
minerals, and the arseniates of copper generally contain some 
phosphoric acid. These are thus proved to have been de- 
rived from above. 

Childrenite, belonging to the same genus as skorodite, is 
likewise recent. 

Vivianite occurs upon quartz, spathic iron, and iron pyrites, 
in Wheal Betsy, Tavistock, Wheal Kind in Cornwall, and 
in Hungary. In Bavaria, thraulite occurs between them. 
Wavellite occurs alone or with peganite and anhyposiderite. 
To these may perhaps be added pleurokens, triphylin, hete- 
pozite, triplite, zweiselite, and lazulite. It is not said that 
these all belong to the same formation, so much as that they 
are the most recent minerals in lodes, and are never found 
at any depth. Apatite, allogonite, amblygonite, are certainly 
to be excepted, together with some others. 

General Results. — The true anhydrous silicates occur, for 
the most part, as constituents of rocks, less frequently in 
lodes. In the latter case they indicate a very great age ; 
garnets, felsites, amphiboles, pyroxenes, &c. ; but some few 
silicates occur either chiefly or only in lodes and "kalkstocken,'' 
e.g., skapolite, epidote, zygodite, &c. Hydrated silicates occur 
almost only in lodes and vesicular cavities. Quartz, calcite, 
(including limestones) and dolomite, are not only important 
constituents of many rocks, but are uncommonly frequent in 
lodes as well as many other members of the spar group, 

62 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

barytite, fluorite, and brownite. With regard to quartz, it is 
very remarkable that it is almost entirely absent in those 
lode formations which cut rocks consisting of silicates with- 
out quartz. The quartzy sandstone fragments inclosed in 
decidedly igneous rocks is fritted (Buchite), but lode quartz 
has never been found in this state ; a fact which leads to the 
opinion that it has been formed in the wet way, and indeed 
that it has frequently been brought from the interior of the 
earth by steam, and derived from the adjoining rocks by ex- 
traction. The not unfrequent disintegration of the adjoining 
rock speaks in favour of the latter view, as does the presence 
of quartz in the small vesicular cavities of the amygdaloid 
rocks. In this respect lodes and vesicular cavities have a 
great resemblance. 

Some minerals which occur in lodes, especially oxides, are 
not unfrequently accessary constituents of crystalline rocks, 
both sedimentary and eruptive, e.g., magnetic iron, titanium, 
tin ore, dyschorite, and tantalite. Some other oxidized 
minerals are still more frequently met with only in lodes. 
Manganese, brown iron ore, red iron, specular iron, have 
never been found in any crystalline rock. The first has 
never been found in a vesicular cavity, nor indeed the latter, 
with the exception of some few rare minerals containing 
repoxide of iron. Manganese, tin ore, wolframite, &c, have 
never been found with a zeolite, and in the study of the para- 
genetic relations of minerals negative facts must be taken 
into account as well as positive ones. It cannot be denied 
that the minerals disseminated in rocks, such as pyrites, 
especially ferruginous pyrites, and perhaps some kinds of 
glance, and even zinc blende, occur principally in the proxi- 
mity of lodes. It has already been shewn that some of 
these phenomena are owing to the presence of lodes, to im- 
pregnation, but it is also probable that such impregnation 
has taken place when we are unable to detect any direct 
evidence of it. For example, the fact that such pyrites have 
never been found in vesicular cavities, appears to support 
this conjecture. It is indeed possible that not only are tin 
ore, dyschorite, ferruginous pyrites, impregnations of this 
kind from lodes, but likewise gold and copper. In any case, 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals, 63 

rocks containing useful minerals disseminated ought to be 
closely examined for lodes, and there is every possibility that 
when found they may contain the minerals in a more con- 
centrated form than the rock. Granite containing dissemi- 
ated tin ore has, when lodes have been found, been advanta- 
geously worked for tin. It is probable that, at some future 
time, an available copper lode may be discovered in the red 
amygdaloid of Zwickau, which contains plates of metallic 
copper of considerable extent, though not abundant enough 
for working. It is probable that a discharge of cupreous 
liquid from lodes into the partly eruptive amygdaloid, as at a 
later period such a discharge must have flowed into the sea, 
from which the rock of the Zechstein formation originated. In 
North Carolina lodes bearing gold have been discovered and 
worked, besides the gold in alluvial deposits, and partly 
imbedded in water-worn fragments of rock. 

Even in the chemical composition of minerals there is a 
remarkable association. Almost all minerals containing 
lithia have an admixture of soda and potash ; minerals are 
seldom free from soda. Most galenas contain at least traces 
of silver. But in the association of minerals having no che- 
mical relation, resemblance is still more frequent. There 
is no titanite which is not accompanied by an amphibole, 
scarce any epidote without amphibole and quartz. Rutile 
is never without quartz, while it is never associated with 
titanite. From such facts it is possible to decide with 
certainty whether a rock is diorite or syenite, or diabase 
or dolerite, for neither of the latter would contain tita- 
nites or epidotes. Still more striking are the associations 
in lodes in regard either to the chemical elements, or to 
the lode minerals, irrespective of their chemical resemblance. 
Thus, for instance, the association of cobalt, nickel, arsenic, 
and bismuth — of zinc, lead, and silver — of antimony, scheel, 
and even molybdenum — of antimony and gold. 

The association in some instances of large masses of bary- 
tite and fluorite is not only remarkable in itself, but because it 
contains several of the above mentioned groups of minerals, 
in which the metals are in analogous chemical combinations, 
carbonates being abundant. The varieties of pyrites, glance, 

G4 On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 

blende, are remarkably frequent in it, and also the arsenio-sul- 
phurets and arseniurets, perhaps also with antimony. It is these 
minerals chiefly which gave to the lodes their distinguishing 
characters in their original perfect state. To these must be 
added several of the above mentioned oxidized minerals, 
such as tin ore, dyschorite, &c, while other oxides are pro- 
ducts of decomposition. In the upper part lodes certainly 
present a physiognomy differing from that of their original 
state, because the products of decomposition are situated there, 
sometimes predominating, and either in their own forms or 
as pseudomorphs. Adding to these the products of gradual 
alteration, such as steatite, it is evident that the present 
condition of certain depths of lodes varies greatly from the 
original. Substances coming from the surface have certainly 
taken part in the decomposition, and the influence of the 
adjoining rock is not to be doubted. 

The substances found in vesicular cavities show what may 
result from lateral secretion alone ; but there is a great 
difference between these substances and those found in lodes. 
What has been said of these latter is sufficient to lead to 
the conviction that the greater part of them must have come 
from the interior of the earth, and not from the side or above. 
We may indeed imagine the oxides to have been brought 
up in a solution as springs, and precipipated by sulphuretted 
hydrogen and arseniuretted hydrogen, but it is more probable 
that they were introduced into the fissures in thisform, and the 
question may justly be raised whether there has not been more 
introduced into the rocks from lodes than from the rocks into 
the lodes. We have already seen how astonishing is the action 
of a younger rock upon an older. The old belief of miners 
that the lodes are richer at greater depths has therefore, in 
general, a good foundation. It is possible that where con- 
siderable decomposition and alteration has taken place much 
has been carried away from the lodes through fissures, in 
consequence of which they may very probably be more valu- 
able at a depth than where the minerals are no longer in the 
original state. It is, moreover, in all respects, easily con- 
ceivable that the sulphuretted and arsenious minerals should 
be farther from the surface than those which are oxidized 

On the Paragenetic Relations of Minerals. 65 

and acid, for the atmosphere, and as regards the phosphates, 
the organic world must have acted upon them, and they are 
readily decomposed. 

Hitherto only the normal conditions of association in 
lodes have been considered. There are, however, particular 
abnormal phenomena observed at the intersection of lodes con- 
taining substances not naturally associated ; and where a 
lode traverses different kinds of rocks, or has the terminal 
planes for saalbands. These circumstances have a uniform 
connection with the richness of the lodes. This appears to 
be determined partly by the nature of the adjoining rock. 
Lode systems generally appear to exist in rocks, where they 
are considerably fissured, even where the fissures have been 
filled again. This appears very natural. It is very fre- 
quently observed in mining operations that, even when a lode 
has become poor or altogether deficient in ore, it again be- 
comes richer when other fissures having a certain position 
and direction run into it, even when they are themselves 
empty ; and when they run out from the lode, or it branches 
off, it is a sign that it will soon cease to bear ore. The 
opinion that the points of intersection are particularly rich 
has, in general, been abundantly confirmed by experience. 
There are, however, some exceptional instances. Minerals 
appear to have been deposited where there was a vacant 
space for them. An alteration in the composition of the 
minerals composing a lode indicates the proximity of another 
lode traversing it. Thus the occurrence of copper pyrites, 
fahlerz, and copper-blende, in the pyritic lead and zinc form- 
ation of Freiberg, generally indicates its intersection by a 
barytite and fluorite lode, and after this is passed the usual 
minerals are again found at a short distance. It is likewise 
considered that a lode will yield better the greater the 
quantity of water found in working it. The abundance of 
water and the richness of the lode are probably both results 
of the fissured state of the rock. The absence of ores in 
lodes appears likewise to be connected with a certain set of 

The intersection and junction of lodes, and the fissured 
state of the rock containing them, are very important, but 


66 Professor Harkness on Coal. 

the mineralogical character of the adjoining rock is perhaps 
still more intimately connected with the richness of the lode 
in ore. This may be owing to very different causes. But 
there are two circumstances which may throw some light 
upon the subject- — (1.) Certain beds of the adjoining rock 
are metalliferous, e.g., the Fallbander of Konigsberg, the 
Riicken of the cupreous slate, &c, and substances may have 
been introduced from them into the veins. (2.) Some lodes 
appear particularly rich in ore where they cut certain rocks, 
e.g.,, argentiferous-quartz formation in gneiss and mica-slate 
of different aspect in the Freiberg district, and various mica- 
slates in the Johanngeorgenstadt district, lodes in limestone 
and lodestone in England. There would appear to have been 
a kind of attraction exercised by certain rocks. The collec- 
tion of facts of this kind should be attended to as it has a 
practical value for miners. In a scientific point of view, like- 
wise, it appears to indicate that there may be peculiarities 
in districts containing ore lodes which have not yet been re- 
duced to general rules. 

In conclusion, Professor Breithaupt remarks that he con- 
siders it in the highest degree probable that electro-mag- 
netic and other molecular agencies have been concerned in 
the deposition and arrangement of minerals in lodes, but 
in the absence of the necessary data, it is at present impos- 
sible to say to what extent this may have been the case, 
whether generally or only in particular instances. 

B. H. Paul. 

On Coal — The Nature of the Plants forming Coal — The 
changes produced by Chemical Action and Compression — 
Associated Mineral Matter — Origin of Coal. By Pro- 
fessor Harkness, Queen's College, Cork. 

In order that an idea be arrived at concerning the nature and 
origin of the substance which forms the great mass of our fossil fuel, 
it is necessary that such a definition of this substance be given as 
shall, as far as possible, embrace all the circumstances and conditions 
under which coal presents itself, and also such as should give some 
idea as to the nature of the substance itself. Such a definition may 
describe coal as being chemically altered and compressed vegetable 
matter, associated with more or less of earthy substances, and capable 

Professor Harkness on Coal. 67 

of being used as fuel. This definition embraces not only the nature 
of coal, but it also includes all the modifications to which fossil fuel 
is in a great measure subject. It also presents the inquiry concern- 
ing the nature and origin of coal in three aspects, — 1st, The nature 
of the plants from whence the vegetable matter constituting coal was 
derived ; 2d, The changes which these plants have undergone in 
consequence of chemical action and compression ; and 3d, As re- 
gards the associated mineral matter — in what manner this has become 
combined in coal, and in what respect it tends to modify the charac- 
ter possessed by this substance. 

The nature of the Plants forming Coal. — To commence with 
the nature of the plants which have furnished the vegetable 
matter of coal, we might be led to inquire into the flora of the 
carboniferous formation generally, as the knowledge of this flora 
has been derived principally from the deposits interstratifying the 
coal seams. Certain peculiar forms of vegetables, however, make 
their appearance in great abundance in connection with coal, and 
these appear to have supplied to a very great extent the organic 
matter entering into the composition of this material, and some 
knowledge of them may suffice so far as concerns coal. There 
is another circumstance which, when taken into consideration, ren- 
ders this subject less profuse than it would otherwise be, and this 
is, that the conditions which obtained during the growth of the 
plants which have supplied this substance seem to have been of a 
somewhat local nature, and such as furnished a habitat suitable for 
certain kinds of plants. The evidence which the coal formation 
affords tends to the conclusion that the deposits of coal itself, and 
also those with which it is immediately intercalated, are of an 
aquatic character ; but this aquatic character, so far as respects coal, 
was the result of an estuary, or some modification allied thereto. We 
are, therefore, rather induced to inquire, what was the nature of the 
plants which occupied such a habitat during the coal epoch, than 
what forms of plants clothed the surface of the earth when the 
carboniferous strata were being deposited ] 

Mr Witham, in his work on the internal structure of fossil plants, 
p. 9, observes, in connection with this matter : — " If we take it for 
granted that the coal-seams are formed by the deposition of vege- 
table matter produced either on the spot where it is now found, or 
brought from a distance, we can easily offer an explanation of the 
differences found to exist between the coal fields of England above 
alluded to (referring to the abundance of ferns in these coal mea- 
sures when compared with those of Scotland), and the Scotch basins 
in regard to the occurrence of fossil vascular cryptogamic plants, and 
their impressions. In a flat country like Northumberland, Durham, 
and Yorkshire, surrounded by mountains of no great elevation, from 
which a supply of more perfect wood could have been obtained, the 
vast mass of carbonaceous matter deposited must have resulted from 

E 2 

68 Professor Harkness on Coal. 

vegetables growing on the spot, and this may have had its origin in 
a great measure from the vascular cryptogam ic plants which a 
marshy country, such as it might have been, would have produced 
in great abundance, and with a luxuriance of which we can now have 
but little conception, unless we contemplate the profuse vegetation 
of the tropics. The Scotch coal basins, on the contrary, seem to 
have been formed in large inland lakes or hollows, produced by the 
expansion of immense bodies of water. In th<?se lakes or hollows, 
the produce of vast forests, which may have existed in the valleys of 
the high regions, may have been carried down by eddies and currents. 
As these trees had grown at great elevations, most of them carried 
along by the great rivers and their tributary streams, may have con- 
sisted of coniferse, or plants possessing a structure closely allied to 
that of our present pines." With respect to these remarks of Mr 
Witham, which tend to the conclusion that coal-seams may have been 
derived from different forms of vegetation, and in which it is inferred 
that the Scotch seams have been the result of drifted plants, the 
latter a circumstance which the nature and arrangement of the seams 
does not support, we have the inference of the existence of a different 
flora under different circumstances during the same time, — a flora 
which may be regarded as occupying the high lands, where conditions 
obtained such as were not favourable to the production of coal. The 
evidence of the existence of this more elevated flora during the 
coal epoch is principally obtained from the sandstone strata of the 
coal measures, — a series of deposits which have had their origin in 
water having a considerable power of transport; and the position of 
the fossil plants which are found in them leads to the conclusion that 
there had been, in a great measure, different vegetables amongst these 
plants, or some hard-wooded trees, to which Witham has applied the 
generic term of Pinites, and these seem to have considerable affinity 
to the modern araucaria. These hard- wooded trees appear to enter 
very sparingly into the composition of coal, and their existence dur- 
ing this epoch in no way affects the question as to the nature of the 
plants which constitute the mass of fossil fuel. 

So far as coal affords us evidence in the form of plants which re- 
tain their external aspect, this, for the most part, consists of por- 
tions of sigillarise and nearly allied forms ; and the circumstance that 
the underclays of coal-seams contain such an immense quantity of stig- 
marise, the roots of sigillarise, and kindred plants, supports the in- 
ference that such plants entered largely into the composition of coal. 
— See a recent Memoir published in the Quarterly Journal of the 
Geological Society, vol. x., where Mr Dawson describes in detail the 
measures which make up the coal fields of Nova Scotia, and in these 
coal measures there occur many seams of fossil fuel, which, in almost 
all instances, he attributes to the growth of sigillaria3 ; and as respects 
coniferse, he remarks, that " trunks of this description occur in the 
sandstones both in a carbonized state, and petrified by carbonate of 

Professor Harkness on Coal. 69 

lime. It is observable, that they are most abundant in those parts 
of the section where the swamp conditions of the production coal 
measures begin to disappear, and where drifted plants predominate 
over those which have grown in situ; in other words, in the sand- 
stones above and below our section." " The prevalence of coniferous 
trees, as drift-wood, in the sandstones above and below the coal mea- 
sures, is probably to be attributed to their capability of floating for 
a long time without their becoming water soaked and sinking, though 
it may also indicate that their principal habitat was farther inland 
than the sigillarise swamps." 

Altogether from the evidence which all the coal deposits afford, 
it would appear that coniferous trees do not enter largely into the 
composition of fossil fuel, but that this is produced from sigillariae, 
and probably also, in part, from other abundant coal plants, such 
as calamites and lepidodendra. A knowledge, therefore, of the 
internal organization of these forms would lead us to some idea con- 
cerning the vegetation which has furnished the organic matter con- 
stituting coal. Probably the most concise and perfect account we 
possess of the internal structure of sigillarise, calamites, and lepido- 
dendra, is to be found in Dr Hooker's observations in the 2d vol. 
part ii. of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey. Concerning the 
first of these plants, viz., sigillarise, from the examination of internal 
structure of the specimen by A. Brongniart, called by this botanist 
S. elegans, it would appear that this form consisted to a very great 
extent of cellular tissue, in the centre of which was a narrow vas- 
cular sheath, which bore but a very small proportion to the cellular 
mass in which it was enclosed ; and this vascular sheath, on trans- 
verse section, appears somewhat akin to gymnospermous wood. With 
regard to sigillarise, Dr Hooker remarks, — " The great bulk of sigil- 
larise seems to have been inimical to the preservation of their tissue, 
the process of decay being generally effected on a grand scale in the 
substance of a plant evidently almost entirely composed of a lax 
tissue. The remains of a central column are, however, sufficiently 
obvious in the upright stems of many sigillarise ; these have been 
called ' Endogenites,' are scarcely two inches in diameter, and are 
generally obliquely placed in the substance of the specimens, five 
feet and upwards in girth. That this slender column represented 
all the vascular tissue of this plant I cannot doubt, from examina- 
tion of stigmarise, whose vascular column often assumes the same 

Concerning the second tribe of plants which seems to enter into 
the constitution of coal, viz., calamites, we are not in a position to 
judge of their nature, since they have left no traces of their internal 
structure among the many specimens which occur in the coal mea- 
sures. From their generally compressed state they must have had 
a lax, probably succulent tissue, composed for the most part of cel- 
ular tissue, as distinct from vascular. Of the third form lepidoden- 
dra this seems to have been nearly akin to the sigillaria^ ; and on this 

70 Professor Harkness on Coal. 

matter Dr Hooker observes, " that the sigillarise were allied to lyco- 
podiaceas is evident, their tissues and seaming being very like 
those of lepidodendra, in which, however, there is but one series of 
zone of vascular tissue. In both the great mass of the woody axis 
is formed of large tubular vessels, identical in structure ; and in both 
fascicles are given off from the central mass to the scars on the cir- 
cumference, which fascicles consist of slenderer tubes than the axis 
does. In lepidodendra there are no medullary rays, the vascular zone 
being continuous, and surrounded by those slender vessels from 
which the fascicles diverge and run to the scars.'' In this form the 
cellular structure, as distinct from the vascular cylinder, prevails 
even to a greater extent than in sigillarise, as may be seen in Witham's 
plates of the internal structure of the Lepidodendron Harcourtii. It 
would therefore appear that the three forms of plants which enter most 
largely into the composition of coal are to a very great extent made up 
of simple cellular tissue, and that these have been succulent plants, very 
brittle in their nature, since we often find the lower portions in such 
a state as would result from the sudden snapping off of the stems ; 
and from the internal structure of sigillarise, calamites, and lepido- 
dendra, we may regard the vegetable portion of coal as being, to a 
very great extent, the cellular tissue of these forms of vegetation 
compressed and chemically altered. 

The changes produced by Chemical Action and Compression. — 
The next question which presents itself is, what are the changes 
which the vegetable matter, entering into the composition, has under- 
gone ? From the various analyses of different coals, it would seem 
that the amount of change produced by chemical action has been 
very different in the several varieties of this substance. In that de- 
scription known in England under the name of cannel, and in Scot- 
land as parrot-coal, we have a greater amount of hydrogen than 
usually occurs in ordinary coals. In the caking and stone varieties 
of common coal there are also differences in the gaseous constituents, 
and in anthracite, we have a form far removed, so far as chemical 
constitution is concerned, from either of the other descriptions of this 
substance. These differences, in the nature and amount of the 
gaseous constituents, lead to the inference that they have originated 
from the various amounts of decomposition which the vegetable 
matter forming coal has undergone ; and it would appear that 
the decomposition of the vegetable matter has been more or less 
affected by some influences which have in some instances checked, 
and in others advanced, the chemical changes, acting upon the vege- 
table tissue which form the organic portion of coal. If we divide 
coal into three groups, namely, cannel or parrot-coal, ordinary coal, 
including caking and stone-coal, and anthracite, we express not 
only a difference in aspect and constituents, but likewise indicate 
that these three groups have been derived from vegetable matter 
which has undergone three different amounts of decomposition. 
With regard to the first of these groups, cannel coal, we have in 

Professor Harkness on Coal. 71 

this a greater amount of hydrogen than obtains in ordinary coals, 
and this greater amount of hydrogen must have arisen from this 
principle, as continued in the original tissues of the plants which 
have furnished the organic elements of this substance ; and this cir- 
cumstance leads us to conclude that the vegetable matter forming 
cannel has been less subjected to chemical decomposition than that 
in ordinary coals. The aspect of this substance, which is generally 
less shining also, supports the inference that the amount of 
change produced on the organic constituents is less than usually 
prevails in other coals, and therefore we must regard cannel as being 
the result of vegetable matter which retains more of its original con- 
stituents than other coals. As respects ordinary coals, these are 
intermediate in their character, so far as regards hydrogen, between 
the cannel and the anthracites. They seem to have parted with a 
considerable portion of their hydrogen, as this originally formed 
portions of the plants from which coal is derived ; and hence we have 
them possessed of different properties and amount of constituents, in 
some instances affording a considerable amount of hydrogen, and in 
others only a small quantity, approaching in their nature to the 
anthracites, where we have the hydrogenous principle developed only 
to a very small extent. 

Taking, therefore, the elemental principle hydrogen, as a crite- 
rion from which to draw deductions concerning the state in which 
the vegetable matter forming this substance is, we should inf-r that 
in those which retained the greatest amount of this we have the 
tissues nearest their original condition, and we should consequently 
conclude that in cannels this vegetable matter is nearest its original 
state ; while in ordinary coals it is more changed, and in anthracites it 
has so far lost its original character as to retain but a small portion of 
this principle. The result of this loss of hydrogen, and the change 
which the vegetable matter would undergo consequent thereon, would 
induce us to expect that compression would be varying in its effects in 
proportion to the modification which the vegetable matter has been 
subject to, more particularly when no mineral matter has supplied 
the place of the organic constituents of the vegetables, a circumstance 
which seems to have been ordinarily the case with coals. In can- 
nels, therefore, and in other coals abounding in hydrogen, where the 
constituents of the plants are nearest their original state, and where 
we may infer that the cellular structure has only been in part obli- 
terated, the effects of compression on this would be less than when 
the vegetable matter had so far changed its nature as to be almost 
converted into carbon. We may therefore infer that the results of 
compression would be modified according to the condition of the sub- 
stance compressed ; and taking this as a means of judging of the state 
and effects of compression, we might conclude that cannel was better 
able to resist compression than ordinary coals, and that, consequently, 
the effects produced thereby are less than on this form of fossil fuel, 
a conclusion which we shall find some matters connected with this 

12 Professor Harkness on Coal, 

substance, to a very great extent, justifies, more particularly when 
we come to consider the structure which this presents. 

The Associated Mineral Matter. — Having seen the natures 
of the vegetable structures which enter into the composition of 
coal, and how this may be variously modified by chemical changes 
and compression, we are next led to enquire into the results 
which are produced on the compressed and chemically altered 
vegetable matter by the addition of earthy substances. These 
earthy substances make their appearance as ashes, or in some modi- 
fied form of solid products, which remains after combustion; and as 
the amount of ash varies greatly in different coals, so does the amount 
of earthy matter which in part forms this substance. The numerous 
analyses of the various coals which have been ascertained, would 
occupy too large a space, and therefore a few of these may be given, 
showing how greatly the quantity of earthy matters varies. With 
. regard to cannels, those which occur in the Scotch coalfield afford 
the following results : — Eochsoles 17 to 32 per cent., Methill 18 to 
22£ per cent., Boghead 20 to 25 per cent., Dryden 25J per cent., 
Balbardie 26 per cent., Hillhead 27 per cent., Capeldrea 20 to 30 
per cent. In the case of the English cannel coals, these also vary 
greatly in the amount of earthy matter which is contained in them. 
One of these, the Hoo cannel of Wigan has, in the Botton Hoo, 22 
per cent., and in the top Hoo as much as 40 per cent. The com- 
mon coals also vary greatly in the amount of earthy substances which 
enter into their composition, the Scotch varying from 10*70, as in 
the case of the Wallsend Elgin, to 3*10 in the Dalkeith coronation 
seam. The same difference prevails among the English ordinary 
coals, and also in those which are obtained from the South Wales 
coalfield. However, as respects ordinary coals, these afford a smaller 
amount of ash than is procured from the cannels. Many coals which 
are in no way possessed of the characters of cannel coal, in some 
instances furnish a very large quantity of ash, approaching to 30 
per cent. ; and when this prevails to such an extent, it materially 
modifies the character and value of coal. The compound nature of 
coal prevents us regarding this as a mineral, in the strict sense of 
the term, however the popular idea may be expressed on this sub- 
ject ; and being of a compound nature this substance passes from coal 
to shale in proportion as the mineral matter with which the organic 
constituents of coal is associated predominates ; and when this mine- 
ral matter prevails to such an extent as to render this compound of 
chemically altered and compressed vegetable matter, associated with 
earthy substances, incapable of being used as fuel by itself, it should 
be regarded as a coaly shale ; a substance which has, unfortunately 
for science, been termed bituminous shale. Between coals and 
shales, therefore, there is an insensible gradation, and the point 
where the one ends and the other begins can only be determined 
by ascertaining whether this compound substance can be used for 
the ordinary purposes of fuel. 

Professor Harkness on Coal. 1.6 

There is another circumstance which in part serves to determine 
between hydrogenous coals and shales ; this is the sp. gr., which, 
in the former, rarely exceeds 1*4, while in the latter the sp. gr. 
extends from 1*8 — 26, but in the case of coals which contain much 
iron pyrites this principle is scarcely applicable ; on the whole, how- 
ever, coals possess a less specific gravity than shales. 

Origin of Coal. — Having seen the nature of coal, how it 
is a compound substance — being, in part, composed of organic, 
and in part of inorganic matter — we are next led to enquire 
under what circumstances this originates ; and, in order to 
arrive at any satisfactory conclusion on this matter, we have 
to take into consideration some of the peculiar features which 
occur in the strata intercalated with the coal beds ; and also 
what phenomena the coal itself affords, which will assist us in our 
inferences concerning the immediate causes from whence this sub- 
stance resulted. One of the constant concomitants of coal is the 
presence of sigillarise rootlets, which are met with in great abundance 
in the floors on which this rests. The nature of these, and the 
strata in which they occur, lead to the inference that they were the 
roots of plants which flourished in an aquatic habitat, and, as we 
have already seen, there is every reason to conclude, that the plants, 
of which these formed a part, enter largely into the composition of 
coal ; so it would appear that the primary origin of this substance was 
aqueous. The conditions under which the plants, from whence the 
organic matter was derived, flourished, appear to have been rather 
of a nature akin to such swamps as were to a very great extent 
covered with water, than to anything in the form of peat-bogs; to 
such swamps as occur in the deltas of some of the larger rivers ; and 
there are many circumstances which support the opinion that the 
stems of the trees, as well as their roots, were, to a considerable ex- 
tent, covered with water. 

With regard to the phenomena presented by the coal itself, these, 
in some instances, are of an important nature, and afford evidence 
of considerable interest concerning the origin of this substance. 
With respect to the structure of coal, this, in some cases, is very 
manifest; but it is in general only in such coals as have not under- 
gone a very great amount of chemical changes and compression that 
we can expect to find this in its most perfect state. 

The first evidence we possess of the internal structure of coal is 
from the sections of Witham, figured in plate xi. of his work on the 
internal structure of fossil vegetables. Concerning the sections here 
given, Nos. 6, 7, 8, and 9, leave no doubt of their being portions of 
the vascular sheaths of probably a coniferous tree. But of sections 
4 and 5, there are very great doubts whether these can be strictly 
regarded as representing vegetable tissue. Of these sections, which 
are from Lancashire cannel, Witham observes, that " the appearances 

74 Professor Harkness on Coal. 

are so undecided, that although I should be inclined to consider them 
indicative of a monocotyledonous plant, I shall not venture at any 
conjecture respecting them." The structure which the Lancashire 
cannel usually presents is that figured by this author, and many of 
the Scotch parrots afford the same appearances when sliced and mag- 
nified. But there is one circumstance to be considered which mili- 
tates strongly against the idea that this can be regarded as true 
vegetable tissue, and this is, that among the many plants which 
have been met with in the coalfields, retaining internal structure, 
none of these furnish us with tissue bearing any affinity to this 
structure as generally seen in cannel. The structure, as above 
referred to, appears to me to be merely the results of struc- 
ture, and not what is or was regarded by Witham merely 
monocotyledonous tissue. From an examination of many can- 
nels, I am inclined to regard the circular spaces figured as 
having originated in the decomposition and total destruction 
of the vascular sheaths of minute rootlets of stigmaria, which 
have totally disappeared, leaving in the centre of these a 
small portion of black coaly matter, the remains of that 
portion of the cellular tissue which represented the pith, and sur- 
rounded by other coaly matter, the remains of the external cellular 
portion. Such a conclusion would lead to the inference, that the 
vascular sheaths sooner became subject to change, and were separated 
from the plants of which they originally formed a portion — a cir- 
cumstance which we shall find other phenomena afforded by coal tends 
to show was the case. From what has already been said concern- 
ing the nature of the vegetable tissue which occupies so large a por- 
tion of the plants forming coal, we should be induced to infer that, 
when their substance retains structure, this would be present in the 
form of cellular tissue ; and such is really the case with such of the 
Scotch cannels as are most hydrogenous, and have been subjected to 
the smallest amount of compression and chemical alteration. Where 
the amount of chemical change has been considerable, as in the 
ordinary Scotch and Lancashire cannels, the cellular tissue has dis- 
appeared, and nothing remains to show the original structure of the 
vegetation from whence coal has been derived, save the hollow cylin- 
ders from whence the vascular portion of the plants have escaped ; 
but even in this case, the vegetable matter has been in such a con- 
dition as to resist the compression which would otherwise have obli- 
terated these cylinders, as is the case in ordinary coal, which has 
undergone the greatest amount of chemical change and compression, 
and which, in general, has, in consequence thereof, lost all traces 
of the original structure of the plants which compose it. 

Besides the cellular tissue, the remains of which can be detected 
in the least altered Scotch cannels, we, in some instances, meet with 
the v;i>cii!ar tissue manifesting itself in coal. When this is the case, 
this vascular tissue does not occui in the cylindrical form which it 

Professor Harkness on Coal. 75 

had when forming the sheath of the original plant, but it is seen in 
a fragmentary state. This portion of the original tissue of the 
plants which compose coal, is generally found having an aspect re- 
sembling charcoal, and is, in some localities, known under the name 
of " Mother Coal.'' In ordinary coals, it is frequently seen in the 
form of a thin silky coating, covering some of the surfaces of the coal, 
from which it may be detached by a needle, and, when examined by 
a microscope, it affords the usual appearances presented by this por- 
tion of the vegetable tissue. In cannel coals, it is commonly seen in 
a form which has somewhat of a wedge shape, embedded in a frag- 
mentary state in the matter of the cannel itself. There can be no 
doubt that, when it occurs in this state, it has been floated, and 
afterwards been embedded in the mass from whence resulted the can- 
nel. The form in which we have this in cannel, namely, as wedge- 
shaped fragments, affords us evidence of the manner in which this 
portion of the vegetable structure becomes separated from the cellu- 
lar portion, leaving the space which it occupied in the form of a hol- 
low cylinder. These wedge-shaped fragments are the portions of 
the vascular cylinder, which are separated from each other by the me- 
dullary rays, and when decomposition takes place, these medullary 
rays give way, and the vascular tissue, which is arranged as a series 
of wedges round the pith, being no longer supported, floats away, if 
there be water, and these floating fragments in time become water- 
logged, and falling to the bottom become embedded in the mass of 
matter forming the coal. This mode of occurrence of the vascular 
portion of the coal is not confined to the coal seams of the true car- 
boniferous formation ; but it has been also met with, according to 
Dr Hooker, in the oolitic coal of Virginia. The manner in which 
this " Mother coal" is associated with the cannels and ordinary coals 
supports the conclusion, that coal has been formed under water, 
otherwise it would be difficult to account for this substance occurring 
in fragments embedded in the coaly mass. There is a substance 
which is nearly allied to mother coal, except that it has formed the 
vascular sheath of other forms of plants than those which enter into 
the composition of coal, and this occurs in the calc grits of the 
Yorkshire oolites, in a somewhat similar form, and consists of por- 
tions of the vascular system of the flora of this epoch> which, like 
the "Mother Coal" of the carboniferous formation, have floated 
about ; but, in the oolite, after they had become water-logged, in- 
stead of sinking among a mass of vegetable matter, they became 
mingled with sand, and now appear as fragments of coal in sand- 
stone strata. The occurrence of fossils, in a comparatively perfect 
state, in the cannel seams, also supports the conclusion that this 
substance has been deposited under water, since we not only find 
plants embedded therein, but likewise the remains of fishes in 
a fragmentary state, as is the case with the Wigan cannel, which 
often contains these remains in the form of iron pyrites ; and 

76 William Jameson on the Cultivation of 

these, which consist of teeth, jaws, and scales, more or less detached, 
are in such a position that they must have been embedded in cannel 
through the transporting agency of water. The Scotch cannel seams, 
in many instances, afford remains of fish under the same circum- 
stances ; and in the bastard cannels of Bradford, near Manchester, 
these ichthyic remains are very abundant. Among the cannels of 
Wigan, shells of the genus modiola occur, embedded in the mass ; 
and this, too, confirms the opinion, that this substance had its origin 
in some way connected with the influence of water, and is antago- 
nistic to the idea that the coal seams have arisen from the same 
causes which now produce peat-bogs. Ordinary coals rarely afford 
remains distinct from the mass of the coals, as already stated, and 
this may have resulted from the amount of decomposition which 
these latter may have undergone, having effaced all traces of organic 
forms, both as regards structure and appearances. In such of the 
Scotch cannels as contain a large amount of hydrogen, and which 
have been subject to only a small amount of change from compres- 
sion and chemical alteration, as those of Boghead and Methill, we 
find stigmaria, both in the form of roots and rootlets, in a more per- 
fect state of preservation than occurs in ordinary coal, or even in 
other varieties of cannel. These present such appearances as would 
result from the circumstances under which they have grown, and in 
which they now occur, and they induce us to conclude that the can- 
nels which afford them were original — a mass of vegetable matter 
associated with mud, which furnished all the necessary condition for 
a luxuriant vegetation ; and these cannels, along with the whole of 
the members of the coal group, tend to the inference that coal origi- 
nated under the influence of water, and that it was, when being 
formed, rather similar to the subaqueous swampy mud which pre- 
vails near the mouths of many of the intertropical rivers, than to the 
peat-bogs of the higher latitudes. 

On the Cultivation of Tea in the District of Kangra. By 
William Jameson, Esq., Director of the Botanical Gar- 
dens, North West Provinces, India. 

When the Most Noble the Governor-General visited the 
Kangra valley, there were only two small nurseries, formed 
from plants imported from Kumaon, in the localities distant 
from each other, the one at Nagrota, and the other at Bow- 
arnah, in the Pahlum valley, in order to shew that Tea could 
be advantageously grown. 

In these sites the plants are growing with the greatest 

Tea in the District of Kangra. 77 

luxuriance, hundreds being five and six feet high, and from 
them, last season, 227 lb. of teas, Pouchong, Souchong, 
and Bohea, were prepared, samples of which have been for- 
warded to Calcutta, for transmission to the Honourable the 
Court of Directors, in order that their quality may be tested 
by the home brokers. In addition to the teas, the nurseries 
yielded about a ton of seeds. The luxuriant growth of the 
plants induced his Lordship, the Governor-General, after 
personal inspection, to sanction the formation of an extensive 
plantation ; and for this purpose, I selected the waste plain 
of Holta, at the base of the Chumba range, in about north 
latitude 32°, and longitude 76° 30', a large, highly-undulat- 
ing tract of waste land, bounded on either side by two con- 
siderable streams, the Awa to the east, and the Nigal to 
west, which take their rise to the north in the snows of the 
Chumba range. These rivers completely command the plain ; 
and their waters can, at any time, be made available for irri- 
gation, when a droughty season occurs, and it is deemed ne- 

The plantation is from 3500 to 4000 feet above the level 
of the sea, and its soil consists of a rich black vegetable 
mould, varying in thickness from two feet to six inches, 
which rests- upon a sub-soil of stiff red clay. In this clay 
boulders of granite abound, forming a characteristic mark of 
this valley. These boulders occur of all sizes, varying from 
fifty feet in height, and three hundred feet in circumference, 
to the size of a pea, and in every locality ; and to the alkali 
in the felspar which they contain, is owing, in a great mea- 
sure, the fertility of the soil. In all places the drainage is 
good ; the whole land being highly undulating, and dipping 
under an angle, varying from 4° to 25°. The plain (if such 
a term can be applied to a tract of land consisting of a series 
of small hills and valleys, spurs issuing from the Chumba 
range and dipping to the south), is of great extent, almost 
entirely waste, and used by the baeparees for grazing their 
cattle. On it but few trees are met with, consisting of the 
Cheer (Pinus longifolia), oak (Quercus incana), ayer (An- 
dromeda ovalifolia), &c, characteristic of considerable 

78 William Jameson on the Cultivation of 

Here snow falls annually during the months of December 
and January, and lies for some length of time. The tea al- 
ready prepared, the produce of leaves of the Nagrota and 
Bowarnah nuseries, is very highly flavoured ; and as the alti- 
tude of these places is much below Holta, I doubt not but 
that this plantation will produce teas of a very superior de- 
scription. The Chinese tea manufacturers, now employed 
there, state that the leaves grown in the Kohistan of the 
Punjaub, are superior to the produce of Kumaon and Gurwal 
for manufacturing teas ; and they speak from experience, as 
they have been working in both places. With their opinion 
I coincide, and attribute the advantages to the heavy falls of 
snow and rain which annually take place in the cold weather 
in the Kohistan. In China, in the northern districts, where 
snow continually falls in the cold weather, the teas are found 
to possess the highest aroma, and, probably, the same will be 
found to be the case with the Punjaub teas, and they will thus 
command the greatest sale and highest prices. But before 
this can ever be realized, it will be necessary to procure first- 
rate tea manufacturers, as the men there located, though 
good workmen, are not first-rate. One of the sets, there- 
fore, now being imported, under Mr Fortune, from China, 
might with advantage be sent to Holta. 

Future prospects. — At Holta, about 100,000 young plants 
have been transplanted, and a ton and a half of seeds sown, 
twenty-five maunds of which were the produce of the valley, 
and the remainder imported from Kaolageer and Kumaon. 
From these there will be a vast return of young plants ; and 
in a short time, I trust, to be able to plant the whole of the 
land, amounting to about five hundred acres, taken in for the 
tea plantation. 

At the present moment, the great crops in the Kangra 
valley are rice, wheat, barley, and sugar ; a third of which 
is exported to the plains. But the time is not far distant, 
when the canals, now in progress in the Punjaub, are opened, 
for us to expect that this market will be closed, or rather, 
that the cultivators will not be able to grow grain at a suffi- 
ciently low rate in the Kohistan, to compete with the pro- 
duce of the plains. At the present moment, two-fifths of 

Tea in the District of Kangra. 79 

the Punjaub are lying waste, partly owing to the bad manage- 
ment of former governments, and partly owing to the want of 
population. Now, security to life and property prevail. 
Natives are encouraged to settle, populate the country, and 
break up the waste lands ; and not, as in former days, look 
to aggression for aggrandizement. The Punjaub is eminently 
an agricultural one, and with the impetus which has, within 
the last few years, been given to cultivation, it must shortly 
become the granary of upper India. At present the vast 
works going on, and the immense demand for foreign labour, 
tend to keep up the prices of grain ; once, however, let these 
be completed, and the tens of thousands of acres irrigated, 
which the canals are intended to do, the markets will be so 
glutted with home produce, as to exclude all foreign compe- 
tition. Even now the cultivators in the Kangra valley de- 
clare, that they export their grain at a small remunerating 
return, and the baeparees, or men who carry the grain (and 
to the credit of the authorities, be it stated, that the roads 
are in such admirable order as to admit of camels and bul- 
locks being used), complain that their trade is scarcely worth 
keeping up, owing to the small hire that they receive, caused 
by the settled and firm government prevailing in the Punjaub, 
giving security to property, and inducing vast numbers to 
look to the plough for their livelihood, instead of, as in for- 
mer days, to the sword. It, therefore, requires no foresight 
to predict that the Punjaub will become the great granary of 
upper India, and exclude imports of grain from all other 
quarters. Such being the case, grain will not be worth ex- 
porting from the Kohistan. This will be so far satisfactory, 
as it will greatly lower the prices in the hills, and thus en- 
able the enormous number of idle men, estimated by Mr 
Eayley, deputy commissioner, at upwards of 10,000, to get 
food at a low rate. These men, the remnants of the Sikh 
army, and of bands kept up by the petty Rajahs in the Ko- 
histan, despise the plough, and consider it derogatory to their 
caste, to be engaged in ploughing ; though, at the same time, 
they will willingly work with a phourah or spade. In this 
manner alone the introduction of tea into the Kohistan is 
likely to confer a great benefit on the people by ensuring 

80 William Jameson on the Cultivation of 

work to thousands who might otherwise look for a livelihood 
in rapine and plunder. For employment at Holta, hun- 
dreds of Rajpoots have presented themselves, and are willing 
to be employed, provided that they were not obliged to handle 
the plough. The plantation, in several places, admits of the 
plough being used, but the greater portion must be broken 
up with the Indian spade or phourah, owing to the high in- 
clination of the land. I have, therefore, purchased only a 
few bullocks ; moreover, as soon as the land is planted with 
tea plants, the labour will be chiefly manual. Under these 
circumstances, tea cultivation will, no doubt, become popular 
with a class who have hitherto despised field labour. In 
Kumaon and Gurwal, high caste Rajpoots and Brahmins 
willingly engage themselves as servants in the plantations. 
So in the Kohistan of the Punjaub, it will not be long before 
employment of a similar nature becomes equally popular, 
and the men who have been in the habit of looking to the 
sword for their livelihood, find a more certain and profitable 
work in the phourah or spade. 

Nor is land, fitted for tea cultivation in the Kohistan, 
limited. The Kangra valley (divided into three portions — 
the western or Riloo valley, the middle or Kangra valley, 
properly so called, and the eastern or Pahlum valley), is 
about sixty miles long, and averaging ten miles in breadth ; 
and of it, at least half is well adapted to tea cultivation. 
Much land, well fitted for the same purpose, is to be met with 
in Kooloo, Mundee, &c, and throughout the western hills. 
By Captain Hay, assistant commissioner, Kooloo, a small 
tea nursery has already been formed at Kanghur, and the 
plants are growing with the greatest vigour, many of them 
being four or five feet high. Further to the westward, in the 
Hazara country, a tea plantation is being formed by Mr Car- 
nac, deputy commissioner, Sind Sagor District, under the 
auspices of the commissioner, Mr Thornton ; and his labours 
will, no doubt, be attended with success. Moreover, and 
this is a fact of the utmost importance, the inhabitants to the 
west and north-west are a tea-drinking nation, large supplies 
being imported from China to supply their wants. So that 
here there is a market at hand, and all that is required to, 

Tea in the District of Kangra. 81 

make a large demand for Punjaub teas, is a low rate of sale. 
A foreign market is not, therefore, wanted, at least for a 
time. In addition, the Kohistan of the Punjaub, and the 
north-western frontier generally, possess extraordinary capa- 
bilities through means of their rivers ; as by them teas can 
be conveyed, at a small rate, to Kurachee and Bombay, and 
from thence shipped to the European markets. The roads, 
too, in the Kohistan, as already stated, are admirable, and 
admit of beasts of burden being employed in the carriage of 
teas to the river ghats, a point of great importance. In 
Kooloo, the poppy is at present largely cultivated for pre- 
paring opium for exportation to China ; and, I believe, that 
I speak within bounds when I mention, that more than a 
fifth of the land of that province is thus occupied. At pre- 
sent the demand for that drug is great, but how long that 
will continue is a question ; and were the value of opium 
greatly to decrease, which may, at any time, occur by the 
cultivation of the poppy being legalized in China, that coun- 
try being as fitted for its cultivation as India, the whole of 
the land thus employed in Kooloo would become available 
for tea. To provide against such a contingency, a tea plan- 
tation might with advantage be there introduced, and on a 
sufficiently large scale to work a factory with success. In the 
Simla District, the Government land is in too small quantity 
to admit of such an arrangement. 

These remarks shew that the idea, generally prevailing, 
that land fitted for tea cultivation is limited, is erroneous ; 
and were all the lands in Kumaon, Gurwal, Kooloo, Kangra, 
&c, so employed, teas could be prepared in sufficient quan- 
tity to supply both the Indian and European markets. The 
great reduction in the duty on teas, which must shortly take 
place in Britain, will lead to a treble consumption ; and in- 
stead of 60,000,000 lb., we may shortly expect 180,000,000 
lb. to be consumed in our markets. The impetus, too, given 
to trade, generally, by the discovery of gold in quantity, in 
two hemispheres, will affect no staple article more than tea, 
and lead greatly to its increased consumption. An inexhausti- 
ble market, when that of India is supplied, is therefore pre- 
I sented. 


82 William Jameson on the Cultivation of 

But it is a question : — Is India capable of growing teas at 
as cheap a rate or cheaper than China ? In reply, I, from 
the small data which the returns of the Government planta- 
tions give, would say undoubtedly so. One of the planta- 
tions is now yielding 235 lb. of tea per acre, which, if sold 
at 6d. per pound, would yield £5, 17s. 6d, ; and this, too, re- 
turned by land, the annual rent of which, received by the 
Government, is only Is. 6d. per acre. For land generally 
in India, 58 rupees is a very high average return. More- 
over too, teas sold at 4 anas, or 6d. per pound, would bring 
them within the reach of the poorer classes, and cause them 
to become as essential to the native hut as tobacco, which 
dates its introduction into India little more than two cen- 
turies. But in urging the importance of tea cultivation in 
the British Indian provinces, there i3 another point of vast 
importance to be considered, viz., that in Kumaon and Gur- 
wal, whose area is equal to nearly 12,000 square miles, there 
is not a crop considered remunerative, where the district is 
distant from a good market, even though the land is only 
paying on the average about 7 anas or lOJd. per acre.* Why 
is this 1 Because intercommunication throughout the pro- 
vinces is so bad. All trade must, owing to the state of the 
roads, be conducted by men acting as beasts of burden. The 
finer kinds of grain never realize more than a rupee (two 
shillings) per bushel, and this too, in order to be obtained, is 
frequently carried by parties ten and twelve marches, when 
their labour is always, when they can get employment, worth 
to them 2 anas or 3d. per day. This fully proves that, 
at present, in the Eastern British Hill Provinces, there is not 
in the back districts a remunerative crop in cultivation. 
Were tea cultivation generally introduced, such would not 
be the case ; and as in China so in the Kohistan of North- 
western India, it might, with much advantage, be introduced 
into every village, and the natives encouraged to sell their 
tea leaves to the manufacturer. For many years good teas 

* The Government revenue rate is 12 anas or Is. 6d. per acre, but only the 
land under cultivation, when the settlement was made, at present pays rent. 
If, therefore, the lands now broken up and cultivated are included, the average 
rent will not exceed 10 Jd. per acre. 

Tea in the District of Kangra. 83 

will realize in this country 10 anas, or Is. 3d., per pound* ; 
and as a maund of raw leaves yields about 23 lb. of tea, the 
manufacturer might easily pay the cultivator eight rupees 
per maund on raw leaves, delivered at the factory, and at 
this rate reserve a broad margin of profit to himself. With 
such an inducement, natives would, I think, willingly under- 
take tea cultivation ; as with good management they might 
realize from 80 rupees to 90 rupees per acre ; ami paid thus 
liberally, cultivators, even in the most distant regions, might 
deliver their leaves at the factories with considerable profit 
to themselves, though manual labour be employed in their 
transmission. But as the tea plant does not yield a return 
until the third year, and as, in the interval, the capital of the 
cultivators is thus locked up, it would, in order to induce 
them to enter readily on the cultivation with the assurance 
of security to their property so invested, be necessary to 
guarantee to them that all good leaves would be purchased 
at the above rate at the factories for a period of time ; and 
this guarantee might, in the Kohistan of the Punjaub, with 
safety, be given for at least eight or ten years, either by 
Government, or by any party working the factories. In ad- 
dition, all waste and unappropriated lands, when cultivated 
with tea, might be given free of rent for three years, and to 
the extent of from 20 to 30 acres to each individual desirous of 
doing so ; and seeds and plants to cover them issued gratis. 
As a further inducement rewards, as in the opium factories, 
might be given to the first parties delivering leaves in the 
greatest quantity, and in the best condition, and on the fol- 
lowing scale : — 

1st. To the first party who delivers 100 maunds of raw 
leaves in good condition, 500 rupees. 

2d. To the first party who delivers 50 maunds, 250 ru- 

* At the last sales in Kumaon and Deyrah, the finer kinds of teas realized from 
6s. lOd. to 9s. lOd. per pound, but these are fancy prices, and cannot be main- 
I tained when the teas are produced in quantity. In England the finer kinds of 
Kumaon teas were pronounced by the London brokers to be worth from 2s. 6d. 
to 3s. 6d. per pound. The average given by me, viz., Is. 3d., is, therefore, a low 


84 Richard A die on the 

3d. To the first party who delivers 25 maunds, 100 

To conduct the operations under my orders at the Holta 
plantation, which, up to the 31st December 1852, were carried 
on by an active and intelligent native, a first class pupil of 
Delhi College, Hurdeo Sahae, I have, with the permission of 
the Honourable the Lieutenant-Governor, transferred Mr 
Rogers, overseer at Bheemtal, in Kumaon, who has for seve- 
ral years superintended the tea plantation in that district, 
and is, therefore, well acquainted with his work. I trust 
that this arrangement will meet with the sanction of the 
Most Noble the Governor-General. 

On the Generation of Electrical Currents. By Richard 
Adie, Esq., Liverpool. Communicated by the Author. 

My object is to give an experiment, which goes to shew that 
a body may be electrified negatively or positively under cer- 
tain conditions that are determined by a change in the 
conducting circuit, so that a terminal wire shall exhibit 
either kind of electricity at pleasure, without any alteration 
in the generation of the current. This fact being esta- 
blished, it will serve to explain cases of the reversal of a cur- 
rent, where there is no apparent change in the chemical or 
molecular action which has produced the electricity. The 
experiment is founded on one I published in vol. xxxvii., 
p. 301, of this Journal. A figure of the cross for testing 
M. Peltier's law is there given, to illustrate some experi- 
ments to disprove the assertion that a current of electricity 
could, in passing across a joint, cool it. Since that time I 
have given experiments to shew that when a joint appears 
to be cooled by an electrical current, the reduction of tem- 
perature can be traced to the cells of the battery where 
the electricity is being generated ; and that the current 
which appears in the outer arms of the cross is not gene- 
rated at the central joint, but is merely an off-shoot, drawn 
by the resistance of the joint from the main current. This 
was suspected when the cross experiment was first proposed ; 
and they devised a method for testing the question, which, 

Generation of Electrical Currents. 


however, failed to prove what was sought. Since then I have 
found that, by regulating the section of the joint the galvanic 
current has to cross, it can be readily shewn that the current in 
the outer arms increases and diminishes, and this with arms of 
the same metal, where heat gives very little thermo-electrical 
action. Let a cross be made of two strips of rolled zinc, cut 
off the same sheet of metal, when the section of the central 
joint is quite small ; a large portion of the current appears in 
the outer arms of the cross; but as the section of the joint is 
enlarged, the quantity of electricity which appears in the 
outer arms decreases, until with a large section it disappears 

The annexed dia- A 

gram represents a 
cross, composed of 
three bars of bis- 
muth ; AC, a long 
bar; and DE and 
FB two half bars. 
The ends E and F 
of the half bars wereD C 
placed in metallic 
contact with the bar 
AC, but with a space 
them at G, whereby 
a galvanic current, 
passing along DB, 
had two joints to 
cross, one at E and 
another at F. When 
the space at G was H L 

closed, by pressing the points of the bars together into metal- 
lic contact, then a galvanic current passing along DB had 
only one joint to cross. The extremities of the bars at A 
and D were connected by wires with a Smee's battery of one 
or more number of plates ; and the other extremities at B 
and C had wires BI and CH soldered to them. 

The wires at H and I were connected with a galvanometer. 

86 llichard Adie on the 

The battery current was sent in the direction AED, when 
the needles of the galvanometer shewed a current in the 
outer arms, moving in the direction CEB. The two short 
bars were then brought into contact at G, and the current 
through AED established. The galvanometer now shewed 
a current moving opposite to the one first obtained, being in 
the direction BEC. The sole cause of this change was the 
alteration in the joints at G, where the resistance to conduc- 
tion turned off from the main current, passing along AED a 
portion of the electricity into the outer arms. These two ex- 
periments were repeated with the wires H and I immersed in 
a sulphate of copper solution ; the battery current through 
AED was furnished by a single pair of plates ; the electricity 
which appeared in the outer arms readily precipitated metal- 
lic copper; the deposit was on the wire at H, when the 
space at G was open ; and on I, when the space at G was 

I have seen it objected to thermo-electrical experiments, 
that they often appear to contradict one another. With this 
experiment of the cross before us, we need not be surprised 
at an alteration in the direction of a feeble galvanic or ther- 
mal current, seeing that it may be brought about by a change 
in resistance to conduction in a joint the current has to cross, 
while the chemical, or molecular action which generates the 
current is unaltered. Cases, in illustration of this view, will 
occur to the minds of those who are familiar with the details 
of the subject. In thermo-electricity, couples formed of sil- 
ver and zinc, and of hard-cast antimony and iron, shew a re- 
versal of the current after the temperature passes a certain 
point. In hydro-electricity, couples formed of two pieces of 
copper, or any other oxidizable metal, give a reversal of 
the current, as the rate of oxidation predominates on the 
one or the other slip — instances which give us evidence 
of parallelism between the thermo and hydro electrical 

In observing the action of the water battery, I gave a 
series of experiments in vol. xxxviii., p. 99, of this Journal. 
A continuation of these led me to the unexpected result, 
that the active oxidation of a piece of metal converted 

Generation of Electrical Currents. 87 

it into a negative element, which has since been confirmed 
by M. Viard in an elaborate memoir (see London Philoso- 
phical Magazine, No. 39). 

The negative condition of a rapidly oxidizing plate is in 
some manner connected with the nascent state of the oxide, 
and the metal to which it owes its birth ; it is here that the 
joint, the galvanic current has to cross occurs. The apparent 
contradiction of an oxidized plate being negative, may be ex- 
plained, by supposing a class of chemical action where the 
metallic surface in the act of producing an oxide acts as a 
powerful negative, or it is an arrangement like the experi- 
ment in the diagram, with the space at G open. 

An instance of the generation of electricity, for a useful 
purpose may amuse some of your readers. I give it on the 
authority of a credible eye-witness, who saw the process. 
A lady in New York undertook to light the gas by an elec- 
tric spark ; she shuffled her slippers over the carpet for a 
few seconds, and then approached the jet of the gas-pipe ; 
the gas was turned on, and the finger held near the noz- 
zel of the burner, to allow an electric spark to pass from 
it, which generally ignited the gas. The success of the ex- 
periment was of course influenced by the dryness of the at- 
mosphere ; but on the North American continent, a state of 
the air fit for such a purpose, is, it would seem, by no means 
uncommon. In this country a similar experiment for light- 
ing gas by an electric spark from the finger is often enough 
performed, but our climate requires the aid of an electrical 
machine and an insulated stool. 


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92 James D. Dana on a 

On a Change of Ocean Temperature that would attend a 
Change in the level of the African and South American 
Continents. By James D. Dana. 

The idea of a change of climate consequent upon a change 
in the distribution of land and water on the globe, brought 
forward by Sir Charles Lyell, has recently been discussed 
with much ability and precision, by Prof. Hopkins, especially 
with reference to the Northern Atlantic. As there is profit 
in this consideration of possibilities, whether we can prove 
the actual occurrence of the supposed events or not, we 
briefly remark in this place upon another geological change 
that would affect the temperatures of both the Pacific and 
Atlantic Oceans. 

Upon the oceanic isothermal chart issued with the last 
number of this Journal, and discussed in that and this num- 
ber, it is observed that the whole western coast of South 
America is bordered by cold waters ; and that while in the 
Pacific, 80° F. is the coldest temperature of the year in mid- 
ocean, towards South America, even under the equator, the 
ocean temperature of 74° is not found, in the cold season, 
short of a distance of 2500 miles from the coast. 

We have also remarked upon the evidence that a similar 
southern or extratropical current affects the temperature of 
the whole southern Atlantic, and makes this literally the 
cold ocean of the globe. 

It is moreover evident from the temperature of the waters 
off western South America, that the extratropical or antarctic 
current has a vastly wider influence here than in the southern 
Atlantic ; the positions of the lines of 68° and 74° in the two 
regions make this sufficiently apparent. It is also obvious, 
that the South American Continent, by extending so far 
south, — 22 degrees, or 1300 miles, beyond the south point of 
Africa, — should necessarily intercept to a large extent the 
antarctic current, and thus occasion, in connection with other 
causes, the northern flow that influences so widely the tem- 
perature of the waters off this coast. The position of the 
isocryme of 35°, shews that this same current flows on, rising 
somewhat northward towards Cape of Good Hope ; yet the 

Change of Ocean Temperature. 93 

African continent lies so far to the north, that it can in fact 
intercept but a small part of the southern current, which 
consequently to a large extent passes on south of the Cape ; 
yet this small part produces the wonderful effects pointed 
out.* / 

Suppose now, that by a change of level, America were to 
terminate in latitude 34° S., and Africa in latitude 56° S. : 
the relation of the two, and of the cold influences of the cur- 
rents adjoining, would be entirely changed. The vast area 
in the South Pacific, embraced between the west South * 
American coast and the isocryme of 74°, — which marks the 
influence in the colder season of the cold southern waters, 
though not by any means its extreme limit, — would, if trans- 
ferred to the Atlantic equatorial regions, stretch nearly or 
quite across from Guinea to the East Cape of South America ; 
and the line of 68° would sweep around north of the equator 
quite to mid-ocean. The actual extent of the change may 
be perceived with close accuracy if we transfer the isocrymal 
lines off this part of Western America to the Atlantic. In 
the Pacific, under the same circumstances, the line of 68° 
would nowhere reach within several degrees of the equator. 
The distribution of marine life would be greatly changed. 
"While now the west coast of South America is, as regards 
the ocean, one of the coldest regions for the latitude in the 
world, it would become very much moderated, and a con- 
siderable portion of coast would be bordered by tropical 
waters. Along by Lima, and far south, there might be coral 
reefs. In the Atlantic, on the contrary, the Gulf of Guinea 
now characterized by torrid waters, would be filled with the 
colder seas of the temperate zone, and true tropical life 
would be altogether excluded. 

The influence also on the Gulf Stream would be very 

decided, and the whole North Atlantic would feel the change. 

It is a remarkable fact, that while the west coast of 

America is bordered in the tropical part by cold waters, 10° 

* We find that at the recent meeting of the British Association, Mr A. G. 
Findlay, in the course of a paper on the oceanic currents of the Atlantic and 
Pacific, takes the common view that the Lagulhas current is the origin of the 
current that flows up the West African coast, a view shewn to be untenable. 

94 Richard Adie on the Influence of Hilly 

to 12° below the mean of mid ocean, and the marine zoology 
is hence extratropical, the temperature of the land is pecu- 
liarly torrid over the same latitudes. It is evident that in 
judging of the influence of the ocean temperature on the 
temperature of the land, the direction of the aerial currents 
for the year, should be considered as a most important ele- 
ment towards any just conclusions. 

Although we cannot shew that the supposed change of 
level in the continents has taken- place, we may learn from the 
facts what vast changes in marine life have happened in past 
ages, through such changes of level as have occurred in the 
earth's history. The changes on the land from this cause 
would be less marked ; besides, these have had far less in- 
fluence on the life of the rocks than those of the ocean, as 
the fossiliferous rocks are mainly of marine origin. We 
know that in the cretaceous and tertiary periods, the Andes 
were in part under water, or at a much lower level, and 
effects of the kind considered cannot be altogether hypo- 
thetical. — (American Journal of Science and Arts, vol. xvi., 
p. 391.) 

On the Influence of Undulating or Hilly Ground in checking 
Currents of Wind. By Richard Adie, Esq., Liverpool. 
Communicated by the Author. 

" So, pent by hills, the wild winds roar aloud, 
In the deep bosom of some gloomy wood." 

My attention was directed to this subject by observations 
which I made on the growth of trees in the country around 
the borders of the Irish Sea in the neighbourhood of Liver- 
pool. I there remarked, that where the sea-board is backed 
by the hills of Wales, trees grow with vigour at a compara- 
tively short distance from the coast, while on the Lancashire 
shore, to the north of this town, where there is an extensive 
flat very little elevated above the surface of the adjacent sea, 
the trees have a stunted, poor appearance. I believe the 
cause of this can be shewn to be due to the hilly ground 
checking sea winds, which are sometimes loaded with a 

Ground in checking Currents of Wind. 95 

principle most deleterious to vegetation. To shew how 
this property of a sea breeze gets into the atmosphere, I 
had better first describe the formation of " spoon-drift," a 
technical term applied by sailors to water raised into the air 
from the sea in a manner which gives it properties widely 
different from any other form of atmospheric moisture. 
Spoon-drift is formed by a stormy wind striking the tops 
of agitated waves, and taking from them particles of sea 

In the Mersey, during gales, I have on several occasions wit- 
nessed the spoon-drift and some of its effects. I have stood on 
the Cheshire shore and looked towards Liverpool, and noticed 
along the dock-wall a belt of cloud which was raised by a 
strong west wind striking the agitated tops of the waves 
formed in that locality at the time. This belt of cloud was 
in rapid motion, being carried forward by the force of the 
wind. In the town, the day after the storm, the windows of 
the houses had a soiled appearance, occasioned by the salt 
which had dried on them. In the country, on hedge-rows, I saw, 
pendant from the twigs, drops of water which tasted strongly 
of salt. Storms of this kind rarely occur during the season 
of verdant foliage, but when they do happen in that period, 
their effect on vegetation is most marked. On the 2d Octo- 
ber 1853, the Mersey was visited by a violent gale, which 
raised spoon-drift, and distributed it in the manner I have 
stated. In forty-eight hours after the storm the leaves of 
the trees, on the windward or exposed side, had a shrivelled, 
scorched aspect. A road near Birkenhead, lined with two 
thriving, hawthorn hedges, presented the singular appearance 
of two different colours, occasioned by the one side being a 
windward surface, the other side a leeward one. The lee- 
ward surface escaped the saline spray, and retained the dark- 
green colour natural to it at the end of summer ; — the wind- 
ward surface was changed to be quite brown, through the 
deadly action of salt on vegetation. The hard spine-like 
leaves of the gorse bushes and the evergreen pines are often, 
during the winter months, browned on the parts exposed to 
a saline atmosphere ; but, so far as I have been able to note, 
winters which do this to any extent do not occur oftener 

96 Richard Adie on the Influence of Hilly 

than once in three to five years. In the spring, after a season 
that has had a saline gale, I have heard it remarked by a 
traveller who had gone over the extreme range of British 
railway-ground, that Lancashire appeared more blighted than 
the moors, or any other place he had passed over ; it is 
due to the lands of this county being exposed to be swept by 
strong westerly gales from the Irish Sea, carrying with 
them particles of sea-water. Arboreal vegetation, from its 
elevation, is more liable to be injured by sea salt than the 
cereals, or other plants which form the object of the farmer's 
care. The latter, for a long period of their growth, only rise 
a few inches above the surface of the soil, while, during the 
time of their most active development for flowering and seed- 
ing, saline storms are rare ; hence it is that ground where 
trees thrive badly is found covered with fertile corn-fields. 

The influence of hills in checking winds within a certain 
sphere of their action, is shewn in the quotation given above 
from the Iliad, translated by Pope; for if wind rushes with 
much violence down a gap among hills, the fact of its doing 
so, which is so well known, and is here established on the 
authority of one of the oldest of authors, shews that there 
must have been resistance offered to it by the form of the 
ground. On the Cheshire side of the Mersey there was an 
inlet called Wallasley Pool, where the tide ebbed and flowed 
through a hollow very slightly depressed below the neigh- 
bouring country ; the upper part of the pool passed through 
a flat marsh only elevated a few feet above the highest tides. 
On the southern border of this marsh there is a hill 200 feet 
high ; but, with this exception, the ground around the pool is 
low ; yet the winds issuing from the gap were often a cause 
of anxiety to the boatmen of the Mersey ; and I have been 
told of serious boat accidents off the mouth of Wallasley 
Pool. This character is likely to be altered now, for the tide 
has ceased to ebb there. It has been converted into a great 
shipfloat, filled with water, and studded over with the masts 
of shipping ; but when the surface was open, the influence on 
the atmosphere of a slight depression was often observable. 

The action of trees and ridges of ground in retarding the 
motion of the air is very different; wind in passing through 

Ground in changing Currents of Wind. 97 

trees is retarded by the friction of the air on the leaves and 
branches. When wind has to rise over a ridge of ground, 
there is the friction of the air on the earth's surface, and if 
all the air which ascended the ridge were to descend on the 
other side to the same level, so that the opposite surfaces of 
ridge resembled the two arms of a syphon, then the friction 
would be the only retarding force. But this is not what oc- 
curs in nature, which will be at once seen if we look at a 
mountain ridge on a great scale. Take for illustration the 
island of Great Britain ; a large mass of air annually passes 
across its surface from the Atlantic to the German Ocean ; 
in its transit a quantity of aqueous vapour is condensed, and 
descends in the form of rain. A part of the rain is derived 
from vapour which has been evaporated from the surface of 
the island, and is only a process of return — the state of the 
earth as to moisture, in an annual mean, being nearly sta- 
tionary. The extent of the condensation of vapour which has 
come from the sea or foreign ground is measured by the an- 
nual discharge of our rivers. The vast volume of air annu- 
ally condensed on the surface of the island may be conceived, 
when the quantity of water discharged into the sea is multi- 
plied 1700 times ; and the winds have suffered from the dis- 
charge of their aqueous vapour a retarding force measured 
by the gravitating of the rivers in their descent to the ocean, 
for the weight of water is lost to them on the descending 
limb of the syphon. 

If we reflect on the extent of the water-power of this 
island, some idea may be formed of the vast body of air re- 
quired to be condensed to produce it. Again, this formation 
of water-power brings another force into play which tends 
to give a horizontal motion to the air, namely the vacuity 
left by the condensed moisture. Consequently when we 
come to consider the effect of elevated ground on the atmo- 
sphere in its widest sense, experience shows that it acts as a 
disturber ; the most palpable proof of this is afforded by the 
general quiescent state of the extensive flat surface of the 
Pacific Ocean, — the name pacific being an indication of its 
character — contrasted with the stormy portions of this ocean 
which lie around Cape Horn and the Cape of Good Hope. 


98 Richard Adie on Currents of Wind. 

The action of undulating ground in checking currents of air 
refers to localities within a certain range of their influence ; 
in such situations trees are found in a more luxuriant state 
of growth near the sea, than would have been the case if the 
ground around them had been flat ; at the same time the 
fact must not be lost sight of, that while hills protect much of 
the surface from winds, they also expose certain localities 
where the wild winds roar more than on any sea-girt plain. 

A calculation of the weight of air which a ridge of very 
moderate elevation will raise hourly, may startle some of 
your readers. Take a ridge of 10 feet high on a sea-board 
of 100 miles in length. According to Mr Hartnup, in his 
meteorological results for the Liverpool observatory, 1852, the 
mean horizontal motion of the air for the year is 13 miles 
per hour. The mean weight of the air that crosses may be 
counted at 2 lb. per cubic yard, which is nearly 30J grains 
to the 100 cubic inches. And suppose that the stratum of 
the mass in motion is 300 feet thick, the calculation founded 
on these data shews the weight of air raised 10 feet during 
every hour, to be 310 millions of tons. In the mean state of 
dryness, the atmosphere contains 14 parts per 1000 of 
aqueous vapour, which proportion gives for the water raised 
10 feet along a sea-board of 100 miles, 4^ millions of tons 
per hour — a large quantity of this vast weight being capable 
of condensation into rain. 

The gales required to form the " spoon drift" which I 
have described as so destructive to vegetation, may be judged 
of from the subjoined notice, extracted from Mr Hartnup's 

The following results shew the comparative violence of 
the four heaviest gales of wind which passed over the ob- 
servatory during the year 1852 : — 

Greatest velocity of the 

Extreme pressure 

air between any one 

on the square foot. 

hour and the next hour 

luary 4. 

28 pounds 

53 miles. 


29 ... 

62 ... 

member 25. 

42 ... 

70 ... 


42 ... 

71 . . 


Address delivered at the Anniversary Meeting of the Geolo- 
gical Society of London on the 17th February 1854. By 
Edward Forbes, Esq., President of the Society. 

[We regret much we have not space for the whole of this very 
valuable report of Professor Edward Forbes, but the few highly 
important facts we have selected will be read, we are sure, 
with great interest, as their novelty and importance calls for.] 

That the greater part of my report will take cognizance 
of Geology under its palseontological aspects, is a circum- 
stance not dependent on my own predilections or peculiar 
line of study ; it so happens that the majority of important 
papers published during the past year have been more or less 
of this character, and some of the most valuable of recent 
contributions to our science concern principally the natural 
history department of Geology. 

In the course of study of the many lately-published 
memoirs from which the materials of my Address are derived, 
the question of the meaning of the difference and contrast 
that are evident when we compare the faunas and floras of 
the more ancient or palaeozoic with those of later epochs, has, 
in consequence of fresh accumulation of relevant facts, forced 
itself vividly upon my attention. It is a subject that, in com- 
mon with most geologists, I have often earnestly thought 
over, and more than once published opinions upon. It has 
been the originator of not a few theories and speculations, 
not one of which can be said to have borne the test of search- 
ing inquiry into facts. Yet I think I am not wrong in saying, 
that a belief is as strongly impressed as ever on the minds of 
geologists who take interest in the philosophy of their science, 
that some law lies at the foundation of this difference. If I 
venture to add one speculation more, although its predeces- 
sors have either subsided into azoic oblivion, or linger retain- 
ing but a weak hold upon our minds, I do so in the hope that 
there is a vitality in my offspring, which may enable it, when 
it becomes developed, though as yet only a suggestion, to 
endure ; and I ask your indulgence for introducing it on this 
occasion, on the plea that it owes its birth to reflections 
arising out of this discourse. 


100 Anniversary Address to the 

The publication of the first volume of M. Barrande's great 
work on the Silurian System of Bohemia is a leading event of 
the geological year just completed, and from its importance 
commands our first attention. The researches, the results of 
which are embodied in this elaborate and beautiful treatise, 
were commenced twenty years ago, but have been more espe- 
cially prosecuted during the last thirteen years. From time 
to time we have had more or less detailed notices of the fruits 
of M. Barrande's assiduous labours, but could scarcely judge 
of their minuteness and importance until he commenced to 
send them forth in full. He now takes his place definitely 
in the foremost rank of geologists and palaeontologists. He 
combines in a remarkable degree both qualifications, — no 
small advantage when the wide general views and the classi- 
fication of great formations, such as are dealt with by this 
eminent man, have to be fully considered and put forth with 
ample arguments. Division of labour is good for the accum- 
lation of sound and abundant materials, but experience has 
shewn in both geology and the other sciences, that the 
greatest advances are to be made by combinations of kinds of 
knowledge in those who deal with the greater problems. 
M. Barrande has done well, it seems to me, by pursuing as- 
siduously the double course he has chosen. The main body 
of the purely geological portion of his work he proposes to 
publish when the palseontological details, which constitute 
most of the evidence upon which his views are founded, have 
been laid before the geological world in all their complete- 
ness. The task he has before him in this respect is a laborious 
one ; no less than the detailed description and critical in- 
vestigation of some 1200 species of fossils, — for such is the 
number that has rewarded his search in Bohemia. The 
natural history and principal part of his volume, a bulky work 
in itself, is devoted to the order of Trilobites. It is prefaced, 
however, by a general outline of the geology of Bohemia, 
which first deserves our notice, both on account of the in- 
terest it must present to British geologists dealing with 
palaeozoic strata, and also because of certain original and 
peculiar views put forth in it. 

The Silurian formation of the centre of Bohemia consti- 

Geological Society of London. 101 

tutes a well-defined basin of an elongated oval shape, the 
great axis of which is directed nearly N.E. and S.W., and has 
a length of about 20 German geographical miles, with a maxi- 
mum breadth of 10. It is from 55 to 60 miles in circumference. 
Towards the N.E. and N. a small portion is bounded by the 
Trias, the Quader-sandstone, the Planer-kalk. or by the Carbo- 
niferous formation. Elsewhere, for two-thirds of its margin, 
granite or primordial crystalline rocks, such as gneiss and 
mica-slate, constitute its base and its boundary. A few small 
carboniferous basins are sprinkled over the Silurian surface, 
as well as a few isolated outliers of cretaceous beds. The 
dip in the two halves of the basin, the one to the N.E. and 
the other to the S.E. of the chief diameter, is towards the 
principal axis. The beds ordinarily lie at an angle of from 
30° to 45°, often 70°, and are not unfrequently vertical. 

M. Barrande distinguishes eight stages of strata to which 
he assigns a Silurian age ; four of them he regards as Lower 
Silurian, and four as Upper Silurian. Of his Lower Silurian 
stages the two lowermost are azoic, the distinctions between 
them being founded on mineral characters, the first being 
composed of crystalline rocks, and the second of clay-slates 
and conglomerates, similar to the fossiliferous Silurian above 
them, but wholly void of organic remains. They are rich in 
lead mines. These azoic stages pass into each other, and the 
upper section passes gradually into the fossiliferous beds 

The third stage of his Lower Silurian, and the first of his 
fossiliferous horizons, includes his " Schiste protozoique," 
and attains a thickness of 1200 feet. It contains no beds 
of limestone. The fauna of this section is very peculiar; it 
is composed almost totally of Trilobites, the other fossils 
being a Pteropod, some Cystidese, and an Orthis. These 
constitute an assemblage upon which he lays great stress, 
and designates primordial. All its species, without exception, 
are peculiar to itself, and of the Trilobites, all the genera 
are so, with the exception of Agnostus. The peculiar genera 
are either low and rudimentary types, or members of the 
Olenoid or Calymenoid families ; not typical or highly de- 
veloped forms. They are Paradoxides, Conocephahis, El- 

102 Anniversary Address to the 

lipsocephalus, Sao, Arionellus, Hydrocephalus, and Agnos- 
tus. Of the first of these genera there are no fewer than 
twelve species, some of them exceedingly prolific. These 
primordial Trilobites have a peculiar facies of their own, de- 
pendent on the multiplication of their thoracic segments, 
and the diminution of their caudal shield or pygidium. M. 
Barrande compares this primordial fauna of Bohemia with 
certain fossiliferous assemblages similarly placed at the base 
of the fossiliferous Silurians in Wales, Norway, and Sweden, 
in which last country, indeed, the peculiarities of its fossils 
long ago attracted the attention of naturalists and the notice 
of Linnaeus. 

The isolation of this primordial zone, as distinguished 
from the mass of the Lower Silurian, is chiefly maintained 
by the grouping in it of the Olenoid family of Trilobites, al- 
most to the exclusion of all others. It is not quite certain 
that more than one of the genera of Trilobites distinctive of 
this zone are found in any higher beds. The exception is 
Agnostus, the lowest and most rudimentary type of its 
tribe. Yet even this has its metropolis in the primordial 
zone, and sends but a few stragglers into the division imme- 
diately above. The same, or a very similar distribution, has 
been observed of late years by Angelin, who, during 1852, 
commenced illustrating the fauna of the Swedish rocks. 

In Wales the existence of this primordial fauna has been 
clearly made out. The rocks which contain it are those 
designated by Professor Sedgwick, who recognised their 
importance, as the " Lingula beds," a name adopted by the 
Geological Survey. Fossils were first, I believe, found in them 
by Mr Davis, who discovered the Lingula, from which they 
received this name. They have been thoroughly examined 
by my colleagues of the Geological Survey, and are stated 
in the resume on the Lower Palaeozoics of N. Wales, com- 
municated by Professor Ramsay to the Society last April, to 
be about 7000 feet thick. Their importance has been fully 
recognized for some time by the surveyors, and the additional 
evidence accumulated last autumn by M. Salter goes to 
support the stress laid upon them by M. Barrande. In 
the prosecution of the search, a further result has been ob- 

Geological Society of London. 103 

tained in the way of a subdivision of the group, and a 
palaeontological distinction of importance has been indicated. 
They prove capable of division into two well-marked sections, 
viz., a lower, of which Agnostus (probably the identical species 
described from the alum slates of Sweden), an Olenus, and 
Conocephalus occur along with the characteristic Lingular of 
the deposit ; and an upper, where the same genera are ac- 
companied by a few Brachiopoda and Bryozoa, as in Bohemia. 
But whereas, in the latter country, no passage can be shewn 
of this fauna into the Silurian stage above, in Wales a pa- 
laeontological passage from the Lingula beds into the Bala or 
Llandeilo group appears to be indicated. This is marked by 
the association in the upper part of the igneous series of two 
large species of Olenus with Agnostus and Lingulce, and 
with types unquestionably characteristic of the Llandeilo 
beds, such as Asaphus, Calymene, and Ogygia, and Grap- 
tolites of species undistinguishable from those of the Llan- 
deilo flags. 

The fourth and uppermost division of M. Barrande's 
Lower Silurians is his " Etage D ;" strata chiefly composed 
of quartzites with schistose alternations. Cephalopoda re- 
presented by Orthoceras, Pteropoda by Conularia and Pu- 
giunculus, Heteropoda by Bellerophon, Gasteropoda by 
Pleurotomaria and Holopea, Acephala by Avicula and 
Nucula, Brachiopoda by Orbicula, Lingula, Spirifer, Lep- 
tama, and Terebratula ; also Crinoids, Cystideans, Starfishes, 
and a few Corals and Graptolites make up, with Trilobites, 
the fauna of this group in Bohemia. Trilobites and Cystideans 
prevail above all other forms, and it is in this zone that the 
former (and the latter probably also) attain their maximum. 

Of the four stages of Upper Silurians in Bohemia, the three 
lower divisions are typically calcareous, and the culminant 
section schistose. The lowermost has a base consisting of 
traps alternating with black slates containing Graptolites, 
and including occasional concretionary limestone. It attains 
a thickness of not more than 900 feet, but has a fauna super- 
latively rich and prolific in fossil treasures. Between 500 
and 600 species of organic remains have been collected in 
this formation. In it is found the maximum number of 

104 Anniversary Address to the 

species of Trilobites, no fewer than 78 ; and several genera, 
including Harpes, Bronteus and Proteus, appear for the 
first time in Bohemia. Cephalopoda abound ; as many as 
200 species, of which half are Orthocerata, have re- 
warded the collector. Ascoceras, Gomphoceras, and Phrag- 
moceras are the characteristic types. Gasteropods, Lamel- 
libranchs, and Brachiopods are numerous, and there are not 
a few Zoophytes. 

The second or middle stage of Upper Silurian limestones 
presents a decreasing fauna, but at the same time exhibits 
the maximum of Brachiopoda. Bryozoa and Tentaculites 
appear, and Cephalopoda rapidly diminish in numbers. 

Between the third or upper stage of these limestones and 
the last there is a gradual passage, and in these fishes com- 
mence and Brachiopods have become rare. A considerable 
number of species in this division are enumerated as com- 
mon to it and the two last. 

In the uppermost stage of culminating schists the commu- 
nity of species is reduced to two Trilobites, and the entire 
fauna is poverty-stricken . Traces of vegetables indicate some 
considerable changes in the conditions of the sea-bed. 

For years, ever since 1828, palaeontologists have dreamt of 
Trilobitic metamorphoses, and some have pronounced defi- 
nitely for, some as definitely against, the probability of the 
Trilobite undergoing changes in the course of its existence 
as an individual. The full discovery and statement of the 
fact was reserved for Barrande in 1849. In the same year 
Mr Salter shewed that the young individuals of Ogygia Port- 
lockii presented 4-7 segments, and finally 8. Milne-Edwards 
and Burmeister, naturalists thoroughly versed in the history 
of living Crustacea, had previously speculated freely from 
analogy on the probability of their transformations. M. 
Barrande, in the work before us, demonstrates a metamor- 
phosis in no fewer than 16 genera and 28 species. The de- 
gree of change is variable ; its intensity comparable with 
the phenomenon in existing Crustacea. The successive and 
progressive elaboration of all the elements in the pygidium 
before becoming free and passing into the thorax, holds good 
in all known metamorphosing Trilobites. The number of 

Geological Society of London. 105 

species in which a change has been proved diminishes as we 
ascend in time. Among other points, M. Barrande has made 
out the probable eggs of these animals. As to their mode of 
life, he opposes the conclusion of Burmeister and others, that 
Trilobites lived in shallow water along the coast ; and dis- 
tinctly pronounces against the supposition of their parasitic 

A great step has been made towards an explanation of 
some of the organic phenomena of the Oolites by Professor 
Morris, whose memoir " On some Sections in the Oolitic 
District of Lincolnshire," communicated to the Society in 
June last year, throws new and valuable light on the rela- 
tions of the southern to the northern oolites in England, and 
rectifies several misconceptions about the comparative order 
of the strata in different districts. As this paper, one of the 
most important in its general bearings laid before us during 
the past year, is printed entire in our Journal, I shall make 
no abstract of its details, but merely offer a few remarks on 
its general bearings. 

The marine faunas of the Oolitic epoch indicate at least 
three great and widely-spread assemblages of types, each 
exhibiting a general and easily recognizable facies. These 
aspects may be termed respectively the Liassic, the Batho- 
nian, and the Oxfordian ; the two latter terms being used 
for want of better, and being adopted in a wide and general 
sense, and not in the restricted meaning in which they are 
used by M. Alcide d'Orbigny. The horizon of change of 
facies at the boundary between each is a horizon, to a con- 
siderable extent, of change of species. I believe that every 
year's research will make it more and more evident that the 
perishing of species is simply the result of the influence of 
physical changes in specific areas, and depends upon no law 
of inherent limitation of power to exist in time. If so, we 
should expect to find indications of the cause of the greater 
changes in the oolitic and marine fauna in the shape of strata 
bearing evidence of a wide-spread change of physical condi- 
tions within the great oolitic area. An extensive change of 
species within a marine area, in all likelihood, is dependent on 
an extensive conversion of that area into a terrestial surface. 

106 Anniversary Address to the 

Now it is becoming more and more clear that such a change 
of condition occurred over a very wide area in the interval 
between the main mass of the middle and upper Jurassic 
types. The researches of Mr Morris do much towards com- 
pleting the demonstration of the nature and extent of these 
changes in the area now occupied by the British Islands, and 
it will be seen hereafter, how, even as far away as Italy, we 
have clear proofs of a similar change of conditions about the 
same epoch. Much may be done towards clearing up the 
details of this matter by more extensive and careful investi- 
gations of the Scottish oolites, guided by the light that is 
opening gradually upon us. Indeed I know of no field more 
likely to yield fresh laurels to the British geological observer 
than the thorough exploration of Scottish secondary geology. 

In a paper by Professor Buckman, published in the "Annals 
of Natural History" for November last, and one of the many 
interesting contributions to British geology which we owe to 
that active assembly of provincial observers, the Cotteswold 
Naturalists' Club, the Cornbrash and associated strata of the 
neighbourhood of Cirencester are described in detail, and 
under an economical point of view not always attended to, 
viz. the agricultural value of the soils formed by the several 
oolitic rocks. Through the predominance of phosphoric acid 
and sulphate of lime in the Cornbrash, as compared with the 
" stone brashes'' of the Great and Inferior Oolite, the value 
of the soils in the former rock is considerably greater, as 
shewn by the analyses of Professor Voelcker. 

The description of the fossil animals of the nummulitic 
rocks of India, by Vicomte d'Archiac and Jules Haime, else- 
where alluded to when the monograph uf Nummulites was 
mentioned, will, when completed, form a manual of the high- 
est value for the study of this extensive formation in the 
East. The part already published contains the account of 
the Corals and Echinoderms (as well as the Nummulites), 
and is preceded by a review of the geology of the nummulitic 
region of India. This chapter is not a mere summary of 
what had previously been known and published. It contains 
much that is new, facts of high value derived from the re- 
searches of our associates, Vicary, A. Fleming, Oldham, R. 

Geological Society of London. 107 

Strachey, Thomson, and J. D. Hooker. Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison has been the means of placing these fresh data at the 
disposal of M. d'Archiac. The result of these studies has 
been the confirmation of the complete independence of the 
nummulitic in regard to the Cretaceous formations. " In 
the province of Cutch, in Scinde, Beloochistan, the Punjaub, 
and along the slopes of the Himalaya,'' remarks M. d'Ar- 
chiac, " the beds beneath the nummulitic limestones exhibit 
nowhere the characters of any stage whatsoever of the chalk, 
whilst, wherever the substratum has been recognized, it ex- 
hibits those of carbonaceous deposits with clays and sand- 
stones belonging to the lower tertiary formation, and resting 
either on Jurassic strata, or on more ancient rocks of which 
the age is yet unsettled." 

Organic Remains. The enormous increase of palseon- 
tological observations may be measured by a comparison 
between the number of species recorded in the first edi- 
tion of Professor Morris' Catalogue of British fossils, and 
the number mentioned in those portions of the new edi- 
tion that have gone through the press, and will shortly be 

The number of plants recorded in 1843 was 510 ; in 1853, 
652 are cited. The increase is chiefly among Mesozoic and 
Tertiary types. A great deal has been done to elucidate the 
structure and affinities of fossil plants in the interval, espe- 
cially by Dr Hooker, Mr Charles Bunbury, Prof. King, Mr 
Dawes, and Mr Binney, but not so much towards adding 
new names to our lists of species. In Fossil Botany, this 
course of proceeding is a sign of advance of knowledge. The 
most marked increase in number of recorded species is among 
the oolitic and Wealden beds. The late lamented Dr Man- 
tell did much of late years towards increasing the latter list. 
Were all the known fragments of distinct vegetables found 
in our tertiaries monographed and named in the manner of 
those I shall have presently to mention, described and 
figured in the lately published memoirs by Austrian botan- 
ists, our list would be considerably increased. They cer- 
tainly ought to be made the subject of a treatise, and might 
be advantageously taken up by the Pala^ontographical Society, 

108 Anniversary Address to the 

which, as yet, has given us no separate memoir on British 
fossil plants. 

The Amorphozoa come next. In 1843, 76 named forms 
were recorded. In 1853, the number is increased to 116. 
The increase is in a great measure due to the labours of Mr 
Toulmin Smith among the Ventriculidse, which, notwith- 
standing the arguments of their investigator in advocacy of 
their Polyzoan, and consequently Molluscan origin, natural- 
ists are generally of accord to keep in their old place beside 
the Sponges. 

The Foraminifera, 82 of which are mentioned as named 
types in the list of 1843, have increased to 168, besides 
numerous indications of unpublished and, as yet, unnamed 
forms. The next ten years will probably triple the amount 
of named fossil species of these exquisite minims of creation. 
The additions are chiefly new identifications of British fossils, 
with species described by continental authors, especially by 
Alcide d'Orbigny and Reuss. The merit of determining 
these is, I believe, in great part due to our Assistant-secre- 
tary, Mr Rupert Jones, whose authority stands very high in 
all departments of microscopic palseozoology. Mr Jones 
himself is an addition to the list of British Palceontologists 
during the last ten years, and one we all welcome. The 
labours of Dr Williamson and Dr Carpenter have also done 
much towards clearing up our fossil Foraminifera ; and the 
untiring exertions of Mr Harris, of Charing, though incon- 
spicuous in print, have, I believe, been a chief source of fresh 
materials towards the history of our cretaceous species. 

In the first edition, the Zoophyta are combined with the 
Bryozoa. When the latter are eliminated there remain 183 
zoophytes, chiefly corals. This number has been prodi- 
giously added to within the last ten years, no fewer than 438 
species being enumerated in the new catalogue. The in- 
crease in this instance is due to an entirely new treatment 
of the subject. To Milne-Edwards and Jules Haime a large 
proportion of the additions are indebted for their place. Mr 
Lonsdale and Professor M'Coy have also contributed exten- 

The Bryozoa, a few years ago regarded as Zoophytes, but 

Geological Society of London. 109 

now known to be low forms of the subkingdom Mollusca, 
amounted to about 132 in the first edition. In the new cata- 
logue, they constitute a roll of no fewer than 249 species. 
This extended list is due to many investigations, and the 
newly-recorded types come from formations of all ages. At- 
tention seems to have been suddenly directed to these curi- 
ous bodies both at home and abroad. The study of the Bri- 
tish fossil species, vast as is the increase of the recorded 
numbers, can be regarded only as in its commencement. I 
trust that geologists who may direct their attention to these 
bodies hereafter, will bear in mind the complete and search- 
ing analysis of the existing species drawn up by Mr Busk 
for the British Musem, and guide themselves in describing 
the fossils by the example of that valuable treatise. 

The Echinodermata, 266 in number in 1843, are now 479 ; 
the record of species is daily increasing, but I do not think 
likely eventually to extend beyond 500 British forms. Major 
Austin, Professor M'Coy, Dr Wright, and myself, have been 
the principal workers in this beautiful, and in a geological 
point of view, invaluable order. The additions of the entire 
family, including not a few genera and species, of Cystidea 
to the list (for the Sphseronites of the former catalogue is 
probably not a cystidean), a group as characteristic of the 
lower palaeozoic formation, as the Graptolites or myriads of 
Trilobites are, is one of the most striking instances of the pro- 
gress of pal aeon tological research, and one due for several of 
its most curious facts to the exertions of Mr Fletcher, and 
Mr John Gray of Dudley. 

The named Annelida were 79 in 1843, they are now 129. 
The most interesting additions are among palaeozoic forms. 

The Cirripedia, 2 L in 1843, are now 42. The value of the in- 
crease in this instance is not to be estimated by the merely 
doubling of the number. They have been thoroughly sifted 
by a master-hand, analysed with incomparable care, and by 
a combination of unsurpassed labour, with judgment and 
| knowledge of the highest kind, have been brought to a state 
which may be regarded as, at least for many years to come, 
the epoch of maximum, in their investigation. To Charles 
Darwin we are indebted for this service. 

110 Anniversary Address to the 

The Crustacea are now 291 ; in 1843 they were 159. This 
is an enormous advance, and curious, since in great part it 
has arisen from additions to the list of paleozoic species. It 
marks, moreover, not merely an advance of names, but one of 
knowledge, as may be judged from an inspection of the 
changes in the generic list. The Trilobites have undergone 
a complete revision, and the number of species of those sin- 
gular animals is vastly increased, thanks more especially to 
the work done by Salter and by M'Coy. The Cytheridse and 
Cyprididaa have become a feature in the catalogue, mainly in 
consequence of the researches of Rupert Jones. Professor 
M'Coy has largely added also to the list of these tribes, and 
to the catalogue of the higher Crustacea from our mesozoic 
and lower tertiary strata. 

The additions to the list of fossil insects more than double 
this portion of the catalogue. They are due to the Rev. P. 
Brodie, and are entirely derived from mesozoic strata, chiefly 
from the Purbecks and Lias. In this department there is a 
considerable amount of unpublished materials existing in 

The number of Brachiopoda has swollen from 459 to 668, 
an addition of more than 200 species ! In the mean time they 
have been undergoing complete and thorough revision. Mr 
Davidson, whose appearance among us as a British palaeon- 
tologist has taken place in the interval between the two edi 
tions, is foremost among the workers in this department, one 
greatly increased also by the labours of King, M'Coy, and 
Salter. Some very interesting contributions have come from 
Mr D. Sharpe, and Mr C. Moore of Ilminster. The impor- 
tant discovery of Liassic species of Leptsena and Thecidium 
in Britain is due to the last-named observer. 

The catalogue included 318 Monomyarian Bivalves in 1843; 
in the new edition 577 are recorded. The additions in this 
instance come from numerous sources. Both in this and the 
following group we owe much to the labours of Mr Morris 
and Mr Lycett among the Oolites. 

The appearance of the first part of the " Description of 
the Fossil remains of Mollusca found in the Chalk of Eng- 
land," by our valued treasurer, Mr Daniel Sharpe, will be 

Geological Society of London. Ill 

hailed with pleasure by students of cretaceous beds all over 
Europe. The portion published embraces the Beleninites, 
the Nautili, and part of the Ammonites, and contains descrip- 
tions and figures of 24 species, of which two are wholly new, 
and six new to British lists The range of cretaceous strata 
from whence the specimens described have been procured, 
extends from the Upper Chalk of Norfolk and Gravesend, to 
the Chloritic marl of the Isle of Wight, and " Chalk with 
green grains' 1 of Somersetshire. It is worthy of notice that 
of the Nautili described, several are recorded as having 
an extensive vertical distribution ; thus Nautilus laivigatus 
ranges from the Upper Greensand to the Upper Chalk, whilst 
Nautilus pseudo-elegans, N. radiatus, N. neocomiensis, and 
N. undulatus occur in both the upper and lower divisions of 
the Cretaceous system ; in other words, both above and be- 
low the Gault. Every fact of this kind well ascertained, is 
of no small interest at present, when there is an extreme and 
unwholesome tendency on the part of many palaeontologists 
to insist a priori upon the distinctness of species coming 
from different stages, and to force their diagnoses accord- 

The essay on the classification of the Brachiopoda, by Mr 
Davidson, contains the conclusions arrived at after many 
years of conscientious labour, mainly devoted to this in- 
teresting order of Mollusks, for whose illustration we owe 
so much to his pen and pencil. No other paleontologist has 
ever had so great an amount of perfect materials for his par- 
ticular task at his command, and neither expense nor labour 
has been spared by our indefatigable associate to render his 
monograph as perfect as possible. If any of our brethren 
dissent from some of his specific decisions, they must all 
admit that they have been arrived at on no superficial 
grounds. The portion of Mr Davidson's work now sent forth 
is entirely systematic, and is devoted chiefly to an exposi- 
tion of the characters and definition of the families and 
genera of Brachiopoda. He admits thirty-three genera as- 
sembled under ten principal families, with some intermediate 
and doubtful or provisional groups. As he has endeavoured 
to define his genera on the strictest natural characters, and 
appears to have succeeded in arriving at an arrangement, 

112 Anniversary Address to the 

in the main sound and near to the truth, it becomes an in- 
quiry of considerable interest to ascertain how far the ranges 
of these genera are continuous in time ; in other words, 
whether the theory of unique generic time-areas be borne 
out among the Brachiopoda, now that we may be said to have 
attained so extensive a knowledge of their generic and specific 
types. This was doubtless the idea working in the mind of 
Von Buch, when, with indifferent materials, he attempted to 
fix the characters of the fossil Brachiopoda, and plainly has 
often influenced the numerous attempts at their classification 
made by subsequent palaeontologists. I have no reason to 
suppose that an a priori hypothesis, connected with either 
time or space-distribution, influenced Mr Davidson in com- 
ing to his final arrangement, and therefore I have been the 
more curious to see how far that arrangement accorded with 
geological considerations. 

In the first family, Terebratulidce, the typical genus Tere- 
bratula (of which Terebratulina and Waldheimia are re- 
garded as subgenera), the succession of types is continuous 
from the middle palaeozoic or Devonian epoch to the present 
time ; whilst the other genera are either Upper Mesozoic, 
Tertiary, and recent (as Terebratella and Argiope), ex- 
clusively Upper Mesozoic (as Magas), or exclusively recent 
(as Bouchardia, Kraussia, and Morrisia.) 

String ocephalus follows as the type of a provisional family, 
exclusively Devonian. 

The Thecididce, represented by Thecidium alone, range 
continuously from the Trias to the present time. 

The Spiriferidce concentrate towards the palaeozoic pole. 
In this family Mr Davidson includes Spirifer (with Spiri- 
ferina and Cyrtia as sections), Athyris, Spirigera, Uncites 
and Atrypa. 

Bhynchonella, with Camerophoria and Pentamerus, form 
a family under the name of Rhynchonellidm. The absence 
of perforations in the shell is the rule in this group. The 
typical genus is one of the links between the palaeozoic and 
present epoch, and has its maximum in the Mesozoic. 

The Strophomenido3 } Productidce, and Calceolidce all con- 
centrate in the Palaeozoics ; Leptcena only, in the first named 
family, extending into the lower Jurassic strata. 

Geological Society of London. 113 

In the Craniadce, represented by the single genus Crania, 
we have a type of Brachiopod almost equally present at all 
epochs. The nearly allied group of JDiscinidw, though ex- 
tending to the present, is generically concentrated in the 
Lower Palaeozoics. The same remark may be made re- 
specting the Lingulidm. 

Accepting the genera adopted by Mr Davidson as mutu- 
ally equivalent groups, and regarding their distribution in 
time as determined by him for a vast amount of specific 
materials, enough to induce us to believe that future dis- 
coveries will not materially disturb any inferences drawn 
from the numbers as now presented to us, then we arrive at 
several striking conclusions concerning the entire sub-class. 
Regarding the Present and the Lower Palaeozoic epochs as 
opposite poles of time, we find the generic types among the 
Brachiopoda concentrate as it were around or towards each, 
whilst they depauperate towards the equatorial region of 
the scheme, about which indeed no generic types originate. 
The loop-armed types are regnant, as it were, anteally, the 
spiral-armed types posteally ; and the latter are in the main 
so dominant, that the Brachiopoda, as a great assemblage of 
types, has its major development towards the past, its minor 
towards the present, and its zero in the parting epoch be- 
tween the palaeozoic and after-ages. 

One of the distinctive features of our science during the 
year just past, is the monograph of Nummulites by Vicomte 
d'Archiac, constituting a portion of the " Description des 
Animaux Fossiles du Groupe Nummulitique de ITnde." 

The high geological value to which the Nummulites and 
their order, the Rhizopoda, have speedily attained during the 
last fifteen years, contrasts curiously with the degradation 
they have as rapidly undergone during the same period in 
zoological position. Before 1835, they were generally re- 
garded as Cephalopoda, and naturalists of repute were not 
wanting who went so far as to describe even the parts of the 
minute cephalopod that constructed the foraminiferous shell. 
That they were not Mollusca was scarcely suspected, though 
half a century before their lower nature had been, on slender 
grounds however, often maintained. The assumption of their 


114 Anniversary Address to the 

elevated zoological position led to many an argument against 
support of the theory of the prevalence of a warm climate 
during the ante-tertiary epochs, from the fact of the abun- 
dance of chambered cephalopods in the ancient sea-beds of 
now cold or temperate latitudes. The abundance of minute 
chambered Cephalopoda in the North Atlantic at the present 
time, and their almost universal distribution, were confidently 
appealed to as conclusive against the inference. Their num- 
ber in the later formations, when the genera of Ammonitoida 
and Nautiloida had become scarce or disappeared for ever, 
was interpreted only as a continuance of the same class under 
new and minuter forms. Analogy was mistaken for affinity ; 
and substitution of one group for one totally and organically 
different although in the mere form of test not dissimilar, 
was mistaken for succession and representation within the 
sphere of one type. But the discovery of Dujardin led the way 
to an entirely new interpretation of the value of the Rhizopoda, 
and a new view of the part they play in time. Proving, from 
good evidence, to be among the lowest of animal forms, to 
be in fact Protozoa like Amoeba, but differing from both Pro- 
teus and the animal element of the sponge by their invest- 
ment with a hard and symmetrically arranged (generally in 
spiral symmetry) exo-skeleton, it is most interesting to note 
that their advent and maximum development have been, not 
during the apparent dawn of life, but amid the later epochs, 
and chiefly during those ages which many palaeontologists 
regard as especially characterized by the highest forms of 
the animal kingdom. Indeed, so far as we know at present, 
the whole great group of Protozoa — the group that stands 
as it were at the very base, and constitutes the rudiments of 
the animal series — is as characteristic of the tertiary sec- 
tion of time as the Vertebrata themselves are. A compar- 
able phenomenon is becoming rapidly manifest in the mol- 
luscan subkingdom, now vastly increased by the accession of 
the Polyzoa to its ranks. These curious, lowly-organized, 
zoophytoid mollusca, instead of being the first of their type 
to appear, were preceded by members of all the higher orders 
of it, and do not become of much chronological value until 
the testaceous forms of the highest class of Mollusks occur, 

Geological Society of London. 115 

few and far between, and lose their strength and their im- 

The exquisite symmetry and regularity of conformation of 
the shells of most recent and fossil Rhizopoda were the chief 
sources of the errors that prevailed so long about their nature 
and zoological position. The true explanation of their struc- 
ture appears to me to be that given in detail by our fellow- 
member Dr Carpenter, to the effect that the entire mass, how- 
ever symmetrical or regular, represents the products by suc- 
cessive gemmation originating from a single ovum. It mat- 
ters little whether we regard each "joint" or cell of a Num- 
mulite as representing an individual or a zooid, provided we 
regard it as an element of the same essential nature with each 
polype of a polypidom, each cell-animal of a polyzoon, or in- 
dividual of a Botryllus. The value of the regularity of the 
whole is not invalidated, because that whole is a compound and 
not a unity, and our faith in the specific value of the fossil, and 
its consequent geological importance, may be as strongly based 
on the constancy of characters whose diagnosis is drawn from 
the features presented by a congeries of individuals as from 
those presented by a single being. I make this remark, because 
the only serious objection that I can take of the views of M. 
d'Archiac touching the nature of the Nummulite concerns this 
fundamental point. When he states as an argument against 
its compound nature, that, if each of the cells were the proper 
envelope of a particular individual, we ought to find a greater 
irregularity in their development in the same shell, and asks 
why, if this theory were true, should the heights of different 
coils of the same spiral present constant relations, and why 
the first and last cells should be less large than those of the 
median whorls, — we cannot accept the objections, for a crowd 
of comparable phenomena presented by the sertularian zoo- 
phytes, animals having considerable affinity with the Polyzoa, 
although of higher organization, come to our recollection. 
The variations of the Hydroida, their morphology and repro- 
duction, bear too close a relation to the phenomena exhibi- 
ted by the rhizopodous organism, to permit us to regard the 
Nummulite and its allies as simple bodies, or to dispute the 
theory of their gemmigerous constitution ; in other words 

H 2 

110 Anniversary Address to the 

the regulation of their organization by the law of para- 

The stratigraphieal distribution of the Nummulites is espe- 
cially of interest to the geologist. As compared with the 
grand scale of epochs, their reign was short, but it was well- 
marked and compact, and offers but one more proof to the 
thousands now known towards the demonstration of the 
unity of time-areas of natural genera — facts that should make 
us strongly hesitate before admitting the value of apparent 
and daily-decreasing exceptions, and that should give us fresh 
hope of the future attainment of a knowledge of the grand 
laws regulating life in its relations to time, and fresh faith 
in the biological section of the foundations of geology. The 
Nummulites characterize a portion, not the whole, of the 
tertiary epoch. Though once, and not many years ago, 
Nummulites were regarded to be as probably indicative of 
the cretaceous date of a formation as of its tertiary place, 
it would now appear that, between the nummulitic tertiaries 
and true cretaceous strata, deposits intervene, whose fauna 
and flora are such that we must regard them as of tertiary 
age. A most interesting and important feature of these de- 
posits, traceable in the north-west of Europe, the south of 
France, in Savoy, in Switzerland, along the southern slopes 
of the Alps, in Istria, and even in India, is, that in numerous 
localities they exhibit evidences of a terrestrial origin, marked 
by the presence of coal, often accompanied by lacustrine 
shells, and sometimes by fresh-water limestones. In facts of 
this kind we may get at the true explanation of the break be- 
tween the cretaceous and tertiary faunas, without having re- 
course to prodigious cataclysms or paroxysmal elevations of 
mountain chains, which, if they did occur, as might have 
been the case, could have made far less impression on the 
distribution of animal and vegetable life, except in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the convulsion, than slow and almost im- 
perceptible changes affecting gradually the disposition of the 
geography of a wide-spread area. 

" The dial moves, and yet it is not seen," paradoxically 
writes an old poet. Time cannot progress without change, 
however slow may seem his course. The true measure of the 
extent and importance of a convulsion (as well as of the im- 

Geological Society of London. 117 

portance of unconformity), should be the amount of organic 
change that we can trace to a connexion with the paroxysm. 
And yet what system of paroxysmal elevations has stood the 
trying test, when questioned on this principle 1 

It is of the Middle Eocene epoch — that section of the lower 
tertiaries of which the calcaire-grossier of the Paris basin 
may be cited as a central type and key-stone — that the Num- 
mulites are especially, and apparently exclusively, character- 
istic. The supposed carboniferous and oolitic Nummulites 
are of too doubtful a nature to be taken as exceptions. 
There is, it is true, a Nummulite (N. intermedia) found in the 
Miocene beds of Piedmont, and another (N. garansensis) in 
the Lower Miocenes of the Pyrenees. But I am not inclined 
to conclude with M. d'Archiac that these rare exceptions 
prove the existence of the last representatives of the genus 
after the Lower Tertiary fauna had disappeared, but rather 
to cite them in favour of the view that I have attempted to 
demonstrate, I trust successfully, when describing during the 
past year the Lower Tertiaries of the Hampshire Basin, — 
to the effect that the so-called Lower Miocenes are essenti- 
ally Lower Tertiaries and a portion of the true Eocene series, 
and that the passage from them into the Middle Eocene is 
perfect and gradual, when we have for our examination an 
area presenting a full sequence of deposits. 

Nevertheless, it is not the less true that the nummulitic 
horizon is distinctly and definitely marked, and, from the 
frontiers of China and Thibet, even to the shores of the At- 
lantic, occupies a fixed position in the geological scale, a 
place above and succeeding the horizon of the lower tertiary 
lignites. The full demonstration of this great fact is a pre- 
cious gain to our science ; and when we consider what a vast 
area the nummulitic rocks occupy, what mighty mountains 
are made up of them, the prodigious accumulation of indivi- 
duals of the fossils from which they receive their appellation, 
and the readiness with which their age can thereby be deter- 
mined, we cannot but admit that the elucidation of their his- 
tory has been a boon of no small value to comparative 
geology. This great tertiary formation extends across 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, forming a zone of 98" of longitude, 

1 18 Anniversary Address to the 

comprised from south to north between the 16th and 55th 
degrees of latitude, and through much of its course exhibit- 
ing a breadth of 1800 miles. In the Himalaya, nummulitic 
roel<s attain an elevation of more than 14,000 feet. 

It will ever be a matter of just pride to our Society, that 
within our meeting-room and in our proceedings the main task 
was effected of clearing up the mist that clouded so long the 
geological history of the great nummulitic formation, and 
that here it is our indefatigable colleague, Sir Roderick Mur- 
chison, effected this great advance in tertiary geology. And 
now that the palaeontology of the Nummulites has been made 
as clear as noon-day by the genius and labour of M. d'Archiac, 
it will ever be a matter of congratulation to us that the cabi- 
nets of our Society and the collections of its Members were 
freely and heartily placed at his disposal, and have proved of 
some value towards enabling him to perfect his researches. 

The information now given, as far as I am aware, is 
new to geological language, and involves an idea which, al- 
though hypothetical, I wish to put forth upon this occasion. 
I am strongly impressed with the belief, that, fanciful though 
it may seem, there is within it the germ of a great geological 
truth. I have spoken of genera concentrating towards the 
palaeozoic pole, and vice versa, of the substitution of groups, 
and the opposition of the more ancient to the mesozoic and 
modern faunas. The phrases have been incidental, and arose 
naturally out of the subjects under commentary, but the idea 
that lies at the base of them, whether true or fallacious, re- 
quires to be stated, and there cannot be a better opportunity 
than the present for venturing to start this fresh geological 

Every geologist whose studies have been equally or nearly 
equally directed to the organic phenomena of the three great 
sections of time usually received, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and 
Tertiary or Cainozoic, cannot fail to have been struck with 
the greater value of the difference between the first or oldest 
section and the two newer divisions taken together, than be- 
tween the first and middle terms and between the latter and 
the last. 'I 1 he degree of organic difference between the upper 
mesozoic and the lower tertiary epochs is rather more, but 

Geological Society of London. 119 

only slightly more, than the degree of difference between the 
lower and upper sections of the great mesozoic period. But 
the gap between palaeozoic and mesozoic, although the link 
be not altogether broken, is vastly greater than any other of 
the many gaps in the known series of formations. I am one 
of those who hold, a priori, that all gaps are local, and that 
there is a probability at some future time of our discovering 
gradually somewhere on the earth's crust evidences of the 
missing links. All our experience and knowledge, theoretical 
and practical, warrant the affirmation that at every known 
stage of geological time there were sea and land. Even those 
who believe in a primeval azoic period will hardly sanction 
the supposition that there has been any repetition of azoic 
epochs since the first life-bearing era commenced. And if so, 
and if there were always sea and land since the commence- 
ment of the first fossiliferous formation, we are warranted 
in assuming that both earth and water had their floras and 
their faunas. All geological experience goes to shew that 
wherever you have a perfect sequence of formations accu- 
mulating in the same medium, air or water as the case may 
be, there is, if not a continuance of the same specific types, 
a graduated succession and interlacement of types and of the 
facies of life-assemblages : even as on the present surface of 
the earth the faunas and floras of proximate provinces inter- 
mingle more or less specifically, or, if physical barriers pre- 
vent the diffusion of species, assume more or less one gene- 
ral facies. This passage, by aspect and type, of one stage in 
time into another is but scantily indicated at present in the up- 
permost manifestations of the palaeozoic life and the lowermost 
of the mesozoic. The missing links will sooner or later re- 
ward the diligence of the geological explorer. 

But, in the general aspect of the palaeozoic world, con- 
trasted with the worlds of life that followed, although all are 
evidently portions of one mighty organic whole, there seems to 
me to be something more than the contrast that depends on 
the loss or non-discovery of connecting links. There is more 
than we can explain by this theory. Granting for its support 
all facts capable of being so applied, there are residual phe- 

120 Anniversary Address to the 

nomena to be accounted for, and which as yet have not been 
referred to any law that I know of. 

For some years I have lived in hope of the discovery of a pale- 
ozoic fauna and flora more in accordance with those of after 
epochs than those we know, and fondly fancied that local 
differences of physical conditions alone might account for the 
discordance. But the fields opened by Murchison, Sedgwick, 
and Phillips, have been so extended, and have yielded such 
rich harvests at the hands of James Hall and his fellow-ex- 
plorers in America, and of Barrande, de Koninck, de Verneuil, 
the Burners and Sandbergers, M'Coy, King, Salter, Boualt, 
and many other able palaeontologists who have worked at pa- 
laeozoic fossils in Europe, that it is becoming evident that we 
have before us a fair and true image of at least the marine 
aspect of the primeval group of faunas. The more they are 
investigated, the wider the ground is explored, the more 
striking is the difference in the main between the life pa- 
laeozoic and the after-life. 

Doubtless a principal element of this difference lies in sub- 
stitution — in the replacement of one group by another, serv- 
ing the same purpose in the world's economy. Paradoxical 
must be the mind of the man, a mind without eyes, who in 
the present state of research would deny the limitation of 
natural groups to greater or less, but in the main continuous, 
areas or sections of geological time. Now, that greater and 
lesser groups — genera, subgenera, families, and orders, as 
the case may be — or, in truer words, genera, of different 
grades of extent — have replaced others of similar value, and 
served the same purpose, or played the same part, is so evi- 
dent to every naturalist acquainted with the geological dis- 
tribution of animals and plants, that to quote instances would 
be waste of words. This replacement is substitution of group 
for group — a phenomenon strikingly conspicuous on a grand 
scale, when we contrast the palaeozoic with the after faunas 
and floras. A single instance of these greater substitutions 
may be cited to assist my argument, viz., the substitution of 
the Lamellibranchiata of later epochs by the Palliobranchiata 
during the earlier. In this, as in numerous other instances, 

Geological Society of London. 121 

it is not a total replacement of one group by another that oc- 
curred ; both groups were represented at all times ; but as the 
one group approached a minimum in the development of spe- 
cific and generic types, the other approached a maximum, 
and vice versa. I think few geologists and naturalists who 
have studied both the palaeozoic and the after — I must 
coin a word — neozoic mollusca will doubt that a large por- 
tion of the earlier Brachiopoda — the Productidae, for example 
— performed the offices and occupied the places of the shal- 
lower water ordinary bivalves of succeeding epochs. 

Now in this substitution, the replacement is not neces- 
sarily that of a lower group in the scale of organization by a 
higher. There is an appearance of such a law in many in- 
stances that has led over and over again to erroneous doc- 
trines about progression and development. The contrary 
may be the case. Now that we have learned the true affini- 
ties that exist between the Bryozoa and the Brachiopoda, we 
can see in these instances the zoological replacement of a 
higher by a lower group, whilst, in the former view, equally 
true, of the replacement of the Brachiopoda by the Lamelli- 
branchiata, a higher group is substituted for a lower one. 
Numerous cases might be cited of both categories. 

But can we not find something more in these replacements 
and interchanges than mere substitution, which is a pheno- 
menon manifested among minor and major groups within 
every extended epoch % Is there no law to be discovered in 
the grand general grouping of the substitutions that charac- 
terize the paleozoic epoch, when contrasted with all after- 
epochs considered as one, the Neozoic ? It seems to me 
that there is, and that the relation between them is one of 
contrast and opposition ; in natural history, language is the 
relation of Polarity. 

The manifestation of this relation in organized nature is 
by contrasting developments in opposite directions. The 
well-known and often-cited instance of the opposition pro- 
gress of the vegetable and animal series, each starting from 
the same point — the point at which the animal and vegetable 
organisms are scarcely if at all distinguishable — may serve 
to illustrate the idea, and make it plain to those to whom the 

122 Anniversary Address to the 

use of the term Polarity in geological science may not be 
familiar. In that case we speak of two groups being in the 
relation of polarity to each other, when the rudimentary 
forms of each are proximate, and their completer manifes- 
tations far apart. This relation is not to be confounded with 
divergence, nor with antagonism. 

If we take the scale of geological formations, representing 
the succession of the leading divisions of time, and note for 
each of the epochs the known generic types present during 
its duration, we shall find there is not an equality of produc- 
tion, so to speak, at all times of fresh generic ideas. Genera 
have appeared, as it were, in batches. I am forced to use 
expressions that seem almost irreverent, and a phraseology 
of a loose and popular kind, in order to convey the more vi- 
vidly my meaning. To talk of the appearance of a genus, 
that is, the appearance of an ideal type, is loose language, I 
am aware, but its meaning or intention can scarcely be misun- 
derstood. In the individuals of a species only can we have 
the embodiment of a generic idea ; but in discussing 
a question of the kind I am considering, it is conve- 
nient to use the word genus as if it were a realized unit 
and an entity. We speak, as it were, through a diagram. 
Now if commencing, upon our scale, at the dawn of the pa- 
laeozoic epoch, and noting the beginning of genera or groups 
from the first known fauna up to the advent of man at the 
termination of the so-called tertiary epoch, we cannot fail to 
perceive the following general facts : — 

1. During the earlier and middle stages of the palaeozoic 
epoch, there was a great development of generic ideas. 

2. During the middle and later stages of the neozoic epoch 
there was a great development of generic ideas. 

3. During the terminating stages of the palaeozoic epoch, 
the origination of generic ideas was very scantily mani- 

4. During the commencing stages of the neozoic epoch, 
the origination of generic ideas was very scantily mani- 

5. The majority of generic ideas that originated during 
the palaeozoic epoch belong to groups (of various degrees of 

Geological Society of London. 123 

generic intensity) which are characteristically palaeozoic, i. e., 
have their maximum development and variety during the pa- 
leozoic epoch, or else are even exclusively palaeozoic. 

6. The majority of generic ideas that originated during 
the neozoic epoch, belong to groups which are characteristi- 
cally neozoic in the same manner. 

7. The minimum development of generic ideas in time is 
at or about the passage or point of junction of the palaeozoic 
and neozoic epochs. 

8. Groups characteristically palaeozoic swell out, as it were, 
in a direction towards, not from, the commencement of the 
palaeozoic epoch. 

9. Groups characteristically neozoic swell out in a direc- 
tion from the commencement of the neozoic epoch. 

That there are apparent exceptions to these general facts 
I do not pretend to deny ; but the rules are so much more 
powerful than the exceptions, that we may safely wait with 
confidence for the explanation of the seeming anomalies dur- 
ing the course of the progress of research. 

Now there is but one conclusion that can be drawn from 
these facts, if after being tested with every evidence now 
known to us, they remain intact as our science progresses. 
This conclusion is to the effect, that the relation between the 
palaeozoic and neozoic life-assemblages is one of development 
in opposite directions, in other words of Polarity. In the 
demonstration of this relation, it seems to me that we shall, 
in all probability, discover the secret of the difference be- 
tween the life anterior to the Trias and the life afterwards. 
The notion is in some degree a metaphysical one, but not the 
less capable of support through induction from the facts. I 
plead for its consideration, believing it to be worthy of ear- 
nest inquiry. I know that its novelty and seeming vague- 
ness may repel many when it is thus briefly, and as if in out- 
line, put forth. But before any geologist or naturalist rejects 
it, I would ask him to study carefully the admirable mono- 
graphs, written without a bias, of whose merits I have been 
discoursing in this Address ; to seek out the manifestation of 
the idea, in the first instance, in some important and charac- 
teristic group of beings about whose time-distribution we 

124 On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, 

have now a sufficient knowledge — such an assemblage as the 
Trilobites described to us in the work of Barrande, or the 
Brachiopoda as exhibited in the monograph by Davidson ; to 
take and analyse the ample lists of extinct beings marshalled 
in the pages of Morris, or in the more general muster-rolls of 
Bronn and Alcide d'Orbigny ; and then, having done this, to 
consider earnestly and fairly the idea that I have ventured to 
suggest of the manifestation of Polarity in Time. 

On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, and the 
Products of its Transmutation. 

The minerals included under this name have recently been 
made the subject of an investigation, conducted in Rammels- 
berg's laboratory, by Gerhardt von Rath.* His object was to 
remove, as far as possible, the uncertainty which obtained 
with regard to the normal chemical composition of these 
minerals, and likewise to ascertain in what manner that 
composition is altered. 

For the solution of the former question minerals were 
selected for analysis whose physical characters bore testi- 
mony to the conservation of their original nature. Decisive 
indications as to the latter question could only be obtained 
by the analysis of Wernerite which had evidently suffered 
transmutation. Those products of this process which dif- 
fered most in chemical composition from the original mineral 
appeared best suited for this purpose, because analysis of 
them would make the nature of the change more clearly 
evident, and the possibility of its being concealed by the 
errors of analysis or the uncertainty as to the normal com- 
position would be much lessened. For this reason definite 
individual mineral substances — mica, epidote — were selected 
for analysis, as well as substances which have neither a defi- 
nite composition nor a distinctive form. All the substances 
analysed for this purpose presented the most unquestionable 

* Annulni dear Physik and Chemie. 1853. September and October. 

and the Products of its Transmutation. 125 

evidence that they were products of the transmutation of 
Wernerite — the crystal form of that mineral. 

Since only a few of the minerals examined were decom- 
posed by hydrochloric acid, and as the estimation of both 
alkalies and silica was necessary, each analysis was double ; 
the one by fusion with carbonate of soda, giving the per- 
centage of silica, alumina with peroxide of iron, lime, and 
magnesia ; the other by hydrofluoric acid, giving the per- 
centage of potash and soda, together with that of alumina, 
peroxide of iron, lime, and magnesia. The results of the 
analysis by the former method are marked I., and of those 
by the latter II. ; the mean results are marked III. 

I. Meionite (Ca 0) 8 Si 3 + 2 (Al 2 3 Si 3 ). 

The analysis of this mineral was undertaken first, because 
in the examination of Wernerite it appears to be the most 
appropriate starting point. Its physical characters admit of 
a positive inference that it is an unaltered mineral. 

The crystals analysed occur, accompanied by green augite, 
and more rarely anorthite, in druses of granular limestone 
at Monte Somma. Their separation from anorthite is very 
tedious, and the discrepancies between the previous analysis 
of meionite are very probably owing to an admixture of that 
mineral. The density was 2*734 and 2-757. Hydrochloric 
acid decomposed the powdered mineral completely, but con- 
trary to previous observations, the silica separated as a 
powder, not in a gelatinous state. Analysis gave : — 

Oxygen Ratio. 





Peroxide of 











Volatilizable substai 


01 9 

14-44 1 
6-09 j 
0-33 { 
0-16 ( 
0-32 j 

22-11 300 

14-56 1-98 

6-90 0-94 


This analysis gives an oxygen ratio which approximates 
so closely to 1 : 2 : 3, the one corresponding to the above 

126 On the Chemical Composition of Wemerite, 

formula, that, together with the results of Stromeyer and 
Wolff, there can no longer be any doubt as to the composi- 
tion of meionite. 

Epidote has likewise an oxygen ratio = 1:2:3; conse- 
quently it and meionite are heteromorphous substances, a 
circumstance which will require notice subsequently in 
speaking of the occurrence of epidote pseudomorphous of 

II. Scapolite (Ro) 3 , 2 Si 3 + 2 (R 2 3 Si 8 ). 
Oxygen ratio in Ro, R 2 3 , Si 3 = 1:2:4. 

1. Blue Scapolite from Malsjo (Wermeland). — Density 
2763. Occurs together with blackish green mica and green 
salite. Hydrochloric acid effects only a partial decomposi- 
tion of this as well as all other scapolites. Analysis gave : — 











Peroxide of iron, 













. . . 







1 : 75 



ie quantities of oxygen are : — 














1 6-71 



Soda, . 



2. White Scapolite from Malsjo. — Density 2-658 ; occurs 
accompanied by salite and green hornblende in granular lime- 

The high per-centage of water, as well as the presence of 
carbonate of lime, imperceptible by the naked eye, are pro- 
bably indicative of incipient decomposition. Analysis gave : — 

and the Products of its Transmutation. 












Lime, . 















Water, . 

. 2-47 



Carbonate of Lime, 

. 1-35 



The quantities of oxygen are : — 








- Lime, . 

. 3.55 1 


. 0-26 



Soda, . 

1-49 . 

3. Glaucolite from Lake Baikal. — Dark bluish-white. 
Density 2*666 ; but slightly decomposed by hydrochloric acid. 
It could not be determined whether the carbonate of lime was 
a product of alteration, or a primitive admixture. Analysis 
gave : — 




Silica, . 



Alumina, 1 
Peroxide of Iron, J 






Lime, . 












4 57 


Water, . 




Carbonate of Lime, 





The quantities of oxygen are : — 




Peroxide of Iron, 

0-44 \ 
12-49 f 






0-18 1 
0-09 ( 




1-17 J 

128 On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, 

4. Compact Scapolite from Arendal. — Pale yellowish 
green. Density 2-751. Gave off a bituminous smell when 
heated. Analysis gave : — 


Alumina, 1 

Peroxide of Iron, J 
Lime, . 
Potash, . 
Soda, . 
Volatile substance, 






The quantities of oxygen are :- 

Silica, . 


Peroxide of Iron. 

Lime, . 



Soda, . 

. 11-83) 
0-61 J 

4-92 '' 

. 0-12 


1-65 J 












1 55 






5. Nuttalite,from Boston, Massachusetts. — Grayish-black 
crystals. Density 2*748. Analysis gave : — 


II. a. 

n. b. 


Silica, . 

. 45-57 








Peroxide of Iron 



3 38 

Lime, . 






1 31 







Soda, . 









The analyses I. and II. a. refer to exactly the same material, 
II. b. to very carefully selected fragments. 
The quantities of oxygen are : — 

Silica, . . . 23-75 

Alumina, . . ll - 05 

Peroxide of lion, . 101 



and the Products of its Transmutation. 


Lime, . 

-. 5-92 





Soda, . 




This mineral agreed perfectly in all its physical characters 
with that mentioned by Brooke and analysed by Thomson, 
who found that it contained protoxide of iron, and, unlike the 
generality of scapolite, no soda. 

6. Nuttalite from Bolton. — Physical character like the 
former. Density 2 -78 8. When heated they gave out the 
same bituminous smell as the Arendal scapolite. Analysis 
gave : — 




Silica, . 

. 44-40 


Alumina, 1 
Peroxide of Iron, J 














Potash, . 




Soda, . 



Water, . 

. 1-24 




The quantities of oxygen are : — 

Silica, . 



Peroxide of Iron, 

. 1.11 j 



Lime, . 

5-74 ' 






0-53 , 

7. Prismatic Scapolite from Arendal. — Occurs in the 
magnetite beds of Arendal, together with the compact sca- 
polite (4), and imbedded in limestone. Colour greenish- 
yellow. Density, 3*697. Analysis gave — 







Alumina, . 1 
Peroxide of iron, J 










. LVII. NO. CXIII. — * 

ruLY 185- 



130 On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, 

Magnesia, . . 0'24 



Volatile substances, 0*33 

The quantities of oxygen are — 




12-21 1 

Peroxide of iron, 

0-42 j 














Volatile substances, 1'76, 

6-92 1-13 

The composition of this mineral is therefore identical with 
that of the compact variety (4) from the same place. 

For the purpose of a general comparison of the composi- 
tion of the above varieties of scapolite, the author has tabu- 
lated the oxygen ratios obtained from the analytical results, 
together with the deviations from that corresponding to the 
formula RO, R 2 3 , Si 3 and the densities : — 

Differences. Densities. 

Si0 3 

* 2 o 3 

R O R 2 3 R O 

Blue scapolite 1 , 

(Malsjo), J 
White do. do. 4 

: 1-84 : 
: 1-86 : 

0-93 - 0-16 - 0-07 
1-09 - 0-14 + 0-09 


Glaucolite (Baikal), 4 

: 2-16 

048 + 0*16 - 0-02 


Compact scapolite 1 . 

(Arendal), J 
Prismatic scapolite, 4 

: 212 
: 2-07 

1-19 + 0-12 + 0-19 
1-13 + 007 + 0-13 


Nuttalite, . 4 

: 2-03 

. 1-20 + 0-03 + 0-20 



: 2-27 

: 1-17 + 0-26 + 0-17 


It is hence evident, that the oxygen ratios corresponding 
to the composition of varieties of scapolite, differ as much 
from that of the formula (R 0) 3 , 2 Si 3 + 2 R 2 3 , viz., — 
1 : 2 : 4, as Rammelsberg found it to be the case in the va- 
rieties of ekebergite. The differences have mostly a posi- 
tive value ; the proportion of bases is somewhat greater than 
that corresponding to the formula. Rammelsberg found this 
to be the case with regard to the bases R 2 3 , while the pro- 

and the Products of its Transmutation. 


portion of bases RO was observed to be less than that cor- 
responding to the formula. 

The deviations from the formula, whether positive or ne- 
gative in their value, which are indicated by these analyses 
as well as by those of Rammelsberg, are, however, by no 
means so great as to admit of a doubt that the true oxygen 
ratio of scapolite is 1 : 2 : 4 ; and in a subsequent part of the 
memoir, alterative processes are pointed out which tend to 
increase the percentage of silica, as well as others, wholly 
different, which increase the percentage of bases. 

III. Abnormal Wernerite, 
3 (R O, Si 3 ) + 2 R 2 3 , Si 3 . 

The author gives analyses of two varieties of Wernerite, 
whose composition does not appear to correspond with either 
of the formulae proposed by Rammelsberg. 

1. Wernerite from Gouvernour, New York. — Occurs in 
fine crystals, imbedded in calcite ; colourless, and more or 
less transparent. Density 2*633. Analysis gave — 








Alumina, . 




Peroxide of iron, 








Magnesia, . 








. . . 



Volatile substances, 





The quantities of oxygen 

are — 


. . . 



Alumina, . 



Peroxide of iron, 





2-80 -i 

Magnesia, . 








So far as it is possible to judge from the exterior appear- 
ance and physical character, this mineral was in a perfectly 
unaltered state. This opinion is likewise confirmed through 

I 2 

132 On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, 

the analysis, by the absence of peroxide of iron which is 
always introduced during alteration, and by the high percen- 
tage of soda, which, so far as the author's analyses extend, 
is never met with in decomposed Wernerite. He considers 
the oxygen ratio for this mineral to be 1 : 2 : 5. If further 
analyses of minerals from this locality should confirm the 
formula assigned to this variety of Wernerite, it must be re- 
garded as a distinct species, which would be characterized 
by — 1. the simple oxygen ratio ; 2. the high percentage of 
silica ; 3. the small percentage of alumina ; 4. the compa- 
ratively small percentage of lime and high percentage of 
alkalies, amounting on the whole to 10-5. 

2. Wernerite from Pargas (Finland.) — Occurs together 
with black and green augite, and small granules of apatite, 
imbedded in calcite. Colour greenish. Density 2654. The 
powder is completely decomposed by hydrochloric acid. 
Analysis gave : — 









Peroxide of iron, 




4-90 \ 

Potash, . 


... [ 





9-58 I 

Water, . 



This Wernerite has been analysed by Nordenskiold, who 
found the oxygen ratio for RO : R 2 3 : Si O 3 = 0-95 : 29 : 4, 
and by Wolff, who found it = 0-9 : 26 : 4. 

Wolff's analysis and that of the author present a tolerable 
agreement, particularly in the oxygen ratios, according to 
which the Wernerite of Pargas must be regarded as a distinct 
species, having the formula — 

3 (RO) a Si 3 + 5 Q 2 3 Si G 3 . 


Under this head are considered substances which possess 
the crystal form of Wernerite, but an essentially distinct 
chemical composition. 

and the Products of its Transmutati 



1. — Pseudomorphous Mica after Wernerite. 
At Arendal large Wernerite crystals occur in quartz. Their 
surface is entirely covered with scales of mica, and the sub- 
stance of the crystals consists, moreover, entirely of the same 
mica, intermixed with quartz, small crystals of pinguite, and 
sometimes a soft green substance, which appears to be inter- 
mediate between Wernerite and mica. The mica is greenish 
white and transparent. Its density is 2-833. Analysis gave : 




Silica, . 




■ } 




Peroxide of 




Lime, . 






















Carbonate o 

? Lime, 




ie quantities of ox 


are, — 

Silica, . 




Peroxide of 

iron, . 


1 1229 


Lime, . 


0.61 > 




. 2-17 







The analysis of this pseudomorphous mica shews that it 
differs from other potash mica, especially in the large pro- 
portion of bases RO to those R 2 3 ; and in the large pro- 
portion of silica to the two classes of bases. The formula 
expressing its composition is : — 

KO, SiO, + 2 ALO, Si(X 

A1 2 3 

SiO Q = l : 6 

And the oxygen ratio for KO 

Comparing the composition of this mineral with that of 
scapolite, it will be seen that the proportion between the 
silica and the weaker bases is much the same ; while the 
proportion between it and the mono-atomic bases is widely 
different. Their total quantity of oxygen is little more than 

134 On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, 

a third of what it is in scapolite ; the quantity of magnesia 
is very small ; that of soda less even than in meionite, while 
the quantity of potash is as great as in the generality of 
mica. In order to form an idea of the mode in which this 
mica has been produced, it is assumed that the original 
mineral in this instance was scapolite, whose composition 
agreed with the formula — 

(Na + 2 Ca 0) 2 Si 3 -f 2 (Al 2 O 30 Si 8 ). 
which represents the composition of the Arendal Wernerite, 
and indeed almost all those from Scandinavia and America, 
which have been examined. Since the perfect Wernerites do 
not contain any, or at the most only a trace, of peroxide of 
iron, while the altered Wernerite always contains a more or 
less considerable quantity, it is allowable to infer that alumina 
is the only weaker base in the normal composition. By 
comparing this assumed original composition (I.) with that of 
the pseudomorphous mica, (II.) expressed centesimally with- 
out reference to the water, or carbonate of lime, — 








, 2 


Peroxide of iron, . 



. 2 





. 1 


• . • < 




100-0 100-00 

there appears a striking similarity between the proportions of 
silica and alumina in the two cases. Instead, however, of 
the soda in the original mineral, the mica contains almost 
exactly the same quantity of potash, besides a small quantity 
of soda. The original mineral would lose 12-48 per cent, of 
its mass, and receive in its place 5*72 peroxide of iron, 0*43 
magnesia, 13 soda, making together only 7*45 per cent.; and 
as the mica is denser than the generality of scapolite, the 
change would be attended with diminution of volume. 

Assuming, then, that in the production of this mica the re- 
lative proportion of silica and alumina suffered no alteration, 
the essential features of the change would be limited to — 

and the Products of its Transmutation. 135 

1. The abstraction of lime, 

2. The introduction of peroxide of iron, and 

3. The substitution of potash for soda. 

We are ignorant of any other mode in which this trans- 
mutation could be effected than by the agency of the surface 
water, which is continually penetrating through the earth's 
strata, and which always contains more or less of the sub- 
stances which come into play in this case, — lime, oxide of 
iron, potash, and soda. 

So far as classification is at all applicable to natural phe- 
nomena, there appears to be no doubt that the transmutations 
which take place in the above manner in inorganic nature, 
must be separated into such as result from the solvent action 
of water alone, and such as are in a great degree owing to the 
carbonic acid which it holds in solution. The decomposition 
of felspar and other alkaline silicates is an example of the 
former class. The decomposition of calcareous silicates, re- 
quiring the conjoint agency of carbonic acid, is an example 
of the latter class. There is every reason to believe that, 
when water containing carbonic acid, even in so small pro- 
portion as meteoric water, comes into contact with calcareous 
silicates, they are decomposed the more readily the greater 
their percentage of lime. Now, as scapolite contains both 
lime and alkali, it might be inferred that both these decom- 
positions would take place together, but it seems that the 
process is more complicated. 

One of the substances most frequently present in the water 
of springs is protocarbonate of iron. The gas dissolved in 
such water almost always contains nitrogen in larger propor- 
tion than the atmosphere ; oxygen in much smaller propor- 
tion, although, according to the solubility of these gases, a 
contrary relation would obtain. This appears to indicate an 
abstraction of oxygen from the dissolved gas, and a conse- 
quent peroxidation. of the iron, which would account for the 
introduction of peroxide of iron into the scapolite. The car- 
bonic acid, liberated at the same time, would attack the lime 
and remove it in the state of bicarbonate. 

The substitution of potash for soda is far more difficult to 
account for. Supposing a mineral, containing silicate of 

136 On the Chemical Composition of Werneritc, 

soda, to be continuously exposed to the influence of a liquid 
containing carbonate of potash, some probability attaches to 
the assumption that, by a mutual decomposition, soda would 
pass into solution as carbonate, while potash would enter 
into the composition of the mineral as silicate. 

There are a number of other phenomena of pseudomor- 
phism which indicate a substitution of potash for soda. For 
instance, pseudomorphous mica in the form of nephelin. The 
latter mineral contains 15 or 16 per cent, of soda, and only 
5 or 6 per cent, of potash ; so that, under the circumstances 
assumed for the transmutation of Wernerite, soda must be 
abstracted, and potash introduced, for there is seldom less 
than 8 per cent, of potash in mica. Unfortunately, however, 
the mica, in the form of nephelin, has never been analysed. 

The above-mentioned pseudomorphous mica occurs in beds 
of magnetite, associated with gneiss, at Arendal. If we sup- 
pose that meteoric water, penetrating through the gneiss and 
magnetite beds, takes up, by means of its carbonic acid, both 
alkalies and protoxide of iron, the potash preponderating 
as much over the soda in the solution as it does in the gneiss, 
the conditions favourable for the conversion of scapolite into 
mica by the process described would exist. 

It appears, however, that all investigation of these and 
analogous phenomena must be limited to ascertaining pro- 
cesses by which it is possible that the observed changes may 
have been effected. 

2. Yellow Scapolite, from Bolton, Massachusetts. 

The physical character of this mineral afforded unmistake- 
able indications of alteration. Density, 2787 ; colour, pale 
yellow. Carbonate of lime was not visible to the eye. Ana- 
lysis gave — 





. 49-99 


Peroxide of iron, 

] 24-25 



Lime, . 







1 73 




and the Products of its Transmutation. 137 




Water, . . . 4-23 



Carbonate of lime, . 7*80 




The quantities of oxygen being — 




Alumina, . . 1075 1 
Peroxide of iron, . 44 J 



Lime, . . . 95 \ 

Magnesia, . . 69 I 



Potash, . . . 1.26 j 

Soda, . . . 009 J 

Water, . . 3- 76 


This scapolite differs, like the mica, from the other mi- 
nerals in the oxygen ratio of Si 3 and RO. The quantity 
of the mono-atomic bases is. as in the mica, less than that 
corresponding to the formula (RO) 3 2 Si 3 + 2 (R 2 3 Si 3 ). 
Moreover, the quantity of the bases R,0 3 is less, that of water, 
greater than in the other minerals, Apart from the physical 
characters, the advanced alteration of this mineral is indicated 
by the high percentage of silica, the small percentage of 
lime, and the large quantity of water it contains. There is 
indeed a remarkable similarity between its composition and 
that of the mica. 

Comparing as before its percentage composition I. with 
that assumed to represent the original scapolite II. — 



Silica, . 






Peroxide of iron, 


Lime, . 










100-000 100000 

it appears that while scapolite generally contains three or 
four times as much soda as potash, this altered mineral con- 
tains twenty times as much potash as soda ; magnesia is pre- 
sent in nearly double the quantity that is found in unaltered, 
scapolite. It appears, likewise, that alumina has been re- 

138 On the Chemical Composition of Wemerite, 

moved, for the percentage is lower than any of the other 
minerals, the oxygen ratio of Si 3 : R 2 3 being 4 : 1*73 ; 
but it is difficult to perceive in what manner this has taken 
place. There is likewise a remarkable deficiency of peroxide 
of iron, compared with other altered scapolites. 

The fact that this mineral has so closely the composition 
of mica, and yet is not, like the last mentioned, converted into 
it, is very curious. 

3. Red Scapolite from Arendal. 

Density 2852. Evidently much altered. Occurs together 
with black hornblende in the magnetite beds of Arendal. 
Analysis gave : — 











Peroxide of iron, . 







Magnesia, . 

















The quantities of oxygen 

being — 




Peroxide of iron, . 

7-57 1 




0-61 \ 

Magnesia, . 





0-75 f 


110 J 

This mineral is distinguished by a 

maximum of silica and 

a percentage of lime less even than in mica. It is remark- 
able that magnesia, potash, and soda, are present in the same 
proportion. The smaller proportion of bases R 2 3 , and the 
preponderance of potash over soda, is likewise evident. 

The substitution of potash for soda appears, therefore, as 
the characteristic feature of this transmutation. Out of forty 
specimens of Wernerite, to all appearance unaltered, analysis 
shewed that in thirty-eight the quantity of potash was very 
small in proportion to the soda, while in five out of seven 

and the Products of its Transmutation. 


specimens of decomposed Wernerite, potash was found to pre- 
dominate over the soda. 

The composition of the red Wernerite is further remarkable 
from the presence of a larger quantity of magnesia than has 
yet been met with in these minerals. This earth undoubtedly 
plays a very important part in the transmutation of minerals, 
as is sufficiently evidenced by the great varieties of pseudo- 
morphous steatite, talc, and chlorite, together with the fact 
that bicarbonate of magnesia and silicate of lime undergo a 
mutual interchange of constituents. Rose found that a 
number of altered augites (salite) always shewed an increase 
in the proportions of silica and magnesia, together with a de- 
crease of lime. 

Black Scapolite from Arendal. 
The crystals were very soft and without any trace of 
cleavage. Density, 2*837. Analysis gave — 












Peroxide of iron, 








Magnesia, . 





: — 







Water and bitume 

n, 10-89 



Carbonate of lime, 




The quantities of 0x3 

'gen being — 




Peroxide of iron, 





2-56 \ 

Magnesia, . 

3-42 I 









In the composition of this mineral the proportion between 
the bases RO and R 2 2 , is not essentially different from that 
found in the unaltered mineral ; the percentage of silica is, 
however, very much lower than in any other instance, so that 

1-JO Oil the Chemical Composition of IVernerite, 

the change would appear to have been effected in a manner 
different from that above described. 

The proportion of alumina to silica is nearly 1 : 2, while in 
unaltered scapolite the quantity of silica is always rather 
less than double that of alumina. If, then, we assume that the 
absolute quantity of alumina has not been altered, the in- 
crease of silica may be regarded as the consequence of the 
introduction of silicate of magnesia. As regards the bases, 
the difference between the composition of this mineral and 
that of unaltered scapolite consists in the large proportion 
of peroxide of iron and magnesia, with the small proportion 
of alkalies. The introduction of so large a quantity of per- 
oxide of iron would necessarily reduce the relative propor- 
tion of silica and alumina. The composition of this mineral 
therefore indicates : — 

An absolute increase in the 

qualities of . . Si0 3 , F 2 3 , Mg 

An absolute diminution of Ca O, (KO), Na 0. 

A relative increase of . F 2 3 , Mg 

A relative diminution of Si 3 , A1 2 3 , KO, Na Ca 0. 

The nature of this change would appear to indicate cir- 
cumstances altogether different from those before assumed, 
and it serves to shew that the explanation of pseudomor- 
phic phenomena would require a much more intimate know- 
ledge of the locality in which the minerals occur than is 
often attainable. 

Epidote in the form of Wernerite (from Arendal). 
The substance of the crystals presented all the physical 
characters of pistacite. Density 3223. Analysis gave — 













Peroxide of iron, 
















— . 








6-70 1-00 

and the Products of its Transmutation. 141 

. The quantities of oxygen were — 

Silica, . . — 20-06 3 

Alumina, . . 8-98) - „ ft . 0f Q 

-o -j c • a on \ loo4 2*Ud 

Peroxide or iron, 4*86 J 

Lime, . . 6*45 1 

Magnesia, . 0'10 

Potash, . . 0-04 

Soda, . . 0-11 ) 

The composition of this mineral agrees with the general 
formula proposed by Rammelsberg for epidote more closely 
than any hitherto analysed. 

Among the pseudomorphous substances produced by an 
interchange of constituents, the number of instances in 
which the product of alteration is a double silicate is very 
small. Apart from the remarkable pseudomorphous felspar 
recently discovered, and the pseudomorphous zeolites, the 
only double silicates which occur as pseudomorphous are 
mica, hornblende, chlorite, and epidote. The first two vary 
so much in their composition that they can scarcely be re- 
garded as double silicates, of definite simple constitution, so 
that there remain only the pseudomorphous chlorite and 
pseudomorphous epidote, in the forms of garnet and Wer- 
nerite. The compositions of these latter minerals possess a 
certain similarity. Their formulae are : — 

Meionite, . RO Si 3 + 2 R 2 3 Si 3 

Garnet, . RO Si 3 + • R 2 3 Si 8 

Pseudomorphous epidote occurs only in the forms of these 
two minerals, and it might be supposed that the similarity 
in their composition would furnish some clue to the mode of 
alteration. Thus meionite and zoisite being heteromorphic 
substances, it might be assumed that the conversion of the 
former into the latter consists in a physical re-arrangement 
of the molecules, attended with an increase of density. 
This cannot, however, be the case, and for the following 
reasons : — 

1. Although zoisite and meionite are identical in composi- 
tion, pistacite and meionite are not ; meionite does not con- 
tain peroxide of iron, while in pistacite it seldom amounts to 
less than 10 per cent. 

2. There is nothing "to justify the opinion, that the origi- 

142 On the Chemical Composition of Wernerite, 

nal "Wernerite, from which the pseudomorphous epidote was 
produced, had a composition represented by the formula of 
meionite ; for with the exception of the mineral from Vesu- 
vius, noWernerite is known whose composition approaches at 
all near to it. 

The only possible inference therefore, is, that the change 
has been effected by a substitution of the constituents of a 
scapolite. In order to clear up this point, an analysis was 
made of a scapolite resembling the prismatic scapolite (7), 
which had been partially converted into epidote : — 








Peroxide of iron, 












A mixture of equal parts of the scapolite (7) and epidote, 
would give an analysis : — 

Silica, 42-37 

Peroxide of iron, .... 847 

Potash, ....*. 0-60 

Soda, 3-63 

Numbers which correspond very closely with I. 

There can be little doubt, therefore, that the pseudo- 
morphous epidote was produced by chemical alteration of the 
scapolite substance. Now, it is customary to assume that 
when a calcareous mineral suffers alteration, the result is an 
abstraction of lime, and a relative increase of silica. But 
this pseudomorphous epidote presents an example of the 
contrary ; the percentage of silica is less, that of lime 
greater. The larger proportion of lime cannot be ascribed 
to an abstraction of other constituents ; it must have been 
actually introduced, for the epidote mass is compact, free 
from cavities, and appears perfectly homogeneous 

From the results of this and previous investigations of 
Wernerite, the following conclusions may be drawn as to its 
chemical history : — 

I. With regard to the normal constitution, there appears 
to be several heteromeric species: — 

and the Products of its Transmutation. 


1. Meionite, (Ca0 3 ) Si 8 _ + 2 Al 3 3 Si O s 

2. Scapolite, 

3. Wernerite, 

2. Scapolite, (CaO, Na0 3 ) 2 Si 3 + 2 Al 2 3 Si 0, 

Oxygen Ratio. 
RO:R 2 3 :Si0 3 
2 : 3 
2 : 4 


4. Wernerite, 

5. Nuttalite, . 

] (CaO, 

Na0 3 )3Si0 3 + 2Al 2 3 Si0 3 = 

Na0 2 )Si0 3 + 5Al 2 3 Si0 3 = 

ROSi0 3 + Al 2 3 Si0 3 


: 5 
: 4 

The essential constituents of the original species appear to 

be :— 


II. In the transmutation of Wernerite, the following 
changes take place, — 



1. Potash, 


5. Soda, 


2. Magnesia, 


6. Lime, 


3. Lime, 


7. Alumina, . 


4. Peroxide of iron, 


The quantity of silica is relatively increased or diminished ; 
whether any absolute alteration takes place, is difficult to 

These changes take place together in various ways : — 
1, 4, 5, 6, determine the 

conversion into 

1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 

2, 4, 5, 6, 7, . 

3, 4, 5, . 
5,6,7, . 


red and yellow Wernerite. 

black Wernerite. 


Wernerite with 92'7 prt Si0 3 

The small numbers in brackets indicate the probable rela- 
tive frequency of the changes. 

B. H. P. 

144 Rev. Mr Gill on the Palolo. 

On the Palolo. Communicated by the Rev. Mr Gill, Mis- 
sionary, in a Letter to It. Chambers, Esq. 

One of the natural curiosities of the South Pacific Islands 
is the Palolo. 

The Palolo is the native name given by the Samoa islanders 
to a sea-worm, which appears regularly every year, near to 
a few of the boat-openings in the great barrier reef round 
the islands of Upolo and Savaii, the two largest islands of 
the Samoa group. 

There are many singularities connected with the Palolo, 
calculated to excite attention and to demand investigation. 

1. The time of its appearance. 

It invariably appears on the morning of the day when the 
moon enters her last quarter, either in the month of October, 
if the moon quarters late in that month, or if not, it occurs 
in November ; and this at the same time every year. A few 
of the Palolo may be seen on the previous morning, but the 
day of the moon's quartering is the grand day. After that 
forenoon not the least vestige is to be seen until that day in 
the following year. They appear in great quantities about the 
dawn of day, and continue on the surface of the sea until the 
sun is about two hours high above the horizon ; they then 
break up into small fragments, dissolve into a yellow creamy 
matter, having to all appearance fulfilled their destiny. 

2. The worm is found swimming in a spiral form, as if at 
random, often singly, but generally collected in shoals. They 
vary in length, from a few inches to two and three feet. In 
thickness none exceed the eighth of an inch, and the segments 
number according to the length of the animal. 

It has long hairs along each side, so that, with the excep- 
tion of the head, it is not much unlike the Geophilus longi- 
cornis, or the Seolopendra electrica of Linn. The head is 
something like that of an earthworm. In colour they vary; 
brown, blue, and green of all shades. 

3. Not the least singular fact connected with their appear- 
ance is the difficulty of ascertaining from whence they come. 
None are found outside the barrier reef, but always inside, in 

On the Palolo. 145 

water three or four fathoms deep. The natives say, they 
come from seaward, but can give no reason for this conjec- 
ture. After many years' close observation, writes the Rev. 
W. Mills, I am still unable to decide ; but from the sudden- 
ness with which they gather into clusters, I am inclined to 
think they rise from the bottom. The question then is : Is 
it one of the many Polypi/era which are employed in con- 
structing the coral, and which at that particular time escape 
from its many ramifications ? 

The objections to this supposition Sire, first, That the Palolo 
is to be found at a very few places, not more than three or 
four in all the great extent of reef surrounding this island ; 
whereas if it belonged to coral, it might be expected to appear 
at other places ; unless it belong to some particular kind of 
coral, only found at those places where the Palolo appears ; 
of the existence of which, however, there is no evidence. 
Secondly, The animal, when complete, terminates rounded at 
both ends, having no tentacula with which the coral building 
Polypifera are possessed to operate round the mouth of their 

The natives calculate with great certainty the day the 
Palolo appears, and are never mistaken in their calculations. 
They go out in their canoes, each person having a basket, 
and with this he skims up the animal as it swims on the 
surface. It is cooked, and esteemed a great dainty. Those 
natives fortunate enough to secure it, carry it to their friends 
round the island, who live where it does not appear. From 
the day of its appearance the natives begin the six months, 
which they call Vae Palolo, or winter season. We have no 
instance on any of the other islands of this animal being 
found ; yet on most of the land in the east the winter season 
is called Palolo or Paroro. 


146 On the Palaeozoic Formations of the Earth. 

A Suggestive Paper on the Palaeozoic Formations of the 
Earth. By E. Pughe, B.A., Vicar of Bangor Cathedral. 
Communicated by the Author. 

The prevailing opinion relative to the Mosaic account of the 
creation, appears to me to be this : That it undertakes to re- 
present that event as a phase in this world's existence, rather 
than as its genesis from chaos, or its original formation into 
its present planetary state, — the crowning event in that 
phase or development being the creation of man. 

But the recent discoveries in geological science as to the 
different strata of the earth, and the existence therein of 
palaeozoic remains, fossils, and flora, together with the in- 
conceivably long epochs required in order to the solidifying 
of such formations, are as perplexing to the mind, as they 
are irreconcilable with the less learned, but more generally 
received, notions of the Mosaic theory. 

A new and somewhat easier solution of this difficulty has 
presented itself to my mind ; and inasmuch as it militates 
not against the Inspired account, or the traditional notions of 
mankind on the subject, I humbly submit it to your more 
experienced readers, in order that, on scientific principles 
its probability may be tested. 

The first and most prominent point in the Inspired Record, 
is, that " the earth " (the materiel, I apprehend, from which 
the earth was created) " was without form and void," — form- 
less and opaque — a description that accords with our notions 
of the chaotic state of matters previous to the planetary for- 
mation of this earth ; " and the Spirit of God moved upon 
the face of the water,'' — so moved upon it that by the power- 
ful action of that element, teeming perhaps like its kindred 
chaotic substances with indigenous organic remains (a pro- 
cess which would account for marine strata in high altitudes, 
and increase the probability of drifts), the earth, as part of 
the solar system, which it was not previously, assumed its 
present spheroidal and illuminated form. 

But the hypothesis, which I would further suggest in order 
to the solution of geological difficulties, and their perfect 
reconcilableness with the Mosaic record, is this : Let us 

On the Palaeozoic Formations of the Earth. 147 

suppose the materiel above mentioned to consist of fragmen- 
tary portions of other planets (one or more) which, having 
discharged their functions in other spheres, contained in them 
(modified according to the transitional laws to which mean- 
while they might have been subjected) the stratified remains 
of such animals and productions as had lived or grown upon 
them in different cycles of space and time ; and that from 
the aggregation of such materials the outer incrustations or 
strata of this earth were consolidated. If we admit this 
theory, the embarrassingly long epochs assigned to the solidi- 
fying process of the earth's formations become more natu- 
rally reconcilable to our own perceptions, and easier of 
solution, comparatively speaking, as the result of foreign and 
extrinsical action — distant as to time and space ; and such 
as, on the supposition that this globe (as such) existed for 
ages before the creation of man, it would be difficult to har- 
monize with the Inspired Narrative ; in such case, too, no 
obstacle will present itself to the unqualified reception of that 
account as the simple record of this earth's original forma- 
tion, and of that event being contemporaneous with the 
creation of man. 

We may further observe, if this hypothesis be admitted, 
that it will furnish corroborative proof of the existence of 
distinct species of animal and vegetable life in other spheres, 
subject, as to its gradations and developments, to the laws 
both physical and atmospheric, under which it may exist ; 
and is there not much in the fossil remains of animals which 
we denominate extinct (and if extinct, how came they to be 
so X), that may be considered indicative of a foreign origin 
and of physical properties un suited in many respects to our 
own planetary atmosphere and position 1 The theory of 
aerolites, combined with other discoveries, astronomical as 
well as geological, raises a presumption in favour of the 
existence of external matter, and the not impossible forma- 
tion of this globe from the fusion of adventitious accretions ; 
while the action of heat visible in the primeval strata leads 
also to the supposition, that the materials of which the earth 
consists may have been the fragmentary accumulations of 
worlds dissolved by fire precisely as our own world will in 


148 The Tides in South Pacific . 

due time be dissolved, to be succeeded in its turn (w r$ vaXty- 
yeMia) by " new heavens and a new earth, wherein dwelleth 

The Tides in South Pacific. Communicated by the Rev. Mr 
Gill, Missionary, in a Letter to Robert Chambers, Esq. 

The following paper was prepared by one of our mission- 
aries, and printed in a paper of missionary information for 
private circulation. The subject is one of interest ; and, 
thinking it not likely you have seen it, I enclose it. 

In no part of the world is the same deviation to be ob- 
served in the phenomena of the tides as is seen in Tahiti, 
and the adjacent islands of that group ; — 1st, in respect to the 
very limited rise and fall, which is not more than from fifteen 
to eighteen inches. In this it is quite unique, except in some 
inland seas. 2d, In not being regulated by the moon, except 
in a small degree — high-water seldom extending beyond an 
hour before and after noon. " This is so well established," 
says Mr Ellis, " that the time of night is marked by the ebb- 
ing and flowing of the tide/' This singularity is to be ob- 
served in no other part of the Pacific, nor any other sea, that 
I am aware of. 

This fact is not of recent discovery ; it was known to the 
missionaries soon after they settled there, more than fifty 
years ago. It does not appear, however, that the anomaly 
was known to any of the early navigators ; at lea^t, there is 
no mention made of it in the voyages of Wallis, Cook, or 
Bligh. Captain Cook, indeed, observed and recorded the 
limited rise and fall at Point Venus, or Matavai Bay, to be 
from ten to twelve inches (folio edit., p. 29), but does not 
seem to have taken notice of the unvarying time of the ebb 
and flow. In a recent number of the Athenaium (September 
1850, p. 957), there is a notice, to the effect that an Ameri- 
can captain, who had just returned, had verified the fact, by 
getting the affidavits of two respectable residents. The cap- 
tain might have known, as well as the editor of the Journal, 
that the fact was confirmed many years ago by men of 
science, English, French, and American, who had visited 

The Tides in South Pacific. 149 

Singular as the thing is, and though made a matter of ob- 
servation by every scientific expedition visiting the group, 
yet it is remarkable that no attempt seems to have been made 
to explain the phenomena. A departure from a general law 
surely deserves to be investigated. 

My object is to shew that this deviation has led many 
writers into mistakes respecting the tides of the Pacific. 
Many have taken it for granted that the same prevails over 
every part of this ocean ; whereas, with the exception of Ta- 
hiti and the islands near to it, the tides in the South Seas 
are as much regulated by the moon as in any other part of 
the world. The author of " A Million of Facts," in trying to 
establish a theory of his own, in opposition to that of Sir 
Isaac Newton, boldly asserts, that the moon has no attractive 
influence on this ocean ; in short, that no tide is to be ob- 
served. Even in the able article on the " Tidewave," in the 
Penny Cyclopaedia, it is observed, that the height of the 
tides in the South Seas are small, not exceeding two feet. 
Now, this is far from being in accordance with reality. At 
this group, at the low islands to the north of this, near the 
equator; the Hervey Islands, to the south ; the Tonga, Fijii, 
New Hebrides, Loyalty, and other groups, the average rise 
and fall is not less than four feet six inches. In the account 
of the Friendly Islands in " Cook's Voyages,'' we find the 
following note : — " At these islands the tides are more con- 
siderable than at any other of Captain Cook's discoveries in 
this ocean, that are situated within either tropics. At Anna- 
mooka, it is high water near six o'clock, on the full and 
change of the moon ; and the tide rises and falls about six 
feet upon a perpendicular. In the harbour of Tongataboo, 
the tide rises and falls four feet and a half at the quadratures:" 
(folio edit., p. 479). There may be a difference in the co-tidal 
lines ; but at all these islands which form points of observa- 
tion, the tides are decidedly governed by the united solar and 
lunar forces. So at the Marquesas, although nearer to the 
Society Islands than any of those mentioned ; but there the 
rise and fall is supposed not to exceed two feet. It is sur- 
prising that Mr Ellis, in his " Polynesian Researches," should 
have fallen into the same mistake, unless he means that the 

150 The Tides in /South Pacific. 

Tahitian group comprises the whole of the South Sea Islands 
to which his remarks extend. In his observations on the 
tides, he says, " Among the natural phenomena of the South 
Sea Islands, the tide is one of the most singular, and pre- 
sents as great an exception to the theory of Sir Isaac New T ton 
as is to be met with in any part of the world. The rising 
and falling of the waters of the ocean appear, if influenced 
at all, to be so in a small degree only by the moon." 

When others have contented themselves in merely giving 
their observations, without attempting to account for the 
diversity, I can hardly venture a single suggestion to solve 
the difficulty. 

If Professor Whewell's Map of Co-Tidal Lines be correct, 
the tide travels, on the western coast of America, from north 
to south, between Acapulco and the Straits of Magellan ; 
while, from the former, it travels northward and westward. 
The first, most likely, moves south, until it meets with the 
great tidal oscillation, which proceeds with great rapidity, in 
a westerly direction, round Cape Horn. There is, then, no 
difficulty in conceiving, that between these two great tidal 
waves, running in an ellipsis to the westward, the Society 
Islands are left in the intervening space, or what a Scotch- 
man would call the " strath," unaffected by either of these 
waves, but still subject to the solar oscillation, which may 
form apart from that of the lunar. The tide-wave on the 
north will be inclined to the south, according to the moon's 
excursions in declination or southing ; and this may account 
for the diversity at times, as already observed, of high-water 
being frequently an hour before or after noon, just as the 
base of the lunar wave may advance more or less to the south, 
by the moon's declination and parallax. 

Peculiarities of tides, though of a different kind, are to 
be observed in many places. Professor Whewell mentions 
that about the Ower Shoal, the whole rise of the tide occurs 
in about three hours. In the Frith of Forth, it has been 
observed at times, that after the tide has begun to ebb, 
another rise takes place, though small in comparison with 
the first ; so that, in fact, there are two larger and two smaller 
tides in the twenty-four hours. 

Botanical Fact. 151 

It will be seen that, instead of the tides in the Pacific 
forming an exception to the Newtonian theories, they are 
quite in accordance with the principles laid down in the 
" Principia,'' and by Sir John Herschel in his " Treatise on 
Astronomy," sect. 530, where the relative disturbing forces 
of the sun and moon are about two and five feet. This comes 
pretty near to what is observed at Tahiti, in relation to other 
parts in the Pacific, — the tide at the Society Islands ranging 
from fifteen to eighteen inches, and at other groups from 
four feet six inches to five feet. 

Before anything like correct information can be had on 
this interesting subject, a series of observations must be 
made at various points, by men who have time to devote to, 
and instruments proper for carrying on, the investigation. 
Now, as this ocean is likely to become, ere long, the highway 
between the vast continent of America and the British Co- 
lonies, every item of information connected with navigation 
should be sought after. I write not with the expectation 
that I can throw much light on the subject of the tides, but 
with the hope that others may be led to investigate it with 
the attention it deserves. 

A Botanical Fact : an apt Illustration. Communicated by 
the Rev. Mr Gill. 

A missionary on one of the Samoa islands, during a time 
of war, went to visit a part of the enemies' tribe in one of 
their strongholds. The tribe, with their chief, listened very 
attentively to the address given by the missionary. At its 
close the chief arose to reply. Profound silence prevailed ; 
and with great politeness the old warrior addressed the mis- 
sionary in the following terms : — 

" We take it very kindly that you have been at so much 
trouble to come so far and so difficult a road to exhort us to- 
day. Many thanks to you for your kindness. We have 
listened with attention to your address ; and all that you 
have said is true, especially that which you have said re- 
specting our wickedness. We are indeed very bad, — we feel 
it to be so ; and you have not said half that might be said 
respecting it." 

152 On the Explosion of a Meteor. 

Pausing a little, and looking round on the valley below, 
he said, — " You have now been living some time in our 
country, and in your travels you have often seen a bread- 
fruit tree withered, dying, all but dead, moss covering its 
trunk, no leaves on its branches, no fruit. You have thought, 
— alas ! alas ! this once fine tree is now only fit to be cut 
down and cast into the fire. 

" A few months after you have returned that way, you have 
looked again on that bread-fruit tree ; but now it is changed. 
The moss is clean off the trunk, the branches are all covered 
with green leaves, and they are laden with fine fruit. How 
changed ! how beautiful ! You look underneath, and there 
you see an 8 aloe.' When the bread-fruit tree had been 
found to be in a state of decay, the owner planted an aloe- 
plant near its roots, and in a very short time the influence 
of the aloe-plant checked the decay, and caused it to revive, 
to flourish, and to bring forth fruit. 

" Now,'' said the warrior chief to the missionary, " while 
you have been speaking, I have been thinking we very much, 
just now, resemble the decaying, dying, worthless bread- 
fruit tree ; but God has sent you with his Word, and he has 
planted you near to our side. Now, do not be soon discour- 
aged, — do not fear. Very soon we shall revive, — we shall 
flourish and bring forth good fruit." 

I have related this anecdote, to introduce to your notice 
the fact that an aloe planted near the withering bread- 
fruit tree causes it to revive. It is a beautiful fact, and, 
generally known, might lead some learned in botany to in- 
quire into the causes, &c. 

On the Explosion of a Meteor. Communicated by Richard 
Corbet, Esq., in a letter to R. Chambers, Esq. 

Adderley, Market Drayton, 
Shropshire, March 17, 1854. 

My dear Sir, — I send you a copy of a paragraph that 
appeared in the Shrewsbury Journal of the 15th instant, 
believing that it will not be uninteresting to you. The 
report of the explosion of this meteor was most distinctly 

On the Explosion of a Meteor. 153 

heard by Mrs Corbet and several members of my family who 
were at the time in the flower-garden ; they all exclaimed " Is 
that thunder I for there is not a cloud to be seen." Some phea- 
sants in the plantation adjoining immediately made the same 
cry that they usually do in thunder. I should state that this 
house is distant at least 27 or 28 miles from the spot where 
the ball of fire is said to have exploded. At the same time 
the noise was heard here, one of my daughters was riding 
with her uncle, Sir Andrew Corbet, about half a mile from 
his house ; on hearing it, he exclaimed, " Good heavens, my 
house is blown up." My brother's house, Acton Reynald, is 
at least 1 1 miles from the scene of the explosion. We were 
all at a loss to conjecture the cause of this peculiar report, 
till the following paragraph appeared in our Shrewsbury 
paper of Wednesday, March 15th : — 

" On Ash -Wednesday a ball of fire visited us, and made such 
a noise amongst us, that your silence convinces me that you 
neither heard it nor heard of it, else you would have reported 
its report. Allow me, please, to give you this best account 
I can gather from the eye-witnesses. It was a beautiful, 
clear, mild day, and the sky was cloudless, when about half- 
past four in the afternoon, the ball of fire was seen moving, 
apparently about a yard above the ground, in a direction 
from west or east ; it seemed to be eight or nine inches in 
diameter and to have a tail behind it. Between the Marsh 
and the Half-way House it burst, dividing, as the more 
credible of the witnesses says, into three pieces of unequal 
size ; others speak of it as splitting into a thousand pieces. 
The noise of the explosion was tremendous, lasting over a 
minute, while the echoes continued nearly five minutes more. 
It was heard for miles round ; many imagined it was an 
explosion of fire-damp in some of the neighbouring pits, 
when they found it was not followed by an earthquake. 
Of course the rustics are speculating what it portends ; but 
as they cannot settle whether it came out of the earth or to 
the earth, they only agree in concluding we live in strange 
times, and strengthen this position by referring to the splendid 
aurora borealis seen here last Monday.'' 

154 Sir Robert Kane on the 

On the Uses of Industrial Exhibitions ; — The Great Indus- 
trial Exhibition of 1853, and its influence upon the Deve- 
lopment of Industry in Ireland. By Sir Robert Kane, 
F.R.S., M.R.I.A. 

At this time, when the impressions produced upon our 
minds by the beauty and splendour of the Great Industrial 
Exhibition are still so vivid, and that its well -merited success 
forms still the subject of hearty and universal congratula- 
tion, as well for the character of our country, as for the libe- 
rality of the eminent individual to whom its arrangements 
were chiefly due, it may not be considered out of place that 
we should endeavour to lead the public to bestow some 
thought upon what the Exhibition really signified, and avail 
ourselves of the interest with which all connected with it is 
invested ; to refer to the practical uses which may be derived 
from such industrial demonstrations, and in fact to recal the 
attention of the public from the mere fact of the Exhibition 
to the objects which the Exhibition was founded to effect. 

For we have full reason to believe that a very large pro- 
portion of the visitors to the Exhibition were led by previous 
habits, or by the architectural and artistic illusions of the 
scene, to regard the Exhibition rather as a show than as a 
study — to look upon it not so much as a lesson as a lounge 
— to consider it decidedly better to have the military bands 
in the building than in the square, where they should go 
away if it rained — and to regard the examining of the objects 
as a concentrated form of shopping, without any implied 
necessity to buy. But none of these constituted the object 
for which the Exhibition was opened. The opening of the 
Great Exhibition of last summer had for its aim the demon- 
stration of the great industrial force which Ireland could 
bring forward at this time, and its comparison with the in- 
dustrial capabilities and results of the sister kingdom, and of 
foreign countries, thereby that we might see palpably and 
impartially manifested wherein we may fairly and indispu- 
tably claim pre-eminence or credit, where we were powerless 
or incapable, and that by careful and accurate comparison of 
our own position as to materials and means, as to skill and 

Uses of Industrial Exhibitions. 155 

taste, we might learn wherein lay our weakness, and where 
our strength, and make ourselves ready to apply our indus- 
trial energies to those branches that might be found espe- 
cially adapted to the country, and to ourselves, and avoid 
wasting our exertions on subjects in which nature denies us 

The best and highest object of the Exhibition was thus one 
of a practical and national character. There was necessarily 
associated therewith the very important object of shewing to 
the public at large the great results of industrial invention, 
the triumphs of skill, and ingenuity, and taste — the highest 
points attained in ministering to material civilization in the 
several countries, which few can see, and which, even if seen 
isolatedly, cannot be appreciated, or their importance felt, as 
when aggregated in such a Grand Temple of Industry as the 
Exhibition formed. But naturally where the richest and 
most important manufactures of England, of France, of Ger- 
many, were displayed, the local element of the Exhibition 
became circumscribed, and to some extent overlaid, the more 
so as, from our industrial results being as yet but limited in 
variety and in extent, and also from a somewhat exaggerated 
spirit of hospitality, putting forward in all prominent places 
the productions of British and foreign contributors, rather 
than Irish works, the true amount and value of the products 
of our own country was not at first seen, and could not be 
fully appreciated by ordinary visitors. To those, however, 
who examined into the contents of the Exhibition with proper 
knowledge and care, the specially Irish portions, whether as 
raw materials or as finished productions, afforded satisfactory 
proof of the abundant means for industrial employment with 
which Providence has blessed our country, and of the capa- 
bility of our people to carry out industrial pursuits, if properly 

It will be thus seen that we regard the object of the Exhi- 
bition to have been essentially that of instruction ; and, in 
fact, we must consider all those accessories which distracted 
attention from that main and practical object to have been 
so far injurious to the proper object of the Exhibition. 
They were, of course, indispensable to its success and popu- 

156 Sir Robert Kane on the 

larity under other points of view, and with the crowd, to 
whom purely instructional or useful objects are not congenial 
or attractive. Necessarily, also, in the classification and ar- 
rangement of such a gigantic aggregate of dissimilar things, 
hurriedly got together, and to be as hurriedly dispersed, the 
great condition of artistic grouping in effective masses pre- 
dominated over the conditions of scientific arrangement; 
and the latter could only be observed as far as some general 
principles of distribution could be followed. This defect, 
inherent to the nature of so extensive and so temporary an 
undertaking (and even more evident in the London Exhibi- 
tion of 1851), is capable of being avoided only where an 
Exhibition is organized for purely instructional purposes ; 
where the objects exhibited are admitted only as they serve 
that view, and where the permanence of the collections 
admits of such methodical and progressive arrangements as 
shall enable, not merely the actual condition, but the advance, 
of every important branch of industry to be shewn. But 
precisely as in this manner the practical utility, as a means 
of instruction, of such an Exhibition would be enhanced, it 
might be feared that so would its popularity be diminished 
with the mass of the uninstructed general public. The 
gigantic proportions — the architectural paradoxes — the gor- 
geous effect — the suddenness of creation, — and the ephemeral 
existence, which rendered the visits to the Exhibition the 
social necessity and excitement of its day, being removed, it 
might be supposed, and with too much foundation, that the 
more solid but unpretending utilities that had formed the 
groundwork of so much splendour, would, when left to them- 
selves, be unable to awaken curiosity or command attention. 
It is, however, precisely in that point of view that we 
believe the results of the Great Exhibition to be likely to 
prove most useful. For the greatest difficulty previously had 
been to induce the general public to credit the necessity for 
instruction in industrial pursuits, to appreciate the vastness 
of industrial results, and to recognise the position due to the 
men who had placed themselves at the head of the industrial 
movement of the time. This difficulty will not, in future, be 
so insuperable. Even in England, so proud, and so justly 

Uses of Industrial Exhibitions. 157 

proud, of her industrial power, it has been recognised that, 
to preserve or to regain her pre-eminence in many branches 
of trade, she must have artizans and employers of much 
higher and more cultivated intelligence than she now has, 
and that her educational means must be adapted in extent 
and character to the industrial wants of the present time. 
The real position of the industrial class in the State has also 
forced itself on the public mind in a very definite and posi- 
tive manner ; and the fact has become received that, by pro- 
moting and conducting great industrial undertakings, which 
diffuse comfort and contentment among the people — by fos- 
tering, in precept and example, the spirit of self-relying in- 
dependence, of mutual charity and good will — one may render 
practical service to the State, and merit and obtain the 
highest and most public appreciation. 

Thus the Great Exhibitions, by shewing to the public, in 
a palpable and unmistakable form, the grandeur and the 
complexity of industry, and by illustrating the amount of 
talent and knowledge necessary for its successful exercise, 
has paved the way for the organization of the means neces- 
sary for maintaining Great Britain in her proper place at 
the head of the World of Industry, and for even extending 
and perfecting in every direction the industrial forces which 
we now possess ; and, as is usual, where a practical neces- 
sity is once felt, England is about meeting those exigencies 
in a great and proper manner ; and there is very little doubt 
but that the steady and persevering energy which has enabled 
Great Britain to take the lead of Europe in so many practical 
matters, will enable her to become as successful in industrial 
education, now that she understands that she requires it as 
an instrument of practical success. 

But all that has been said as to the necessity for education 
as an element of industrial success, and of the usefulness of 
exhibitions as a means of such education, applies even much 
more strongly to the circumstances of this country than of 
Great Britain. For in Great Britain, owing to the structure 
of its rocks, the coal and other materials for industry are 
diffused on so large a scale, and with such means for work- 
ing, as to give it a natural supremacy in the most important 

158 Sir Robert Kane on the 

branches of industry ; and by the long-established habits and 
system, and the enormous capitals of the industrial classes, 
its natural advantages have been most effectively applied. 
Hence, in England, even under the disadvantage of the want 
of industrial education, great means of practical success 
exist, and will continue to exist ; but in a country such as 
Ireland, where hitherto manufacturing industry has been 
developed only in one or two departments, and even those 
not generally diffused — where the public mind has not been 
specially fixed on industrial pursuits as the most desirable 
career for the middle classes — where the natural resources, 
although rich and abundant, are not so glaringly favourable, 
at least as regards coal, as in England — and where there 
exists no prestige of established success to command accept- 
ance in the market — there evidently an advance in industrial 
character and pursuits can only be attained by means of a 
thorough appreciation and employment of all those points in 
which we can equal or excel our neighbours, and by an 
equally perfect acquaintance with those matters in which 
the circumstances either of the country or of ourselves forbid 
us to hope for any successful competition. Thus the indus- 
trial future of Ireland, at least, must depend on the know- 
ledge which her people will acquire of the resources at her 
disposal, and of the means by which those resources can be 
made the most of. But for this is required an exact and 
scientific, as well as a practical knowledge of the condition 
and appliances of analogous departments of industry in other 
countries, and, consequently, a well organized system of in- 
dustrial education. 

The popular exhibition, standing thus to the true educa- 
tional museum nearly in the same relation as a popular lec- 
ture in science stands to sound systematic teaching, has 
admirably served its purpose of exciting attention, stimu- 
lating curiosity, and directing public opinion ; but these 
effects would soon die away, and the most valuable results 
be lost, if, in its several aspects, it were not followed up by 
arrangements of a more permanent character. In this it is 
to be hoped that the various institutions which we already 
possess in Ireland will heartily co-operate, and that each, in 

Uses of Industrial Exhibitions. 159 

its separate field, will not merely continue, but redouble its 
exertions to promote the diffusion and enhance the character 
of industrial training in Ireland. For the great amount of 
good which may be done by our existing institutions will 
appear, to even a cursory survey of the portions of the general 
educational system already in action, disconnected and some- 
times interfering, as they are, and therefore destitute of the 
harmony and energy of action which full administrative unity 
would produce. 

The progress of industry in Ireland will be found specially 
facilitated by the admirable training which the young people 
of the labouring and artizan class are now receiving in the 
primary National Schools. This education, it must be recol- 
lected, is not by any means confined to reading, writing, and 
arithmetic, but embraces by the lesson-books, and otherwise, 
the elements of natural and physical science, general notions 
of political economy, and other subjects of practical interest, 
together with (in the higher schools) the elements of drawing, 
of agriculture, and (for females) of embroidery. To this nothing 
exists equal in Great Britain, and scarcely in Europe ; and, 
moreover, in what are called the Model Schools, originally 
intended as model primary schools, but which have become 
really secondary schools of a very high class — as, for instance, 
in Clonmel, — the instruction given furnishes the sons of the 
middle class with the best and most practical education that 
can be had anywhere for a mercantile career, where the 
parents do not propose putting the boy through a complete 
University course. 

The facilities for imparting industrial instruction do not, 
however, cease with the primary or model schools ; special 
provisions have been made in the constitution of the Queen's 
University, and of the colleges belonging to it, for providing, 
in two very important departments, the means of instruction, 
and of verifying proficiency by University examinations and 
diplomas. So far as these professional courses are con- 
cerned, a means exists, which can be developed hereafter to 
any necessary extent ; and the important principle has been 
conceded, that the branches of industrial education may pro- 
perly take their place in a University course, and rank toge- 

160 Sir Robert Kane on the 

gether with the older and more established orders of Uni- 
versity degrees. 

There is still another means of industrial education already 
in some degree existing among us, and which, although not 
special to this country, like the institutions of the National 
Schools and Queen's University, but only here as a part of 
the general arrangements for the United Kingdom, is yet so 
fully in the spirit of our local ideas, and so much in harmony 
with our general tastes and tendencies, that it should promise 
when well organised, to yield the most abundant and most 
profitable fruit. We refer to the means of education in in- 
dustrial art — in design and decoration, in architecture, and 
finally, in all that range of subjects which extend from the 
purely intellectual conceptions of ideal art to the merely utili- 
tarian construction of material. Few would be disposed to 
question the general diffusion among our people of an appre- 
ciation of artistic propriety — of taste in disposition of forms, 
and arrangement of colours, which is not so generally found 
in the sister kingdom ; and we have every hope that, by 
means of the Schools of Design already in action, and by 
such further development in that branch as may be found 
expedient, our national capabilities may be rendered fully 
available for advancement in the various departments of in- 
dustry, in which a large proportion of the value of the pro- 
duct depends upon the artistic excellence of its design, in 
construction or decoration, in form or colour. And if we run 
our eye over any catalogue of industrial objects, we shall find 
that, by this one department of education alone, a means of 
honourable and remunerative employment of a very high cha- 
racter would be opened to our artizan and middle class, to 
an almost unlimited extent. 

In addition to those means of instruction which, extending 
through the country at large, and to be regarded, although 
collaterally, of great value for industrial objects, are so prin- 
cipally by their action on general education, and by, there- 
fore, preparing the soil for more special and deeper cultiva- 
tion, we have in the metropolis of Ireland also institutions 
which have borne excellent fruit, and have exercised no 
slight influence on the industrial position to which Ireland 

Uses of Indus tria I Eochi bi tions . 161 

has already, even under so very many disadvantages, attained, 
and from which may be expected, in their several depart- 
ments, even still more beneficial results. The industrial and 
artistic spirit which, paralyzed for so many years by the ab- 
sorption of all public energy, and public attention, in the 
chaos of abstract political debate, had almost totally died out, 
was in a material degree preserved, and prepared for its in- 
vigorated revival, by the popular exhibitions which, from time 
to time, were held by the Royal Dublin Society. In the same 
institution also considerable energy has been displayed in the 
organization of a museum of agricultural objects, whilst the 
illustration of the natural sciences in the Museum of Natural 
History, and in the Botanic Garden (as well by its beauty as 
its associations, one of the chief ornaments of Dublin), has 
constituted perhaps the most popular and entertaining de- 
partment of its labours. 

To the Museum of Industry, founded by Her Majesty's Go- 
vernment in Dublin for special educational objects in all the 
various departments of industry, &c, and in which that per- 
manent and legitimate exposition of industrial objects is to 
be carried out, which we referred to in the commencement as 
the indispensable corollary and sequel to popular exhibitions, 
we shall not here more particularly refer than to state, as we 
have done regarding our other educational establishments, 
the desirability of such development as will secure that the 
proper objects shall be efficiently carried out, and the impera- 
tive necessity for hearty and mutual co-operation on the 
part of every institution, and every person engaged in this 
great and beneficial work. And it is fortunate for the 
industrial and educational progress of the country that 
the public importance of the subject has made itself so 
sensibly felt, that a new department of the Govern- 
ment has been formed for the special administration of 
those branches of the public service under the Board of 
Trade. We may hence have every hope that whilst the 
unity and responsibilty of control indispensable in the ma- 
nagement of institutions, supported either wholly or partially 
from the public funds, may be steadily maintained, there may 
be expected to result for the special institutions of all classes 

162 Dr John Alex. Smith's Notice of the 

engaged in the work of industrial education more useful co- 
operation among themselves — a more sustained energy in 
their action, and greater efficiency and influence in their re- 
sults, whereby will naturally result a more just and more 
general appreciation by the public of the actual excellencies 
of each, and a more certain recognition and reward to those 
who have been the agents of success, and who are entitled to 
the fair rewards of their honourable exertion.— (Sullivan's 
Dublin Journal.) 

Notice of Two Additional Crania of the Ancient Short- 
horned Ox {Bos longifrons, Owen), found some time ago 
near Newstead, Roxburghshire. By John Alex. Smith, 
M.D.* Communicated by the Author. 
In a previous communication to the Society (April, 1851) 

I exhibited and described four more or less perfect crania of 
this ox, the Bos longifrons, which were found during the 
formation of a cutting on the Hawick branch of the North 
British Railway, in the vale of Melrose, a little to the east 
of the village of Newstead. They were discovered in a series 
of deep well-like shafts, which contained various remains, 
with Roman pottery and a few coins. Since that time I have 
been able to procure the two portions of skulls now before 
the Society, which, I believe, completes the collection of 
ancient animal remains that have been obtained from this 
place. The larger of the two skulls seems to have been an 
animal of rather greater size than any of those formerly 
described, measuring, as it does, about 7J inches across the 
forehead between the roots of the horn-cores ; and the horn- 
cores themselves are also larger, being 7J inches in circum- 
ference at the base. They are about 5J inches in length, 
but the points being broken, we cannot of course determine 
this measurement correctly. This skull is also more pro- 
minent in the upper part of the forehead, and has the 

II prominent edge standing up along the middle of the fore- 
head," which Professor Nilsson of Lund gives as a specific 
character of this ox, more distinctly marked than in any of 
the other specimens. The second skull belongs to a much 

* Read before the Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh, Jan. 25th, 1854. 

Ancient Short-homed Ox (Bos longifrons). 163 

smaller animal, being nearly equal in size to the least of 
those formerly described. The measurements here are : — 
Breadth across the forehead between the horn-cores, b\ 
inches. The horn-cores are nearly 3J inches in length, 
following the outer curvature ; and their circumference at 
the base is 4 inches. In this individual also the prominence 
of the upper part of the forehead, and of the occipital ridge, 
is very distinct. These specimens are interesting, as shew- 
ing somewhat of the range in the size and shape of this 
animal. We may suppose the smaller to be a cow, and the 
larger one a bull. But in all the varieties of size there is 
a constant general resemblance in character. Professor 
Nilsson has described as a distinct species of ox, a variety 
principally distinguished from the Bos longifrons, by having 
longer pedicles to the horns, the forehead more rounded in 
front, and the ridge of the occiput rising high in the centre, 
which he has called the Bos frontosus ; but you will observe 
that in the crania on the table, there is a very consider- 
able variety both in the prominence of the forehead and the 
outline of the occipital ridge. In a letter with which I have 
been favoured by Professor Owen, he kindly informs me that 
two of the specimens previously exhibited are the most 
perfect crania of this ox which he has yet seen. And he 
considers that they tend to strengthen his opinion of the Bos 
longifrons being a distinct species of fossil ox ; all the varie- 
ties which it presents in the different specimens he has 
examined, being within the limits of an admitted range ; 
while he believes the Bos frontosus of Nilsson to be merely 
a variety of the Bos longifrons. This is the most ancient of 
the small sized cattle, being found in the drifts and fresh 
water deposits of the newer Pliocene formation, along with 
remains of the huge animals of that time, the elephant and 
the rhinoceros ; and downwards through the deposits of the 
alluvium to the period of man, as the specimens on the table 
show, shortly after which it becomes lost as a species, — pro- 
bably remaining in some of the domestic cattle as its later pos- 
terity ; and as a small additional evidence on this point, I 
may mention, that in one of the skulls previously described,* 

* Vide Plate ii., vol. liv. of Jameson's Journal. 


1G4 Xotice of the Ancient Short-horned Ox. 

there still remained three of the molar teeth ; being the two 
last molars of the upper jaw, and the third, the last molar of 
the other side ; these I have compared with the teeth of our 
domestic cattle, and found them to be almost identical in 
character, the arrangement of their enamel folds, and general 
structure being the same. I believe these to be the first re- 
mains of the Bos longifrons which have been discovered in 
Scotland. And I may also mention, that in May 1853 there 
was presented to the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, a portion of the lower jaw-bone of an ox, which 
had been found in a strange building, of several chambers, 
covered by a tumulus, and called a " Picts' House,''' situated 
on the western declivity of Wideford Hill, near Orkney, 
which was opened, and particularly examined by George 
Petrie, Esq. The specimen, which consists of a portion of 
the body of the jaw-bone, was lately examined, by Professor 
Quekett, of the Royal College of Surgeons, London, and was 
considered by him to belong to this same species of the Bos 
longifrons. It seems especially worthy of notice, as proving 
the existence of this small ox in the Orkney Islands, at a very 
early period, when the country in all probability was inha- 
bited by some of the primitive races of our land ; and is, as 
far as I am aware, the first instance of its existence being 
noticed so far to the north in Britain. I may remark, in con- 
clusion, that the occurrence of this Orkney specimen, should 
we believe it to be a domesticated ox, is also interesting, as 
it may be considered an additional evidence of the early inha- 
bitants of this country having tamed an original native breed, 
it being by no means likely that in this comparatively remote 
place the domesticated ox could have been derived from the 
cattle introduced, it may be, into the southern parts of Britain 
by the Roman colonist. 

Note. — Having, through the kindness of Professor Fleming, 
examined a skull of the small sized ox of the Shetland Islands, I 
have added some of its admeasurements for comparison with the 
smaller oxen referred to here, and in the previous communication 
(page 122, vol. liv., of this Journal). In this skull we have the pro- 
minent edge in the middle of the forehead, from the depression rising 
between and rather above the orbits, the rounded protuberance in the 
central part of the supra-occipital ridge. The horn-cores, however, 

Influence of Occupation upon Health. 165 

are considerably longer and larger in proportion to the size of the 
skull, and curve backwards, outwards, and upwards. 

Admeasurements of Skull of Shetland Ox. 

In. Lin. 

Length of skull from supra-occipital ridge, to front edge of 

intermaxillary bones, . . . . 17 3 
Length from supra-occipital ridge along centre of forehead 

to nasal bones, . . 7 9 

Length from roots of horn-cores to upper edge of orbits, 3 10 

Length of orbits, ...... 2 6 

Breadth of orbits, ...... 23 

Length from orbit to end of maxillary bone, , 7 8 

Length from orbit to front edge of intermaxillary bone, 9 6 

Breadth of forehead between middle of roots of horn-cores, 5 11 

Breadth across narrowest part, .... 57 

Breadth of skull across middle of orbits, ... 63 

Breadth across front of intermaxillary bones, . . 2 11 

Horn-cores, circumference of base, .... 64 

Horn-cores, length following outer curvature, . . 6 6 

Length of alveolar sockets of upper jaw, ... 56 
Height of skull from supra-occipital ridge to upper edge 

of foramen magnum, ..... 46 
Height of skull from supra-occipital ridge to the base of 

the skull, 6 

Breadth of occipital condyles, posteriorly, . . 3 10 

Influence of Occupation upon Health. 

A curious and interesting report has been prepared by Mr 
Finlaison, the actuary of the National Debt-office, upon the 
subject of sickness and mortality among the male members 
of friendly societies in England and Wales, as shewn by the 
returns made by them to the Government for the five years 
1846-50. It appears that the proportion on the sick list in 
the course of a year is one in four, or 24*99 in every 100. The 
proportion seems large, but some allowance may have to be 
made for cases of feigned illness ; and the persons in question 
are not those who are most favourably circumstanced in re- 
gard to food, clothing, lodging, and the various conditions 
of health. Mr Finlaison proceeds to divide the members of 
these societies into four classes : — 1. Those who have heavy 

1 GG InflUenct of Occupation upon Health. 

labour, with exposure to the weather — such as agricultural 
and other outdoor labourers — a class in which he has 353,103 
cases ; 2. Those who have heavy labour without exposure to 
the weather — such as smiths, sawyers, coopers, plumbers — 
a class numbering 94,259 ; 3. Those who have light labour, 
with exposure to the weather — such as shepherds, drovers, 
drivers, pedlars, messengers, custom-house officers — in num- 
ber 58,809 ; 4. Those who have light labour without exposure 
to the weather — such as clerks, shopmen, barbers, factory 
operatives, servants— in number 286,909. He found that 
persons engaged in heavy labour, with and without expo- 
sure to the weather, have respectively 28*04 and 26*54 per 
cent, of their number sick in the year; persons engaged in 
light labour 20*80 and 21*58. In round numbers, taking a 
census of working-men disabled by illness, for every three 
whose work is light or moderate there are four of the class 
whose lot is heavy labour. The duration of sickness to 
each person sick is, however, upon an average, only 38 days 
and 40*73 in the two classes engaged in heavy labour, and 
41 days and 44*25 in the two classes engaged in light labour. 
The mortality is heaviest among the persons classed as en- 
gaged in light labour ; and indoor work shews itself less 
favourable to longevity than outdoor. But the main differ- 
ence in the distribution of sickness seems to turn upon the 
expenditure of physical force. 

M This is no new thing," says Mr Finlaison, " for in all 
ages the enervation and decrepitude of the bodily frame has 
been observed to follow a prodigal waste of the mental or 
corporeal energies ; but it has been nowhere previously esta- 
blished upon recorded experience, that the quantum of sick- 
ness annually fallen to the lot of man is in direct proportion 
to the demands on his muscular power. So it would seem to 
be, however. Therefore, whatever scientific invention of 
machinery to save the expenditure of bodily strength may be 
devised, its production should be hailed as one of the greatest 
of blessings to the sons of toil, and not ignorantly contemned 
by the very class whom in reality it ultimately benefits. A 
study of the following digest leads to the conclusion, that 
the inventor of any engine which spares the physical ener- 

Important New Theories in Agricultural Science. 167 

gies diminishes the amount of human sickness in proportion 
as he, by means of his device, economizes the labour of his 

The tables shew that the liability to sickness runs up to 
a temporary maximum in the young man, and then declines, 
and does not attain the same percentage until advanced 
years. This sick maximum of early manhood — the effect of 
a primitive demand on the bodily vigour — is in the period 
from 18 to 21, except in the class engaged in outdoor heavy 
labour, in which it appears to be at 14. The same per- 
centage is reached, ever afterwards to increase, at the age of 
48 in the class who have indoor heavy labour, 51 in the case 
of indoor light labour, 57 with outdoor heavy labour, and 65 
with outdoor light labour. 

These last remarks relate to the proportion of persons sick, 
not to the duration of the sickness. The duration of sickness 
does not decline in manhood, but increases with the age. 
The severity of the railway employment, according to these 
tables, tells upon the constitution ; the men, it is said, get 
" weather-beaten. 7 ' In the police there is a marked increase 
in the amount of sickness after 40, as if the service broke 
down the men at an earlier age than other occupations. 

Important New Theories in Agricultural Science. 

M. Baudrimont, professor of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences at 
Bordeaux, has just published a work, "On the Existence of Interstitial 
Currents in Arable Soil, and the Influence which they can exert on 
Agriculture ; " in which, after a long study of the subject, he states, 
that there is a natural process at work by which liquid currents rise 
to the surface from a certain depth in the ground, and thus bring up 
materials that help either to maintain its fertility, or to modify its 
character. Many phenomena of agriculture and of vegetation have 
at different times been observed ; which, hitherto inexplicable, are 
readily explained on this theory. Such, for example, the improve- 
ment which takes place in fallows ; and there is reason to believe 
that these currents materially influence the rotation of crops. 

In Germany, Schleiden is attracting much attention by his mas- 
terly views on the phenomena of vegetation ; and it will surprise 
many to hear that he admits of no relation between the fertility of 
a soil, and the quantity of fertilizing matter expended upon it. — 
'• The goodness of the soil," he says, " depends upon its inorganic 

168 Important New Theories in Agricultural Science. 

constituents — so far at least as they are soluble in water, or through 
continued action of carbonic acid ; and the more abundant and va- 
rious these solutions, the more fruitful is the ground." Arguing 
from this view, it is not richness of soil or humus that produces the 
multiplied varieties of alpine plants in Germany, or the absence of 
it that produces but few. " Soluble mineral constituents " are 
shewn to be the characteristic of our cultivated field ; and " an agri- 
cultural plant '' is defined as one, " distinguished from wild in- 
dividuals of the same species, by peculiar qualities, which constitute 
its fitness in culture, and which depend upon a modification of che- 
mical action." The amazing yield of Indian corn in Mexico — from 
200 to 600 fold — is something which, with all our skill, we cannot 
accomplish, and is a fact in favour of the argument, " that in no case 
do the organic substances contained in the ground perform any direct 
part of the nutrition of plants." The annual destruction of organic 
matter ail over the earth is estimated at 145 billions of pounds, equal 
to 2J billions of cubic feet ; and if all vegetation depends on organic 
matter for nutrition, to satisfy this consumption, <J there must have 
been, five thousand years back, ten feet deep of pure organic sub- 
stance on its surface." Another illustration is furnished by taking 
the number of cattle and other animals in France in a given year 
(1844), and observing the amount of food they consume. The pro- 
cess of nutrition would require 76,789,000,000 pounds of organic 
matter — six times more than the whole number contribute of organic 
matter towards the reproduction ; and in 100 years M the whole or- 
ganic material of the country would be consumed!" 

Again ; look at a farm. — How much more is carried off from it 
than is given back again ; generally the amount of its yield is three 
times greater than that of the organic matter it receives : while of 
the manure applied, the greater part is not taken up, but imperceptibly 
decomposed. Carbon is the most important of the constituents of 
plants. An acre of sugar plantation produces 7500 pounds of cane, 
of which 1200 pounds are carbon; and yet sugar plantations are 
rarely manured, and then only with the ashes of the burnt canes. 
With bananas, the result is still more striking : — the yield is 98,000 
pounds of fruit in a year from a single acre ; and of this 17,000 
pounds — more than a fifth — is carbon ; and the same acre will give 
the same return, year after year, for twenty or thirty years ; and 
the ground at the end of that time will be richer than at the com- 
mencement, from nothing more than the decay of the leaves of the 
plant. Here in Europe, too, the difference in weight and in carbon 
between the seed and the produce has often been noted : in wheat, 
89 per cent. ; in red clover, 158 per cent. ; in peas, 361 per cent. 
These facts afford evidence of a supply of carbon derived from other 
sources than those commonly supposed to exist ; and while we know 
that seeds will germinate and become vigorous plants in pure quart- 
zose sand, or in cotton wool, or on a board, we seem to have proof 

Important New Theories in Agricultural Science. 169 

that the chief source of supply is the atmosphere. This is an inter- 
esting point, which further research will verify. Schleiden shews 
the process to be eminently simple. He says in his work : Accord- 
ing to Link, Schwartz, and others, an acre of water meadow con- 
tains 4400 pounds of hay ; which, when dry, contains 45*8 per cent, 
of carbon. The hay then yields 2000 pounds of carbon, to which 
1000 pounds may be added in the portion of the year in which the 
grass is not cut, and the roots. To produce these 3000 pounds of 
carbon, 10,980 pounds of carbonic acid is requisite, which may be 
raised to 12,000 pounds to compensate for the nightly expiration. 
Now, Schubler has shewn, that an acre of so wretched a grass as 
Poa annua, exhales in 120 days (too low a computation) of active 
vegetation, 6,000,000 pounds of water. To supply the exigencies 
of the plants, therefore, it is only necessary for the meadow to im- 
bibe 3^ grains of carbonic acid with every pound of water. 

Mr Lawes has found also, that in a plant of any one of our ordi- 
nary crops, more than 200 grains of water must pass through it for 
a single grain of solid substance to accumulate within it. He states 
the evaporation from an acre of wheat, during the period of its 
growth, to be 114,860 gallons, or 73,510,000 gallons per square 
mile. With clover it is rather more ; with peas and barley less. 
When we apply these calculations to a county or a kingdom, we are 
lost in the magnitude of the processes by which nature works, but 
we see the more clearly that on such a scale the quantity of mate- 
rial supplied by the air, though minute to the individual, becomes 
vast in the aggregate. We see, moreover, the necessity in under- 
standing the relations between the evaporation and rate of growth, 
and the laws and effects of absorption in soils. A thousand pounds 
of dry calcareous sand will gain two pounds in weight in twelve hours, 
when the air is moist, while pure agricultural clay will gain thirty - 
seven pounds. 

The source of nitrogen comes next to be considered : and this 
also is seen to be independent of manures. Hereupon it is observed, 
that " our domestic plants do not require a greater supply than in 
a state of nature. A water meadow which has never received any 
dung yields from forty to fifty pounds of nitrogen, while the best 
ploughed land yields only about thirty-one pounds. The plants for 
which most dung is used, as potatoes and turnips, are in fact propor- 
tionally the poorest in nitrogen." That there is a supply indepen- 
dent of the soil, is further seen in the millions of hides furnished 
every year by the cattle of the Pampas, without any diminution of 
produce ; and in the great quantity of nitrogenous matters, hay, 
butter, and cheese, carried off from pasture land, far more than is 
returned by the animals fed thereon. Experiments with various 
kinds of plants, on various soils, have satisfactorily demonstrated that 
increase of nitrogen in the land and in the crop, does take place 
quite irrespective of supplies of manure. 

170 Important New Theories in Agricultural Science. 

With respect to ammonia, " it appears that one-thirteenth of a 
grain in every pound of water is sufficient for the exigencies of vege- 
tation, and there is perhaps no spring water in the universe which 
contains so little." Then as to sulphur and phosphorus, which 
are also among the constituents of plants, the quantity needed in 
proportion to the time of vegetation is so small, that one 540,000th 
of a grain of sulphuretted hydrogen per cubic foot, diffused through the 
atmosphere to a height of 3000 feet is all that is required. 

The consideration that cereals would soon disappear from the north 
of Europe, if not cultivated, and perhaps from nearly the whole of 
this quarter of the globe, adds weight to the arguments in favour of 
enlightened attention to the inorganic constituents of plants. The 
point is to bring the soil into harmony with the conditions by which 
growth may best be promoted. Much depends on the nature of the 
soil ; the darkest coloured lands are generally the highest in tem- 
perature, hence the advantage of vegetable mould, while deep light 
sands and clay, which turn almost to stone in dry weather, weary 
and vex the cultivator by their unprofitableness. It is to be re- 
membered, however, that soils which have the highest temperatures 
of their own, may not be those most susceptible of receiving heat.— 
that is from the sun, because some lands are warmed by the 
springs that irrigate them. Here we have an explanation of the 
phenomena of certain soils, which are warm in winter and cool in 
summer. The application of humus evolves heat by the process 
of combustion, and sand, lime, clay, and humus, are the combinations 
needed, the clay being in a proportion of from forty to fifty per cent.; 
if less than ten per cent, the land will be too light and poor. 

Schleiden in summing up insists strongly on the necessity of 
selecting good seed; that from a barren soil, he observes, is likely 
to be more true to its kind than from well manured land. Also, 
that the time for sowing should be adapted to the acquirements of 
the plant, and it will surprise many to read that he advocates a 
less frequent use of the plough. He holds ploughing to be " a 
necessary evil, one to be employed only so far as necessity requires,' 1 
because of the too frequent loosening of the soil, the decomposition of 
humus is so rapid as to overbalance the benefit supposed to arise 
from exposure to the atmosphere. 

Such is a brief outline of some of the views of one who holds a 
high position among men of science ; and though in some particulars 
they may seem to be at variance with practice in this country, there 
is much in them worthy the attention of intelligent cultivators. 

An example to shew that the application of manure to fields might 
be more limited. 

A few years ago, the Rev. S. Smith, of Lois Weedin, in the 
neighbourhood of Banbury, instituted a course of experiments on 
this very point, and with results which are singularly interesting. 
He took a field of four acres, having a gravelly soil, with clay, 

Classification of the Fossiliferous Rocks. 171 

marl, and gravel as the subsoil. It had been hard worked for a 
hundred years ; but except a thorough ploughing, no other means 
were taken to improve it, not a particle of manure was supplied. 
Wheat was then sown in single grains, three inches apart, and in 
rows a foot apart, a space of three feet being left quite bare between 
each three rows, and this was continued in alternate stripes all 
across the field. The sowing took place at the beginning of autumn ; 
and in November, when the plant rows began to shaw, ail the inter- 
vening three feet spaces were trenched by the spade, and six inches 
of the subsoil made to change places with the surface. " In the 
spring,'' says the reverend agriculturist, " I well hoed and hand- 
weeded the rows of wheat, and stirred the intervals with a one horse 
scarifier three or four times, up to the very period of flowering in 
June." The crop looked thin and miserable until after April, when 
it began " to mat and tiller," it did not turn yellow in May, and 
the stalk grew so stout and strong as to bear up well against the 
storm. When harvested, the result was highly gratifying, for the 
yield amounted to from thirty-six to forty bushels per acre, or rather 
per half acre, seeing that as the alternate strips were left bare, only 
one half of the field was really planted. The quantity of seed used 
per half acre was a little more than a peck. 

Adjoining the field in which these experiments were carried on, 
was another which had four ploughings, ten tons of manure, six or 
seven times as much seed, and yet it gave quarter less to the acre. 

This might be looked on as an accident, were it not that Mr 
Smith has repeated his experiments year after year, and always with 
greater success. He believes that if all the conditions be literally 
fulfilled, the same favourable result may invariably be obtained. No 
manure whatever is to be used ; and in the second year, the strip 
is to be sown which was left bare in the first ; and so on, changing 
from one to the other, year after year. — {American Annual of Scien- 
tific Discoveries, for 1854, p. 276.) 

Classification of the Fossiliferous Rocks. 

If the leading geologists of our country do not soon agree on a 
fixed nomenclature for the classification of the fossiliferous rocks, 
the cultivators and admirers of the science cannot fail to be misled, 
which will terminate in a great deal of false information being pro- 
pagated. We want a classification that will apply to the whole 
globe — a classification arrived at by all the best judges, from physi- 
cal, chemical, and palaeontological geological facts ; not a series of 
geological facts from any single geographical region, but a classi- 
fication based on information from all the best described portions of 
our globe we are now in possession of. 

172 ( '/ossification of the Fossiliferous Rocks. 

While speaking on this subject we cannot overlook the controversy 
respecting the terms Cambrian and " lower Silurian," as it is still fat* 
from being settled ; but we truly hope it will be so in a philosophic point 
at the next meeting of the British Association, by the most compe- 
tent judges of the country. The journalist, who is undoubtedly 
guided by the best known and most correct information on the sub- 
ject, is not in a position at present to give any decided information. 

At the last meeting of the Association, three of our best geolo- 
gists, Hopkins, Philips, and Strickland, agreed, and expressed a 
strong conviction, that Sedgwick would ultimately succeed in esta- 
blishing his nomenclature ; and on the other hand we have a party 
who think otherwise. It is not now the time to use either 
disguised or ambiguous phraseology. Let the question be determined 
on truth, and let truth only be the Polar star, and on this ground 
only let the combatants stand or fall. We can no longer be guided 
by the creed which certain parties assume in order to gratify the 
feelings or the prejudices of the party for which he caters to at- 
tract attention. 

To shew how this disputed question now stands, I perhaps can- 
not do better than quote the opinion of Professor Jukes, President 
of the Geological Society of Dublin, on this subject. " I will just 
here say one word," remarks Mr Beete Jukes,* " as to the con- 
troversy respecting the terms * Lower Silurian' and ' Cambrian. 1 
It resolves itself into a question of whether we should take palaeonto- 
logical or lithological and stratigraphical characters as the founda- 
tion of our classification. Every one, including Professor Sedgwick 
and Sir Roderick Murchison, used to think that the rocks and fossils 
of Caernarvonshire and the neighbouring parts of North Wales, 
would of necessity be all older than those of Montgomeryshire, Shrop- 
shire, and the Welsh border country. The Silurian rocks and fossils, 
therefore, with their sub-division into upper and lower, were accepted 
as one thing, and the Cambrian rocks and fossils were expected to 
turn out another thing when the latter came to be fully described. 
Instead of that, it results that what were called the Lower Silurian 
rocks on the Welsh border, and which were left with a totally un- 
defined base, had really a much greater thickness than was expected, 
and swept in many broad folds and undulations through the whole 
of North Wales, and that the rocks of Siluria, with the exception of 
the uppermost, were the same as those of Cambria. In Cambria, 
however, the rocks only were described, while in Siluria both the 
rocks and fossils were described and figured, neither, indeed, com- 
pletely, but both so much so that the contemporaneous rocks of other 
countries could be recognised by their fossil characteristics. Had 
the identity of the rocks of Cambria and Siluria been known at the 
time, it is probable that only the upper would have been called 

* President of the Zoological Society, and Director of the Geological Survey 
of Ireland. 

Classification of the Fossiliferous Rocks. 


Silurian and the lower would have been christened Cambrian. It 
was not so known or understood, however, and it has now, I believe, 
become practically impossible to remedy the mistake, if it be one, 
and to persuade men to call those things Cambrian which they have 
always been in the habit of calling Silurian, although no one will 
be more ready than myself to adopt the change of nomenclature, should 
it be generally decided on. The only way to bring such a correction 
into use would be to adopt a middle term, and to speak of the lower 
Silurian as Cambro- Silurian. 

The following valuable Table of the divisions of the Fossiliferous 
Rocks will be found exceedingly useful for our geological readers. 

Upper Stratified or Fossiliferous Rocks. 

I. Modern Rocks. 

Comprising all mineral accumulations of the present time, namely, 
Alluvial of the rivers, Coral islands and reefs, Thermal springs, Glacier 
moraines, Icebergs, Tide deposits, &c. 

II. Quaternary. 

Comprising the Diluvial rocks, the Drift and Erratic blocks, Cavern 
deposits and Osseous Breccias, Loess of the Rhine, &c. 

III. Tertiary. 
Pliocene. Crags of Suffolk, England. 
Antwerp Crag ; Sands of Dies L, Belgium. 
Cotentin Crag ; Faluns de la Loire ; Sables de la 

Sologne et des Landes, France. 
Oeningen deposit, Switzerland. 
Subapennine beds, or Mattajoue ; Creta di Sienna, 

Aralo Caspian, 'or Steppe Limestone, Russia. 
/Miocene. Wanting in England. 
Bolderberg sands, Belgium. 

Calcare a Helix de la Beauce ; Fontainebleau Sand- 
stone ;* Molasse de Leognan et Calcair de Bourg 
near Bordeaux ; Sansan deposit ; lower beds of la 
Limagne d'Auvergne ; Gypse d'Aix, France. 
Nagelfluh and Molasse, of Switzerland. 
Molasse of Superga and Bormida's valley ; Coal of 
Caddibuona, Piedmont. 
\ Salt deposits of Wieliczka, Poland. 
I Eocene. Barton Clay ; Bagshot Sand ; London Clay. 
Limburg beds ; Brussels beds. 

Gypse de Montmartre ; Gres de Beauchamp ; Cal- 
caire Grossier ; Argile plastique de Paris ; Molasse 
du Fronsadais et Calcaire de Blaye pres de Bor- 
Nummulitic formation. Dax, Biaritz and the Cor- 

bieres deposits. 
Fly sch of the Alps. Nummulitic Sandstone of Kres- 

senberg, Austria. 
Ronca and Monte Bolca deposits, Vicentine. Ma- 
cigno and Alberese of the Apennines. 
\ Kief and Antipofka rocks, Russia. 

* TheFr.ntainbleau sandstone of Lyell belongs to the Eocene. 

Upper Ter- 
tiary Group. 


Middle Ter- 
tiary Group. 

C. Lower Ter- 
tiary Group. 


Classification of the Fossiliferous Bocks. 

A. Cretaceous 

IV. Secondary. 

a. Chalk of Maestricht and Valkenberg, Holland ; 

Limestone of Faxoe, Denmark. 

b. White Chalk, or Chalk with flints, England ; Craie 

de Meudon, France; Marly Chalk of Lusberg, 
Holland ; Hippurite Limestone of Italy ; Chalk 
of Kursk and of the country of the Don Cossacks. 

c. Lower Chalk, Chalk-marl and upper Grensand of 

England ; Craie Tuffeau de France ; Dieves and 
Tourtia of Hainaut, Belgium ; Lower Chalk of 
Aix-la-Chapelle, Rhenish Prussia ; white and red 
Scaglia of Italy ; Carpathian Sandstone of Cra- 
cow and Orlova, Gallicia. 

d. Gault of England and France ; Grey Scaglia, Italy ; 

Quadersandstein of Saxony ; Wienner Sandstein. 

e. Lower Greensand of England ; Neocomian of 

Switzerland, France, Crimaea and Caucasus ; 
Biancone of Italy. 


/ a. Wealden. Weald Clay, Hastings Sand and Pur- 
beck beds of England ; Turtle Limestone of 
Soleure, Switzerland ; Wealdens of Hanover and 

b. Upper Oolite. Portland beds, Kimmeridge Clay 

and Coral Rag of England ; Portlandian, Kim- 
meridgian, Sequanian and Corallian formations 
of France and Switzerland ; Solenhofen Schists 
and Nattheim Coral Schists, or White Jura of 
Swabia and Franconia ; Majolica of Italy. 

c. Oxfordian. Oxford Clay, with Kelloways Rock, 

England ; Argovian, Dives Clay and Kellovian 
of France and Switzerland ; Spongites beds, Or- 
nati Clay and Macrocephali bed of Swabia ; Upper 
Alpine Limestone ; Limestone of Porte de France 
of Grenoble, Dauphin e" ; Ammonitico Rosso of 
Italy ; Moskwa beds of Russia. 

d. Lower Oolite. Cornbrash, Forest Marble, Brad- 

ford Clay, Bath Oolite, Fuller's Earth, Inferior 
Oolite of England ; Vesulian Marls, Coral Lime- 
stone, Ladonian Limestone and Bayeux Oolite of 
France ; Brown Jura of Swabia and Franconia. 

e. Lias. Whitby Shale, Lyme Regis Shale, Marl- 

stone, Downcliff Sandy Marl, Aberthan Blue 
Marl and Linksfield Sandstone of England ; Su- 
perliassic Grit, Vassy Cement bed, Middle Lias, 
Gryphaea arcuata Limestone of France and 
Switzerland ; Jurensis Marl, Boll Schists, Balin- 
gen Clays, Arietes and Cardinia beds, or Black 
Jura of Swabia ; Lower Alpine Limestone. 

. Keuper. Yellow and White Sandstones, Grellfar- 

bige Mergel, Schilfsanstein, Gyps and Mergel, 

C. Trias Group. < Lettenkhole of Wurtemberg ; Variegated Marls 

of England ; Marnes Tris^es of France ; Verru- 

cano of Italy. 

Classification of the Fossiliferous Rocks. 


C. Trias Group. 

D. Permian 

A. Carbonifer- 
ous Group. 

B. Devonian 

Upper Silu- 
rian Group. 

Lower Silu- 
rian Group. 

Muschelkalk. Hauptmuschelkalk, Salzgebirge, 
Wellenkalk, Wellendolomit of Wurtemberg ; 
Calcaire de LuneVille, France ; St Cassian beds, 
Tyrolese Alps ; Limestone of Recoaro, Venetian 

Bunter Sandstein. Thonige and Kieselige Sand- 
steine, and Rothe Letten of Wurtemberg ; Gr es 
Bigarr6 of France ; Upper New Red Sandsto ne 
of England. 

Magnesian Limestone of England ; Zechstein and 
Copper Schists of Thuringia : Upper Permian of 

Lower New Red Sandstone of England ; Vosgian 
Sandstone of France ; Todtliegendes of Germany ; 
Lower Permian of Russia. 
V. Palaeozoic. 
. Coal Measures, Millstone grit of England ; Terrian 
Houiller de France ; Kohlengebirge of Germany ; 
Goniatite grits of Russia. 

Carboniferous or Mountain Limestone of England ; 
Terrian Anthracifere de la Sarthe, France ; Berg- 
kalk of Germany ; Fusulina Limestone, Moscow 
Limestone, Lower Limestone of Tula and Ka- 
luga, Russia. 
, Upper Old Red Sandstone, or Petherwin Slate and 
Marwood Sandstone of Scotland and Wales ; 
Grundt Limestone of the Hartz ; Domanik 
Schiefer of Timans Mountains, Russia. 

Slate Rock and Limestone of South Devonshire, 
Plymouth Limestone, the Asterolepsis formation 
of Stromness, Caithness and Orkney Sandstone, 
England and Scotland ; Bas-Boulonnais beds, 
Limestone of Sable", France ; Limestone of Sa- 
bero, Leon, in Spain ; Limestone of the Eifel, 
Germany ; Riga and Dorpat beds, Russia. 

Upper Ludlow, Aymestry Limestone and Lower 
Ludlow of England ; Flagstones and Tilestones 
of Steens fiord, Norway ; Upper Limestone and 
Schists of Bohemia. 

Wenlock Limestone, Wenlock Shale and Wool- 
hope Limestone of England ; Coralline Lime- 
stone of Christiania ; Isles of Gottland and Oesel 
in the Baltic ; Schists and Red Sandstone of St 
Jean sur Erve, France ; Middle and Lower 
Limestones of Bohemia. 
. Caradoc Sandstone of England; Graptolites Schists 
of Sweden and France ; Pentamerus Limestone 
of Jelebeck, Norway. 

Landeilo and Bulith flags of England ; Ardoise a 
Trilobites d' Angers, France ; Etage des Quart- 
zites of Bohemia ; Pleta or Orthoceratites Lime- 
stone of Scandinavia and Russia. 

Bala beds, Tremadoc Slates and Lingula Flags of 
England ; Drammen Flags and Sandstone of 
Christiania, Norway ; Protozoic Green Schists of 
Bohemia ; Ungulite Grit and Blue Shale of St 
Petersburg, Russia* 

Jules Marcou's Geological Map of the United States. 

176 Scientific Intelligence — Meteorology. 

Cambrian of Sedgwick. 

Upper Bala, including Bala and Hirnant 
■o p ( limestone, shales, flagstones, and conglo- 

Lower Bala. 

Cambrian , 

( Arenaig slates and porphyry. 
*estiniog J Tremadoc slates. 
Group. ( Lingula flags. 

Bangor Group. /^lech grits. 
\ Llanberris sla 




1. In Omenaks Fiord, known as Jacob's Bight, lies the famous Hali- 
but fishing Station. — Up this fiord, in the chasms of the trap, those 
enormous glaciers accumulate which have made Jacob's Bight, per- 
haps, the most remarkable locality in the genesis of icebergs on the 
face of the globe. It is not uncommon to have the shore here com- 
pletely blocked in by these gigantic monsters ; I myself counted 
one evening, the 3d July, no less than two hundred and forty icebergs 
of primary magnitude, from the deck of our vessel. 

This remarkable station is worthy of the attention of all those in- 
dividuals who take an interest in the fisheries. 

2. Are the floating Icebergs of the Polar Seas of the nature of 
neve? — I had incidentally met with the remark of Professor Forbes, 
that " the floating icebergs of the Polar Seas are in the most part 
of the nature of neve;" and, while at a distance, I looked upon 
the substance of the mass before me as identical with the " firn," 
or consolidated snow of the Alpine glaciers, I now found cause, for 
the first time, to change this opinion. The ice of this berg, although 
opaque and vascular, was true glacier ice, having the fracture, 
lustre, and other external characters of a nearly homogeneous growth. 
The same authority, in speaking of these bergs, declares that " the 
occurrence of true ice is comparatively rare, and is greatly dreaded 
by ships.' 1 From this impression, which was undoubtedly derived 
from the appearance of a berg at a distance, I am also com- 
pelled to dissent. The iceberg is true ice, and is always dreaded by 
ships. Indeed, though modified by climate, and especially by the 
alternation of day and night, the Polar glacier must be regarded as 
strictly atmospheric in its increments, and not essentially differing 
from the glacier of the Alps. 

The general colour of a berg, I have before compared to frosted 
silver. But when its fractures are very extensive, the exposed faces 

Scientific Intelligence. — Hydrology. 177 

have a very brilliant lustre. Nothing can be more exquisite than a 
fresh, cleanly fractured berg surface. It reminded me of the recent 
cleavage of sulphate of strontian, — a resemblance more striking from 
the slightly lazulitic tinge of each. — (The JJ. S. Grinnel expedition in 
search of Sir John Franklin.) 

3. The Middle Ice, the position of the best known whale fishing - 
ground. — The causes of this accumulation of ice, so disastrous to 
the navigation of the western and northern waters of the bay, may 
be attributed in some measure to the high latitudes leaving the ice 
as yet unaffected by the southerly and westerly influences to which 
I have alluded, and therefore more open to local causes of devia- 
tion, such as currents and winds. 

It is through this ice-clogged bay that the great fleets of Baffin 
whale ships have, for the last twirty-two years, made an annual at- 
tempt to pass. The mysticeta, driven from their feeding-grounds 
on the coast of Greenland, have sought a refuge on the western side ; 
and their seats of favourite resort in the early part of the season are 
now in the waters of Lancaster, Prince Regent, and Wellington 
Sounds, and the indentations of the north-western coast of Baffin's 
Bay. The vessels which have succeeded in penetrating this inter- 
vening ice-barrier before August are more of a full cargo, but after 
this time all efforts are useless. The " fleet'' is spoken of as 
" baffled," and is obliged to seek other " grounds " to the south and 
west. It is, in fact, a great lottery, the caprices of the ice con- 
trolling the efforts of the most daring ; and for the last two years 
or "seasons" before our arrival, the whalers had completely failed 
in effecting a passage. — (Dr Elisha Kent Kane on the JJ. S. Grinnel 
Expedition in search of Sir John Franklin.) 


4. Notice of the Discovery of a Deep Sea Bank in the Examina- 
tion of the Gulf Stream. — On the 11th of June, Lieut.-Commander 
Craven, having crossed the Gulf Stream without finding bottom at 
1000 fathoms, came upon a sand bank at a depth of 469 fathoms, 
in lat. 28° 24' N. ; long. 79° 5' W. It is supposed to be an ex- 
tension of the Bahama Banks. 

The following interesting remarks in regard to the nature of the 
bottom brought up, were made by Assistant L. F. Pourtales. M. 
Pourtales says, — "I have in hand specimens raised from the bottom 
of the Gulf Stream, obtained by Lieutenant Craven, and can say that 
they are the most interesting I have ever seen. You recollect that 
I said in my report that with the increase in depth (in the greater 
depths) the number of individuals appeared to increase. The 
greatest depth from which I had seen specimens was between 200 
and 300 fathoms. There the sand contained perhaps 50 per cent. 



Scientific Intellige nee — Hydrology. 

of to ram in i ferae (in bulk). The specimens now before me go to 1050 
fathoms, and there is no longer sand containing foraminiferse, 
but fora mini ferae containing little or no sand. The grains of sand 
have to be searched for carefully under the microscope to be noticed 
at all. The species are the same as found in the deep-sea sounding, 
but the specimens look fresher and appear somewhat larger. The 
Globigerina rosea of D'Orbigny, which forms the majority, has fre- 
quently that delicate pink colour to which it owes its name, but 
which I cannot recollect to have noticed in northern specimens. 
There are also some specimens of coral and dead shells from the 
depths of 1050 fathoms. The corals do not look much worn, but 
still appear to have been dead. There were some delicate living 
shells from depths beyond 500 fathoms." — (American Annual of 
Scientific Discovery for 1854, p. 309.) 

5. Artesian Well, Charleston, S. C. — The following interesting 
table of the temperature of the Charleston well, at various depths, has 
been prepared by Professor Hume, of the State Military Academy. 

Degrees Fahr. 

At the surface, the temperature of the water is — 68 

50 feet the temperature 










From this table it will be seen that the increase of temperature by 
no means tallies with the increase of depth. The greatest increase 
of temperature seems to occur about those places at which streams 
of water were encountered, and the variations may be due to the 
fact that the well passed through some, as they descended from a 
higher and less heated, and through others as they descended from 
a lower and hotter level, and while the waters of both classes were 
still to some extent influenced by their previous temperature. The 
average rate of increase of temperature — 1 degree F. for every fifty- 
two and a half feet — agrees with the results heretofore obtained in 
other wells. — (American Annual of Scientific Discovery in 1854, 
p. 300.) 











1 T-u 



, . 



* At 58 eocene commences. 

t At 708 cretaceous commences. 

Scientific Intelligence. — Geology. 179 


6. M. Fucks on Iron, — M. Fuchs is of opinion that iron is a dimor- 
phous substance^ presenting itself under two distinct general forms 
or systems of crystallization, viz., the tesseral and the rhombohed- 
ral (or its modification, the hexagonal) ; and, consequently, there 
may be said to be two classification species of iron, which may be 
distinguished as tesseral and rhombohedral iron, and which are some- 
times combined in different proportions. M. Fuchs' experiments 
have proved decisively, that the malleable or bar iron belongs to the 
tesseral crystallization form ; and it may be conjectured that all the 
malleable metals may be classed under that system of crystallization. 
The crystallization system of pig-iron is not so exactly determined ; 
but it is very likely that it belongs to the rhombohedral system, 
because facette iron, particularly, is one of the most brittle metals 
which generally belong to the rhombohedral form. The difference 
between bar and facette iron is based not only on the difference of 
the system of crystallization, but also in the great difference between 
their physical and chemical properties ; such as the tendency of the 
molecules of metal to burst and become displaced ; hardness, liability 
to oxidization, solubility, fusibility ;* and M. Fuchs is of opinion, that 
steel is an alloy of tesseral and rhombohedral iron ; and he thinks that 
hardening and tempering consists only in the transformation of all 
the molecules, or a portion of them, from one system of crystalliza- 
tion to the other, — the rhombohedral iron being predominant in 
hardened steel, and the tesseral in non-hardened steel. — (Poggen- 
dorfs Annalen.) 

7. Artificial Malachite. — Rose of Berlin, by the following process, 
has succeeded in making artificial malachite, identical in composition 
with the natural green malachite. Precipitate a solution of sul- 
phate of copper in the cold bicarbonate of soda or of potash ; allow 
the precipitate, which is voluminous at first, to cohere ; finally dry 
it, and wash it. By polishing, the characteristic appearance of 
malachite may be brought out. 


8. On the Depth of the Primeval Seas, afforded by the Remains of 
Colour in Fossil Testacea. By Edward Forbes, F.R.S., Pres. 
G. S. L. — When engaged in the investigation of the bathy metri- 
cal distribution of existing mollusks, the author found that not only 
the colour of their shells cease to be strongly marked at consider- 
able depths, but also that well-defined patterns were, with very 
few and slight exceptions, presented only by testacea inhabiting 
the littoral, circumlittoral, and median zones. In the Mediterranean, 

* Wohler has already directed his attention to the fact, that every dimor- 
phous substance has two different degrees of fusibility. 

180 Scientific Intelligence. — Geology. 

only one in eighteen of the shells taken from below 100 fathoms ex- 
hibited any markings of colour, and even the few that did so were 
questionable inhabitants of those depths. Between 35 and 55 
fathoms, the proportion of marked to plain shells was rather less 
than one in three, and between the margin and two fathoms the 
striped or mottled species exceeded one-half of the total number. 

In our own seas, the author observes that testacea taken from 
below 100 fathoms, even when they were individuals of species 
vividly striped or banded in shallower zones, are quite white or 
colourless. Between 60 and 80 fathoms, striping and banding are 
rarely presented by our shells, especially in the northern provinces ; 
and from 50 fathoms shallow bands, colours, and patterns are well 

The relation of these arrangements of colour to the degrees of 
light penetrating the different zones of depth, is a subject well 
worthy of minute inquiry, and has not been investigated by natural 
philosophers. — (Proceedings of the Royal Society, March 23, 1854.) 

9. On the employment of water in filling up deep Bore-Holes in 
Blasting Operations. — In working the great deposit of magnetic 
iron ore, which occurs, under peculiar circumstances, in the granite 
at Marovitza in the Banat, it has been found necessary, in conse- 
quence of the hardness of the rock and ore, to use bore-holes from 
2 to 2^ inches in diameter, and 36 to 40 inches deep. The pack- 
ing of such holes with clay being a very tedious operation, Mr A. 
Keszt endeavoured to substitute water in the oiay with considerable 
success. One of Brickford's safety fuses, which burns in water per- 
fectly, is attached to the cartridge and fastened with the end ; this 
cartridge is let down to the bottom of the hole, and about 1^ to 2 
inches of clay firmly packed over it ; the remainder of the bore, to 
nearly the top, being filled with water. In the case of very oblique 
bores, where the pressure of the water upon the bottom was small, 
he plugged up the orifice of the bore with a plug of wood driven 
with considerable force into it, through a slit in which the fuse 
passed. More recently still, he has used, instead of the small quantity 
of clay at first introduced to keep the cartridges from being wetted 
by the water, a mixture of tar and pitch, which most effectually pre- 
serves the powder from damp. Great numbers of trials have con- 
vinced him that the blasts fired with this arrangement loose nothing 
in force, whilst there is a very great saving of time and consequently 
of expense. — (Oesten. Zeitschrift fur Berg-u-Huttenwesen, 1853. 
—IVo. 13. 

10. The American Tunnelling -Machine. — Talbot's " tunnelling- 
machine" has been tried, with complete success ; and it has been 
demonstrated that mountains of primitive stone, and the hardest 
rocks in the earth, can be successfully and economically tunnelled 

Scientific Intelligence. — Geology. 181 

by the agency of steam, applied to this new invention. The slow 
and expensive process of perforating by the drill and blast will be 
thrown aside. In the trial experiments the machine, moved by a 
steam-engine, cut an excavation of seventeen feet in diameter 
through the hardest rock at the rate of about three feet in two hours. 
The process consists in cutting and crushing the rock by means of 
rotating discs of steel, in successive series, which describe in their 
movement segments of circles from the centre to the circumference 
of the tunnel, with a gradual motion around the common centre ; 
while the steam-engine is constantly pressing the machinery on a 
direct line with the axis of the tunnel. The newest and most extra- 
ordinary feature of the application of this power consists in the com- 
bination of different sets of discs, which act upon the entire surface 
to be excavated by a system of gradation perfectly regular, and by 
a power that is irresistible. The machine, which worked most sa- 
tisfactorily, is made entirely of iron, and weighs about seventy-five 
tons, exclusive of the engine and boiler. One of the most interest- 
ing features of the experiment was when the machine began to cut 
the rock in an oblique direction, for it was observed that those discs 
or arms which were cutting the stone moved with the same facility 
that those did which were playing in the air. Gradually the cutters 
described their curve, the great faceplate of seventeen feet constantly 
revolved, throwing out and drawing back its arms with complete re- 
gularity, seizing and crushing the rock with irresistible power, Only 
four men are required to work this machine to the greatest advant- 
age ; and two of them confine their attention to the engine which 
propels it. There is no necessity for suspending the work day 
or night, except for those intervals when the cutters have to be 
sharpened, or new ones substituted. The amount of time and ex- 
pense which is saved by the operation is almost incredible. This 
machine evidently supplies a want which has been felt in every de- 
partment of civil engineering. It will revolutionise the whole sys- 
tem of railway construction, and is regarded as one of the most won- 
derful inventions of any age. 

11. Table of Statistics respecting the Mississippi, by Mr Brown. 

1. Quantity of water discharged by the Mississippi river annually, 
14,883,360,636,880 cubic feet. 

2. Quantity of sediment discharged by the Mississippi annually, 
28,188,083,892 cubic feet. 

3. Area of the Delta of the Mississippi, according to Mr Lyell, 
13,000 square miles. 

4. Depth of the Delta, according to Professor Riddell, 1,056. 

5. The Delta, therefore, according to 3 and 4, as above, contains 
400,378,429,440,000 cubic feet, or 2,720 cubic miles. 

6. According to 2 it would require, for the formation of one cubic 
mile of Delta, five years and eighty- one days. 

182 Scientific Intelligence. — Botany. 

7. For the formation of one square mile of the depth of 1,056 
feet, one year sixteen and one -fifth days. 

8. For the formation of the Delta, according to 2, 3, 4, time re- 
quired, 14,208-f years. 

9. The valley of the Mississippi, from Cape Girardeau to the 
Delta, is estimated to contain 16,000 square miles, of 160 feet depth ; 
it therefore contains 66,908,160,000,000 cubic feet, or 454J cubic 
miles. — (American Annual of Scientific Discovery, 1854, p. 306.) 

12. Age of our Planet. — It is supposed that the plants of the coal 
period required a temperature of 22° Reaumur. The mean now is 
8°, or 14° less. 

By experiments on the rate of cooling of lavas and melted basalt, 
it is calculated that 9,000,000 of years are required in the earth to 
lose 14° Keaumur. 

M. Hibert puts the period at 5,000,000. But supposing the wholo 
to have been in a molten state, the time that must have elapsed 
in passing from a liquid to a solid state is fixed at 350,000,000 
years. — (Ami Boue.) 

13. Use of Nitrate of Soda as a Fertilizer. — The Royal (English) 
Agricultural Society having offered a prize for a manure equal to 
guano at a cost of £5 a ton, Mr Pusey has shewn that the conditions 
are satisfied by nitrate of soda, and at a charge less than that specified. 
He says in illustration, that 46 acres of land, if cropped with bar- 
ley, and dressed with 17 cwt. of nitrate, would yield an increase of 
80 sacks beyond the quantity usually obtained. A cargo of this 
fertilizer was brought to England in 1820, but for want of a pur- 
chaser was thrown overboard ; a second importation took place in 
1830; and from that date up to 1850, the quantity brought from 
Peru, where the supply is inexhaustible, was 239,860 tons, value 
£5,000,000. With the price reduced to £8 a ton — Mr Pusey ob- 
serves — " Our farmers might obtain from their own farms the whole 
foreign supply of wheat without labour, and with but a few months' 
outlay of capital. I do not mean to say that no failures will yet 
occur before we obtain a complete mastery over this powerful sub- 
stance ; but I am confident so vast a resource of nitrogen — the 
main desideratum in the worn-out fields of Europe — cannot long be 
left within a few miles of the sea, passed almost in sight by our 
steamers, yet still nearly inaccessible, at the foot of the Andes." — 
(American Annual of Scientific Discovery for 1854, p. 281.) 


14. Progress of Flax Cultivation in Ireland. — The recent in- 
crease in the growth of flax in Ireland has been extraordinary, as the 

Scientific Intelligence — Geography. 183 

following table, containing the number of acres under cultivation in 
each of the six last years, will shew :- — 

1848 . 


. 53,863 



. 138,619 

1849 . 

. 60,314 


. 137,008 

1850 . 

. 91,040 


. 175,495 

There has thus been an increase of 29 per cent, last year over the 
crop of 1852 ; and 220 percent, over that of 1848. The increase 
in the three provinces of Leinster, Munster, and Connaught, of the 
crop of 1853 over that of 1852, has been 22 per cent. ; and over 
that of 1848 no less than 436 per cent. ; the number of acres under 
cultivation in these provinces in 1848 being 2,663, and in 1853, 
14,279. Notwithstanding this enormous increase in the production 
of home-grown flax, so rapid has been the development of the linen 
manufacture of these countries, that the imports of flax and tow 
amounted, in 1852, to 70,115 tons, or the produce of about 
280,000 acres ; and during the nine months, ending the 5th Oct. 
1853, the imports reached 62,264 tons, being an increase of 13,677 
tons over the corresponding period of 1852. 

Flax is becoming an article of export from Ireland, and the 
trade will, no doubt, rapidly increase if the cultivation of flax still 
further increase, as Irish flax seems to be sought after for certain 
purposes, not alone in England but on the Continent. Of the crop 
of 1852, there was exported 6696 tons of flax, and 2308 tons of 
tow — total 9004 ; value £392,500. Of this quantity, 413 tons 
were exported to France. The export in 1850 was only 3166 tons. 

In 1852 there was 956 scutor mills, with 5053 stocks in opera- 
tion, 50 being worked by steam. These mills employed about 
15,000 persons, whose agregate wages may be estimated at £160,000. 
Forty of these mills, with 340 scutching stocks, were in the provinces 
of Leinster, Munster, and Connaught. During the year 1853 the 
number of mills has considerably increased, but no return has yet 
been made. 

The Irish farmers are beginning to learn the value of saving the 
seed, as is shewn by the fact, that 20,000 bushels of seed were sold 
during the last year in Belfast alone to the oil mills, or for exporta- 
tion to England — the sum realized being £5000. Three new oil 
mills, on continental principles, have been erected in Ireland in 1853, 
two of them being in the south of Ireland. — (Journal of Industrial 
Progress, No. i., p. 28.) 


15. Augustus Petermann on the progress of the Expedition to 
Central Africa, by Messrs Richardson, Barth, Overweg, and 
Vogel, in the years 1850, 1851, 1852, 1853. 

On the results of the Expeditions generally. — The best and 

184 Scientific Intelligence — Geography. 

most correct idea of the results already gained by the expedi- 
tion, will be found by comparing the maps of the present work 
with those published by their immediate predecessors, namely, 
those illustrating the travels of Denham and Clapperton. First, a 
large portion of Northern Africa and the Sahara, never before 
visited by Europeans, has now for the first time been thoroughly 
explored. The discoveries in the country of the Tuaricks, compris- 
ing the kingdom of Air in particular, form a considerable addition 
to our geographical knowledge of Africa. But the great achiev- 
ments lie within Sudan, in the vast region between Guber and Ma- 
riadi in the West, and Dar For in the East, and ranging from the 1 5th 
parallel as far South as 5° north of the equator. The important 
discoveries of Denham and Clapperton, it must be borne in mind, 
were as yet confined to a region of which a great portion was known 
and mapped with some amount of truth before them, according to 
the information possessed by the Roman, Egyptian, and Arab geo- 
graphers ; whereas the whole region beyond the points reached by 
Denham, Clapperton, and Lander, presented a great blank — some 
vague indications only ; as, for example, the existence of a country 
called Adamaua. Except Mandara, no pagan country to the south 
of Lake Tsad had ever been reached by any European before Barth 
and Overweg, and the merit of pioneering into these totally unknown 
regions belongs to them. 

The actual extent of the routes accomplished by these travellers 
has been calculated from the present maps thus : — 


( 1 Af\C\ { ( as Bnewn by three 
Routes in Map of Northern Africa, . . J i4UU \ sections). 

r \ kqa / (not represented in 

^ 0c>u \ the sections). 

Do. in Map of Central Africa . . , 3050 

Do. in General Map, not contained in the 

enlarged maps, ..... 820 


This only comprises the journeys of Dr Barth up to August 
1852. The extent of the routes actually performed — viz., 5800 
geographical miles — will be better appreciated when compared with 
other recent travels ; as, for example, those of Galton in South 
Africa, the routes of which only amount to 1280 miles. The whole 
distance, in a direct line, from Tripoli to the Cape of Good Hope, 
is only 4080 miles. 

But the mere linear extent of the routes of their explorations 
would convey an inadequate idea of the importance of their labours. 
It is the value of their astronomical, hypsometrical, and geological 
observations — tho extent of their historical, philological, and ethno- 
logical researches — which, the writer confidently believes, will form 
a new era in the geography of the whole of Northern and Central 
A frica. And if the navigableness of the river discovered by Dr 

Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 185 

Barth is such as is anticipated, a new era will also, it is hoped, 
dawn upon the regeneration of Tropical Africa, with its social ques- 
tions — the questions of slavery and the introduction of Christian 
religion, civilisation, and commerce. The results of the long inter- 
course of the travellers with the ruling nations of that part of 
Africa — as the Tuaricks, the Fellatas, the Bornuese, as well as va- 
rious pagan tribes — will enable the statesman and philanthropist to 
ascertain in what quarter and by what means this regeneration of 
Africa may be best wrought. 


16. On the Identity of Structure of Plants and Animals , by T. H. 
Huxley. — Mr Huxley has ascertained that in all the animal tissues, 
the so-called nucleus (endoplast) is the homologue of the primordial 
utricle — with nucleus and contents — (endoplast) — of the plant, the 
other histological elements being invariably modifications of the peri- 
plastic substance. Upon this view, we find that all the discre- 
pancies which had appeared to exist between the animal and vege- 
table structures disappear, and it becomes easy to trace the absolute 
identity of plan in the two, — the differences between them being 
produced merely by the nature and form of the deposits in, or modi- 
fications of, the periplastic substance. In both plants and animals 
there is but one histological element — the endoplast — which does 
nothing but grow and vegetatively repeat itself; the other element 
— the periplastic substance — being the subject of all the chemical 
and morphological metamorphoses in consequence of which specific 
tissues arise. The differences between the two kingdoms are mainly 
— 1. That in the plant the endoplast grows, and, as the primordial 
utricle, attains a large comparative size ; while, in the animal, the 
endoplast remains small, the principal bulk of its tissues being formed 
by the periplastic substance ; — and, 2. In the nature of the chemical 
changes which take place in the periplastic substance in each case. 


17- On the Preservation of Buildings. — We gave a short notice, in 
the last number of our Journal, of a process likely to be found useful 
for protecting many of our finer buildings from falling into decay, if 
taken advantage of; but how often do we find many of those highly 
important improvements in the arts entirely overlooked at the time 
they ought to be attended to, and only taken up when the process of 
destruction has gone so far as to be beyond reparation. We again 
call the attention of our readers to another important paper on 
this subject by the Rev. J. Barlow, M.A., F.R.S., Vice-President 
and Sec. R.I ; and we hope that it will have some effect in rousing 
many of our dormant country gentlemen, military and civil autho- 

186 Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 

rities, to a strict sense of duty, in so far as their charge lies in re- 
gard to the protection of castles, fine old mansions, cathedrals, 
churches, and universities. We cannot refrain from adding, that 
the Terrace Building of our Own University is already failing into 
rapid decay. 

M Silica," says Mr Barlow, " is one of the most abundant sub- 
stances known. Quartz, common sand, &c, flint, chalcedony, opal, 
&c, and a variety of sand described by Mr J. T. Way,* may re- 
spectively be taken as examples of crystallized and uncrystallized 
silica. Under all these forms silica is capable of combining with 
bases as an acid. Heat is, however, essentially necessary to effect 
this combination, — a combination of which all the well-known sili- 
cates, whether natural, as felspar, mica, clay, &c, or artificial, as 
glass, slags, &c, are the results. The common forms of insoluble 
glass are produced by the union of silica with more than one base. 
But, when combined with an alkaline base only, silica forms a so- 
luble glass, the degree of solubility of which depends on the propor- 
tion which the silicic acid bears to this alkaline base This 

soluble silicated alkali (or water-glass) may be prepared by various 
processes. If sand be used, 15 parts of fine sand, thoroughly incor- 
porated with 8 parts of carbonate of soda, or with 10 of carbonate 
of potash, and 1 of charcoal fused in a furnace, will produce a sili- 
cated alkali which is soluble in boiling water. Messrs Ransomes 
obtained this silicated alkali by dissolving broken flints in a solution 
of caustic alkali at a temperature of 300° Fahr. And more re- 
cently, Mr Way has observed that the sand which he has described 
will combine with caustic alkali, at boiling heat, also producing a 

" This water-glass has been applied to several important pur- 
poses, three of which were specially noticed. 

" 1. To protect Building-stones from decay. — The stone sur- 
faces of buildings, by being exposed to the action of the atmosphere, 
become liable to disintegration from various causes. Moisture is 
absorbed into their pores. The tendency of their particles to sepa- 
rate, in consequence of expansion and contraction, produced by alter- 
nation of temperature, is thus increased. Sulphurous acid is always 
present in the atmosphere of coal-burning cities, and cannot but 
cor'rode the calcareous and magnesian ingredients of oolites and dolo- 
mites. It is true that good stone resists these sources of injury for 
an indefinite time, but such a material is rarely obtained. As a 
preventive of destruction, whether arising from physical or chemical 
causes, it has been proposed to saturate the surfaces of the stones 
with a solution of the water-glass. 

" It is well known that the affinity of silica for alkali is so feeble 

* Quarterly Journal of Chemical Society, July 1, 1853, and Journal of 
Royal Agricultural Society, vol. xiv., part 1. 

Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 187 

that it may be separated from this base by the weakest acids, 
even by carbonic acid. According to the expectation of those who 
recommend the silification of stone, the carbonic acid of the atmo- 
sphere will set the silica free from the water-glass, and the silica, 
thus separated, will be deposited within the pores and around the 
particles of the stone. The points of contact of these particles will 
thus be enlarged, and a sort of glazing of insoluble silica will be 
formed, sufficient to protect the stone against the effects of moisture, 
&c. This cause of protection applies chiefly to sandstones ; but 
wherever carbonate of lime or carbonate of magnesia enters notably 
into the composition of the building stone, then an additional che- 
mical action, also protective of the stone, is expected to take place 
between these carbonates and the water-glass. Kuhlmann remarks, 
1 Toutes les fois que l'on met en contact un sel insoluble avec la 
dissolution d'un sel dont Tacide peut former avec la base du sel in- 
soluble un sel plus insoluble encore il y a echange ; mais le plus 
souvent cet echange n'est que partial.'* In consequence of this 
1 partial exchange,' an insoluble salt of lime may be looked for when- 
ever a solution of water-glass is made to act on the carbonate of 
lime or carbonate of magnesia existing in oolitic or dolomitic build- 
ing stones. 

" This expectation, however, has not been altogether sanctioned 
by experiment. A gentleman, eminently conversant with building 
materials,! immersed a piece of Caen-stone in a solution of silicate 
of potash in the month of January 1849. This fragment, together 
with a portion of the block from which it had been separated, was 
placed on the roof of a building in order that it might be fully ex- 
posed to the action of atmosphere and climate. After five years the 
silicated and the unsilicated specimens were found to be both in the 
same condition, being both equally corroded. These specimens were 
exhibited in the theatre of the institution. But whatever ultimate 
results may ensue from this process, the immediate effects on the 
stone are remarkable. Two portions of Caen-stone were exhibited, 
one of which had been soaked in a solution of water-glass two months 
before. The surface of the unsilicated specimen was soft, readily 
abraded when brushed with water, and its calcareous ingredients 
dissolved in a weak solution of sulphurous acid. The silicated sur- 
face, on the other hand, was perceptibly hard, and resisted the ac- 
tion of water and of dilute acid when similarly applied. "| 

* Experiences Chimiques et Agronomiques, p. 120. 

t Charles H. Smith, Esq., one of the authors of the " Report on the Selection 
of Stone for the Building of the New Houses of Parliament.'' 

X Silliman's American Journal, January 1854, contains a notice of the ap- 
plication of the water-glass to the decaying surfaces in the Cathedral of Notre 
Dame in Paris. 

188 Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 

" 2. Another proposed use of the water-glass is that of harden- 
ing cements, mortar, &c, so as to render them impermeable by 

u Fourteen years since Anthon* of Prague proposed several ap- 
plications of the water-glass. Among others he suggests the ren- 
dering mortars water-proof. He also suggests that this substance 
might be beneficially employed as a substitute for size in white- 
washing and staining walls. It was demonstrated by several expe- 
riments, that carbonate of lime, mixed up with a weak solution of 
water-glass, and applied as a whitewash to surfaces, was not washed 
off by sponging with water, and that common whitewash, laid on in 
the usual manner with size, was rendered equally adhesive when 
washed over with water-glass. 

•* 2. The Stereochrome of Fuchs. — The formation of an inso- 
luble cement by means of the water-glass, whenever the carbonic 
acid of the atmosphere acts on this substance, or whenever it is 
brought in contact with a lime-salt, has been applied by Fuchs to 
a most important purpose. The stereochrome is essentially the 
process of fresco secco,t invested with the capability of receiving 
and perpetuating works of the highest artistic character, and 
which may be executed on a vast scale. Fuchs's method is as fol- 
lows :j — 

" ' Clean and washed quartz-sand is mixed with the smallest 
quantity of lime which will enable the plasterer to place it on the 
wall. The surface is then taken off with an iron scraper, in order 
to remove the layer formed in contact with the atmosphere ; the 
wall being still moist during this operation. The wall is then al- 
lowed to dry ; after drying it is just in the state in which it could 
bo rubbed off by the finger. The wall has now to be fixed, i. e., 
moistened with water-glass. § [An important point is not to use too 
much water-glass in moistening the wall.] This operation is usually 
performed with a brush. The wall must be left in such a condition 
as to be capable of receiving colours when afterwards painted on. 
If, as frequently happens, the wall has been too strongly fixed, the 
surface has to be removed with pumice and to be fixed again. Being 

* Neuere Mittheilungen uber die Nutzanwendung des Wasser-Glases, 1840. 
This subject has been also fully treated by Kuhlmann in his " M6moire sur l'ln- 
tervention de la potasse ou de la soude dans la formation des chaux by drauliques," 
&c., 1841. — Experiences Chimiques et Agronomiques. 

t Vide Eastlake's Materials for a History of Oil Painting, p. 142. 
\ These particulars were obtained by Dr Hoffmann from Mr Echter. A ste- 
reochronic picture by Echter, and a sample of the water-glass as prepared in 
Munich, were also exhibited by Dr Hoffman. 
§ The composition of the specimen was — 

Per cent. 

Silica 23-2 1 

Soda 8-90 

Potash 2 52 

[The specific gravity of the solution 3 81.] 

Scientific Intelligence. — Miscellaneous. 189 

fixed in this manner, the wall is suffered to dry. Before the painter 
begins, he moistens the part on which he purposes to work with 
distilled water, squirted on by a syringe. He then paints ; if he 
wishes to repaint any part, he moistens again. As soon as the 
picture is finished, it is syringed over with water-glass. After the 
wall is dry, the syringing is continued as long as a wet sponge can 
remove any of the colour. An efflorescence of carbonate of soda 
sometimes appears on the picture soon after its completion. This 
may either be removed by syringing with water, or may be left to 
the action of the atmosphere.' 

" Not to dwell on the obvious advantages possessed by the stereo- 
chrome over the real fresco (such as its admitting of being retouched 
and its dispensing with joinings), it appears that damp and atmo- 
spheric influences, notoriously destructive of real fresco, do not in- 
jure pictures executed by this process. 

" The following crucial experiment was made on one of these pic- 
tures : — It was suspended for twelve months in the open air, under 
the principal chimney of the New Museum at Berlin ; ' during that 
time it was exposed to sunshine, mist, snow, and rain,' and never- 
theless i retained its full brilliancy of colour.' 

Ci The stereochrome has been adopted on a grand scale by Kaul- 
bach in decorating the interior of the great national edifice at Berlin 
already alluded to. These decorations are now in progress, and will 
consist of historical pictures (the dimensions of which are 21 feet in 
height and 24§ in width, single colossal figures, friezes, arabesques, 
chiaro scuro, &c. On the effect of the three finished pictures, it 
has been remarked by one whose opinion is entitled to respect, that 
they have all the brilliancy and vigour of oil-paintings, while there 
is the absence of that dazzling confusion which new oil-paintings are 
apt to present, unless they are viewed in one direction, which the 
spectator has to seek for. 

" Mr A. Church has suggested, that if the surface of oolitic stones 
(such as Caen-stone) is found to be protected by the process already 
described, it might be used, as a natural intonaco, to receive coloured 
designs, &c, for exterior decorations ; the painting would then be 
cemented to the stone by the action of the water-glass. 

" Mr Church has also executed designs of leaves on a sort of terra 
cotta, prepared from a variety of Way's silica rock, consisting of 75 
parts clay and 25 of soluble silica. This surface, after being hard- 
ened by heat, is very well adapted for receiving colours in the first 
instance, and for retaining them after silication. 

18. On the relative values of different kinds of Meat as Food, by 
Marchal of Calvi. — M. Marchal took 20 grammes of the muscles 
of the pig, ox, sheep, calf, and hen, which contained neither sinews 
or cellular tissue, or adhering fat, except what naturally exists be- 
tween the muscular fibres, and dried them in a water bath for several 

190 Scientific Intelligence — Miscellaneous. 

days, and thus ascertained the loss which each sustained by desica- 
tion. The following are his results in 100 parts : — 


Solid Matter. Water. Solid Matter. Water. 

Pork, . 





Beef, . 





Wether Mutton, 










Veal, . 





According to these numbers we should arrange the meats in the 
following order of their relative nutritive powers : — pork, beef, 
mutton, chicken, veal. This order is, however, not the true one ; 
because the leanest meat contains a certain amount of fat, and be- 
cause this substance is not so important an article of food as the 
pure muscles, it is necessary to ascertain how much a certain 
quantity of meats contain before we can judge properly of its rela- 
tive nutritive value. M. Marchal accordingly treated the dried 
flesh with ether to dissolve out the fat, and obtained the following 
results : — 

Fat soluble in ether. Pure muscle insoluble in ether. 
Beef, . . 2-54 24-95 


1-40 24-87 

5-97 24-27 

2-96 23-38 

2-87 22-67 

The last table shews that the true order should be beef, chicken, 
pork, mutton, and veal, a result which experience confirms. It 
may, however, be remarked, that there is considerable difference 
between the same kind of meat derived from different animals ; and 
that the same amount of two different kinds of beef broth, both con- 
taining the same amount of water, may have very different nutritive 
values. Further investigations are required upon this point. — 
(Comptes rendus de V Academic. — The Dublin Journal of Indus- 
trial Progress, No. v., p. 156.) 

19. A New Observatory has been erected at Vienna. 



1. Recueil de 37 Itineraires dans la Turquie d' Europe, Details Geographiques, 
Topographiques, and Statistiques de cet Empire. Vienna, 1854. 1 vol. 8vo, of 
more than 600 pages. By Ami Boue. 

A work thoroughly revised. It forms a necessary commentary to a new map 
by Kiepert, in 4 sheets. Many geographic desiderata are fully illustrated, 
as, for example, the structure of the large chains of the rhodope, the Po- 
tamography of North Albany, &c. It contains statistics not only of each 
Paschalik, but also of towns and even villages in many parts of that coun- 
try. It is a work of great importance to military men, as in it they will 
find described the condition of the chief roads, the best military positions 
of the country, and the localities where an army would find provisions, 
and obtain hay in abundance. 

2. Sur l'Establissement de bonnes Routes surtout de Chemins de fer dans la 
Turquie d'Europe. By M. Ami Boue. Vienna. 52 pp. in 8vo. 

This pamphlet contains much important information on the means to be 
adopted to civilize rapiuly the Empire. 

3. The West Indies before and since Slave Emancipation ; comprising the 
Windward and Leewards Islands, Military Command; founded on Notes and 
Observations collected during a Three Years' Residence. By John Davy, M.D., 
F.R.S., «fec, Inspector-General of Army Hospitals. 8vo, pp. 551. 

We have in this volume an admirable outline of the history of the West 
Indies. The talented author lays before us much interesting and valuable 
information on meteorology, geology, ethnology, agriculture, and political 
economy of the Windward and Leeward Islands — Barbadoes, St Vincent, 
the Grenadines, Grenada, Tobago, St Lucia, Trinidad, British Guiana, 
Antigua, Montserratt, St Christopher, Nevis, Dominica, West Indian 
towns ; and an extremely important concluding chapter on the defects as 
to labour, education, sanitary measures, and the management of estates, &c. 
We recommend this work not only to all interested in our West Indian 
colony, but also to the general reader, as it contains much important 
and novel knowledge on natural science. 

4. A Manual of Natural History for the Use of Travellers ; being a descrip- 
tion of the Families of the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms ; with remarks on 
the practical study of Geology and Meteorology. To which are appended Direc- 
tions for Collecting and Preserving. By Arthur Adams, Esq., Dr Balfour, and 
Charles Barrow, Esq. 1 vol. 12mo, pp. 749. John Van Voorst, Paternoster 
Row, London, 1854. 

This work contains much useful information, and has a valuable index, 
which is important to the student of natural history. 

192 New Publications received. 

5. The Microscope and its Application to Clinical Medicine. By Lionel 
Beale, M.B., Lond., Professor of Physiology, &c. 12mo, pp. 303. Samuel 
Highley, Esq., 32 Fleet Street. London, 1854. 

A work that ought to be in the hands of every medical student, and in the 
library of every medical practitioner. The information in it is excellent, 
and well arranged. 

6. American Journal of Science and Arts. Conducted by Professors B. Silli- 
man, B. Silliman junior, and James D. Dana, in connection with Professor Asa 
Gray of Cambridge, Professor Louis Agassi z of Cambridge, Dr Waldo J. 
Burnett of Boston, Dr Wolcott Gibbs of New York, has reached us up to March 

7. Annalen der Physik und Chemie. Herausgegeben zu Berlin, von J. C. 
Poggendorff. Nos. 1, 2, and 4. 1854. 

8. L'Institut. Journal Universel des Sciences et des Societes savantes en 
Prance et a L'Etranger, up to May 1854. 

9. Memoires de la Societe de Sciences Naturelles de Cherbourg, ler Volume, 
2 Livraison. Cherbourg* 

10. Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin. Vol. vi., Part 1, 1853-54. 

11. The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society ; with Maps and Illustra- 
tions. Vol. xxiii. 1853. John Murray, Esq., Albemarle Street, London. 

12. Jahresbericht uber die Fortschritte der reinen, pharmaceutischen und 
technischen Chemie, Physik, Mineralogie und Geologic Unter Mitwirkung 
von II. Buff, E. Dieffenbach, C. Ettling, F. Knapp, H. Will, F. Zamminer 
Herausgegeben. Von Justus Liebig und Hermann Kopp. Giessen, 1853. 

13. The Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society. No. xxv. April 1854. 

14. The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. No. 7. Samuel 
Highley, Esq., Fleet Street, London. 

15. Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia. June-December 
1853. Singapore. 

16. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. No. vii. 1853. Calcutta. 

17. The Cultivation of Tea in the district of Kangra. By W. Jameson, Esq., 
Director of the Botanical Gardens, N. W. P. Lahore, 1853. 

18. The Journal of Industrial Progress. Edited by William K. Sullivan, 
Chemist to the Museum of Irish Industry. Dublin. 

We have received six numbers of this monthly journal, and have perused 
them carefully, and found in each of them highly useful and practical in- 
formation. It is a periodical that cannot fail to do much good in the 
country, and it will keep a lively energetic spirit afloat for practical 
science, which otherwise would not have been heard of. 

19. The famous Prize Essay of Schabus, on Artificial Crystals, will appear 




Biographical Notice of Marie-Henri Ducrotay de Blainville? 
de V Academic des Sciences, Professeur Administrates 
au Museum d'Histoire Nuturelle, Professeur a la Faculte 
des Sciences de Paris ; de la Societe Royale de Londres, 
$c. §rc. By M. Flourens. 

La Bruyere has said, that there is not in the world a more 
difficult task than that of making for oneself a name. He who 
spoke thus, supported by the attractions of criticism, dared to 
brave the difficulties he points out, and made for himself a 
very famous one. That individual of our associates, of whom 
I am this day to speak to you, had too much energy to be 
alarmed by a word of La Bruyere's ; and, in his hard labours, 
what animated him was the pleasure of contradiction. He 
has succeeded, by obstinate efforts, in throwing a new light 
on some of the loftiest questions connected with the science 
of beings. He has tasted the success which criticism at all 
times obtains, and that species of warm admiration which 
opposition never fails to awaken, even when genius is the 
object of its attack. 

Born at Arques, on the 17th February 1777, of Pierre 
Ducrotay and Catherine Pauger, M. de Blainville took plea- 
sure in relating that, although his family was not among the 
most illustrious of the province, it yet went back as far as 
the 14th century ; that he was the descendant of a Scottish 
gentleman, the rival of Sir Walter Scott's " Quentin," and 
who, possessed of nothing but his cap and sword, had re- 


194 Biographical Notice of 

ceived the name of Ducrotay from the place where he dis- 
embarked. After having thus placed the nobility of his 
ancestors under the aegis of Scottish loyalty, he added that, 
under Francis I., the government of the Chateau d'Arques, 
which was at that time rendered an important post from its 
position, was entrusted to one Robert Ducrotay; that the 
fortune of this family still increased under the descendants 
of the latter, who had the rare address to conciliate the 
favour of five successive monarchs, had been honoured with 
particular marks of esteem by Henry III., and received from 
Henry IV., who found in him an intrepid auxiliary at the 
battle of Arques, the confirmation of his titles of nobility, 
privileges, &c. 

It was, therefore, in the bosom of a family proud of histo- 
rical recollections and confident in its privileges, that the first 
moral impressions of the young Ducrotay de Blainville were 
formed. He was a younger son, and had the misfortune, at 
an early age, to lose his father. He received elementary 
instructions from the Cure, who resided near his paternal 
dwelling, and at a later period joined his eldest brother at 
the military school of Beaumont-en- Auge. The manage- 
ment of this school was in the hands of the Benedictine 
monks of Saint-Maur. One word is sufficient in its com- 
mendation ; it had the honour to rank Laplace among its 

The storm of the Revolution, by dispersing associations 
of ecclesiastics, too soon deprived young Blainville of this 
excellent means of instruction. He had scarcely reached 
his fifteenth year, when he was thrown back on the hands of 
a frail, oppressed mother, whose blind affection could oppose 
no sufficient barrier to a youth of a difficult temperament. 
All the value of a father's life, and the high importance of 
the experience of the head of a family who disguises none 
of the stern obligations of life from him who is to support 
the honour of his name, are often not appreciated till after 
a long series of disappointments. 

At the age of nineteen, Henri de Blainville, desirous to 
push himself forward in the public service by his talents, 
spent some months at Rouen attending a school for drawing. 

Marie-Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. 195 

The manager of this establishment wrote to the mother of 
his pupil — " The character of the young man is rough ; . . 
his heart, although not in a sound state, is not without good 
qualities ; his greatest passion is a desire to learn ; all the 
rest is a tissue of ill-combined ideas." 

In order to complete his studies, M. de Blainville came to 
Paris. Scarcely had he arrived, when even the shadow of 
authority was removed from him, by the loss of his mother. 
Thus left to himself, his too great independence became to 
him a dangerous stumbling-block. He gave himself up to all 
the inclinations peculiar to his time of life ; and, surrounded 
by thoughtless companions, he very speedily squandered in 
gaiety the whole of his patrimony. 

Having thus arrived at the result to which this mode of 
life naturally led, he began to reflect, and perceived the 
necessity of replacing the means which could be no longer 
available for the future. In his first efforts, he did nothing 
but give vent to a restless activity. We find him by turns 
a poet and litterateur among his friends, and a zealous musi- 
cian in the Conservatory ; while in a celebrated studio we 
encounter him as a painter, and in particular a very skilful 

Two lofty principles still survived in the heart of this young 
man ; a high respect for his birth, and a thirst for know- 
ledge. The former of these sentiments was not, indeed, 
without its attendant dangers ; it gave rise to pretensions of 
a singular character. M. de Blainville had retained all the 
illusions of a gentleman of the previous century, to such a 
degree that he could never, even when become a sober-minded 
man, altogether divest himself of the assurance that he was 
provided, by royal appointment, with particular privileges. 
Of these the privilege of criticising and being always in the 
right seems to have been in his eyes the most valuable, and 
he made use of it constantly and everywhere ; a circumstance 
which stood in the way of his intercourse with those who were 
unwilling to admit this obsolete feudality. 

The desire of instruction, united to a pious regard for a 
family name, was the means of saving this stormy life, by 
holding out a noble object to unusual energy. When, on 


19(5 Biographical Notice of 

emerging from the last dreams of youthful folly, our fiery 
gentleman fell back upon himself, and found himself, at 
his twenty-eighth year, ruined, without profession, without 
family ; if sorrow could not but oppress him, he was far 
from giving way to it; and making a solemn appeal to a 
stout heart and vigorous mind, he determined to rouse a 
degree of courage worthy of his ancestors. 

It is only to a worthless Phrygian slave that one could 
succeed by exclaiming, " Purchase your master ." Although of 
similar dispositions, M. de Blainville judged it prudent to ac- 
commodate himself to the manners of the age. Chance led 
him to a course of lectures on Natural Philosophy, delivered 
by M. Lefevre-Gineau in the College of France ; and here 
he was inspired with a hitherto unknown attraction, the love 
of serious pursuits. He was presented to the Professor as a 
modest neophyte, but he soon made himself to be so far ap- 
preciated as to gain admission to a house in which M. Gineau 
and his colleagues assembled, all of them connected with the 
higher departments of educational knowledge. It was in the 
midst of this circle of eminent men, that, for the first time, 
M. de Blainville found himself called to a congenial vocation. 
Nothing could harmonize better with his tastes and the 
tendency of his mind, than the authority of the chair, and the 
dogmatic tone of a master ; the dominating influence which 
superior knowledge exercised over the minds of others, ap- 
peared to him the most enviable of distinctions ; he conceived 
that he had discovered the path which was one day to lead 
him to reputation. 

From that moment, continuous and ardent labour en- 
grossed all his faculties. Yielding to judicious advice, he 
began by a profound analysis of human organization by means 
of important researches, and made such prodigious efforts 
and rapid progress, that after two years spent in the 
lecture-rooms and hospitals, he placed himself, by means 
of a remarkable work on Experimental and Comparative 
Physiology, in rivalship with Bichat, and took the title of 
doctor ; leaving, struck with surprise, his noble compatriots, 
the gay companions of his early youth, who saw him, not 
without some feeling of regret, throw off the guise of the im 
prudent and frivolous votary of dissipation. 

Marie-Henri Bucrotay de Blainville. 197 

The rumour of this transformation one day reached his 
paternal dwelling, where the eldest of the Blainville's still 
resided. " Are you aware what your young brother has be- 
come V a news-telling traveller said to him. " Nothing good, 
I suppose." " Know then that he is in the way of acquiring 
great renown." " Impossible !" exclaimed the feudal Norman, 
" he would never do anything." 

The elevated character of his first works, his skill in seizing 
connections, his birth and singular beginnings, were all des- 
tined from the first to distinguish this new adept in science. 
While following in all its branches the course of instruction 
given in the Museum, M. de Blainville everywhere met with 
a generous sympathy. It was there — in this great and first 
school of modern Natural History — that during ten years of 
deep study, all the superior faculties were developed of a 
man who was to distinguish his progress by strength in 
meditation, and boldness and tenacity in controversy. 

M. de Blainville first attached himself to Zoology. He 
has given to it a peculiar character. I particularly remark 
this distinct character in what he has left us on the Mollusca 
and Zoophytes. When he began to occupy himself with these 
two groups of beings, all the principal divisions were already 
established ; the type defined, the classes formed, and these 
classes divided into orders ; but the work relating to the 
genera still remained, a work which required singular 
sagacity, and in which M. de Blainville has excelled. He 
formed a conception of genera, as Linnaeus conceived them. 
And this resemblance is not the only one I have found be- 
tween him and that naturalist of such rare endowments. 
They are the only two systematists, perhaps, whose fire did 
not become extinguished among details. Linnaeus gives to 
his details a living character by invented expressions. M. 
de Blainville animates them in a different way ; he makes 
them the empassioned results of his preconceived ideas. 

From Zoology, M. de Blainville passed rapidly to Compara- 
tive Anatomy. In these galleries, then in their infancy, every 
thing reminded him of the deep admiration he had felt, when, 
confounded in the crowd, he heard for the first time the elo- 
quent voice of the great renovator, inspired with the ancient 

198 Biographical Notice of 

knowledge of Aristotle. But even this admiration awoke all 
his critical instincts, and already he had formed in his own 
mind the rash resolution of one day engaging in a contest 
with him. 

While he dreamed of opposition and independence, the 
penetrating discernment of the man of genius had oftener 
than once rested upon him. Cuvier desired such proselytes 
to science ; he sought for them, courted them, opened to them 
his library and his house, and did all this with a noble gene- 
rosity, while they remained the satellites of his fame ; but as 
soon as they became strong, and presumed to dispute the 
lion's part, the connection ceased. On one occasion, in the 
depth of a gallery, when M. de Blainville was absorbed in 
his contemplations, he saw Cuvier, the great Cuvier, then in 
the zenith of his brilliant career, coming up to him. " I 
have," he said to him, (whom he knew only by his works, and 
now spoke to him for the first time), " I have a proposal to 
make to you. Will you join your exertions to mine for the 
completion of a great work on Comparative Anatomy, with 
which I have been engaged for a long time 1 You shall have 
a share in my reputation ; we will assist each other." Al- 
lured by the lively gratification experienced by a man of 
merit on feeling himself appreciated, and appreciated by a 
superior nature, M. de Blainville hastened to accept of this 

Placed forthwith in the first rank among the disciples, al- 
ready celebrated, who devoted laborious exertions to the exe- 
cution of works, the conception of which belonged only to their 
master, M. de Blainville, who could never endure the shadow 
of any kind of subordination, allowed the resentment of of- 
fended susceptibility to arise in his mind. He became fretful, 
complained with bitterness, and was listened to with kindness 
and gentleness ; for much was to be pardoned in one who was 
of so much value. When the right of finding fault was con- 
ceded to him, the intractable pupil placed it on so broad a 
basis, that Cuvier said, with a smile, " Ask M. de Blainville's 
opinion on any thing whatever, or even say to him only 
Good-day } he will reply, No !" 

Forced into u state of continual warfare, M. Cuvier still 

Marie-Henri Duerotay de Blainville. 199 

managed to derive advantage from it. . He found in it the 
means of ascertaining all the assailable points of the ideas he 
promulgated ; all were promptly attacked by this severe an- 
tagonist, who seemed, by disputing with this great man, to 
take upon himself the task of the ancient priests, repeating 
daily to kings in the midst of their power, Forget not that 
you are men. 

In return for services so generously rendered, the master, 
judicious and skilful, neglected nothing to provide for the 
future comfort of his singular fellow-labourer. After hav- 
ing lectured for ten years in the Athenaeum, he asked M. de 
Blainville to take his place. At a later period he entrusted 
him with the supply of his chair, first in the College of France, 
then in the Museum ; finally, when the Faculty of Sciences 
required a Professor of Anatomy and Zoology, he surrounded 
his candidate in the competition with all the means of suc- 
cess. M. de Blainville was appointed, and thus acquired, 
with independence, an entire liberty of opposition, of which 
he made ample use. 

He had not deceived himself as to his vocation. It is 
particularly by his teaching that M. de Blainville has given 
eclat to his scientific career. He possessed in the highest 
degree that easy fluency and animated turn of speech, as 
well as dictatorial tone, which subjugate and attract the 
minds of an audience. To the judicious composure which 
scatters cautiously the germs of fruitful knowledge, he pre- 
ferred the bold forms of an elevated logic. He succeeded in 
inflaming young heads who would not otherwise, without 
some resentment, have manifested marks of warm sympathy 
with a disciple who sought his own elevation by contradict- 
ing a great master. And this master was still Cuvier not- 
withstanding, for whom the youth were so full of enthu- 
siasm, but in whom they attempted indirectly to blame the 
philosopher for being forgetful of a praiseworthy and inde- 
pendent simplicity. 

Such success was not calculated to set their intercourse on 
a more agreeable footing. After a sojourn of some months 
in England, M. de Blainville returned rich in scientific mat- 
ter. Still believing his just supremacy to be respected. 

200 Biographical Notice of 

Cuvier asked him to communicate it to him. The traveller 
merely replied, " In order that it may be at your disposal 
more readily, I am about to publish it." 

Urged on by a restive disposition, in a manner contrary to 
the feeling of fidelity which at heart he seriously entertained, 
M de Blainville allowed himself to go the length of break- 
ing off altogether under frivolous pretexts. 

M, Cuvier regretted his loss of the important aid of a high 
and rare intelligence ; but he was well aware that the 
advantages of contradiction would not be wanting to him. 
As to M. de Blainville, he deprived himself of an incalcul- 
able advantage, in the loss of intimate intercourse with a 
superior mind, replenished with all the qualities calculated 
to moderate and direct — sound reason, calm and enlight- 
ened thought, and that prevailing good sense, which is the 
real master and final judge of every thing in this world. 

In every vicissitude of life, the energetic individual whose 
character I am considering seems to have found a new 
strength in labour. He astonished his contemporaries by 
the vigour with which he prosecuted his studies. Profound 
researches, bold discussions, deep historical synopsis, nothing 
could wear out the resources of this ardent and versatile 

In 1822, he published the first volume of a general treatise 
on Comparative Anatomy. With this work appeared a new 

M. Cuvier had improved Comparative Anatomy by the ex- 
perimental method, which proceeds from facts to ideas. All Blainville's efforts, and all his works, were directed to 
an opposite method. 

His first care is to form an abstract type of a living 
being. BufFon had said : " We may distinguish two parts 
in the animal economy, the first of which acts perpetually 
without any interruption, and the second acts only by inter- 
vals. The action of the heart and lungs appears to belong 
to the former ; the action of the senses, and the movement 
of the body and limbs, to the latter." 

This view became, with Bicbat, the principle of his famous 
distinction of the two lives — organic life and animal life. 

Marie-Henri Bucrolay de Blainville. 201 

Buffon had added : " Let us invest the interior part in a 
suitable envelope, that is to say, let us give to it senses and 
members, animal life will soon manifest itself; and the more 
fully the envelope shall contain the senses, members, and 
other exterior parts, the more complete will the animal life 
appear, and the more perfect will be the animal," 

M. de Blainville combines these two ideas of Buffon. 
There is in life, two lives — the life of nutrition and the life of 

Buffon saw nothing in the general envelope but the ex- 
terior part, the seat of the sensations. M. de Blainville 
regards this envelope as continued, becoming folded, penetrat- 
ing into the interior, and becoming the seat of the respiratory 
and digestive systems. 

Lastly, just as there are two lives, there are likewise two 
great kinds of apparatus — the vascular and the nervous — and 
on these two apparatus all the organs depend ; on the first, 
the organs of sense and motion ; on the second, the organs of 
secretion and nutrition. 

The abstract type of a living being once settled, it affords 
to M. de Blainville a new frame-work where all the details 
of Comparative Anatomy, almost infinite in number, become 
classified and concentrated. The various structures seem 
nothing more than realised instances of a previous concep- 
tion. The dogmatic process is substituted for the experi- 
mental, and M. de Blainville may likewise call himself a 
master and a great one, for he has transfused into the 
science the complexion of his mind and his own peculiar 

So many and such laborious efforts had for a long while 
secured a place for M. de Blainville in the Academy. He 
was admitted in 1825. In 1830, a royal ordinance having 
divided the educational duties of the Museum of Natural 
History devoted to the illustration of the invertebrate ani- 
mals, M. de Blainville was naturally chosen, in consequence 
of his beautiful works on the Mollusca and Zoophytes, to 
occupy one of the two chairs. 

Thus, although he was late in devoting himself to the 
sciences, he obtained the most favourable position they could 

202 1 biographical Notice of 

bestow, and he saw accomplished the destiny he had traced 
out for himself, when he told Cuvier, in one of his spites 
against him, " I shall one day have a chair in the Institute 
and Museum of Natural History, by the side of you, in front 
of you, and in spite of you." 

In spite of you was unjust, for animosity did not exist ; 
but it would have diminished his gratification if he had 
ceased to believe in it ; only experience had proved to M. 
Cuvier the difficulty of intercourse with him, and made him 
doubt the practicability of it. 

M. de Blainville had reached that age when a man of 
superior mind feels the need of uniting his ideas together by 
a philosophical bond of connection. 

His long-continued studies in Zoology had led him to per- 
ceive in the whole animal kingdom only a continuous series of 
beings which, becoming with each degree more animated, 
more sensible, more intelligent, rise from animals of the low- 
est grade up to man himself. This grand view was that of 
Aristotle in ancient times, and it has been that of Leibnitz 
in modern days. 

" The continuity of gradations" Aristotle finely remarks, 
M covers the limits which separate beings, and withdraws 
from the eye the point which divides them. 1 ' 

" I love maxims which support themselves," said Leibnitz. 
Weknow that in order to obtain such he had thought of bring- 
ing them all to one. His philosophy has only one principle, 
that of continuity. Each being in the globe we inhabit is 
connected with all others, and the globe itself with all other 
globes. " With M. Leibnitz," said Fontenelle, " one should 
have seen the extremity or end of things, or that they have 
no end." 

Never has a philosophical idea undergone greater vicissi- 
tudes than that of the scale of beings. All the naturalists of 
the eighteenth century admit it. "The progress of nature 
takes place by insensible degrees," Buffon tells us. " Nature 
makes no sudden leaps," exclaims Linnaeus. Bonnet ex- 
hausts himself in simple efforts to discover everywhere in- 
termediate, equivocal beings, which should fill up the voids. 

Cuvier appeared, and the entire idea of continuity or se- 

Marie-Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. 203 

quence is at once set aside. The animal kingdom is divided 
into determinate, circumscribed groups, widely separated, 
without connection, without intermediate links. 

To M. Cuvier succeeds M. de Blainville ; and with him 
we again restore the series of beings, but, this time at least, 
more developed, more complete, approaching more nearly to 
being everywhere demonstrated ; and, what is the last stage 
of advancement in this department, essentially connected with 
the doctrine of final causes, a doctrine every day becoming 
better understood and more respected. 

This chain of associated beings, adapting themselves to 
each other, visibly implies a determinate design, a plan fol- 
lowed, an end foreseen. 

Final causes are the highest philosophical expression of 
our sciences, and the most moderate. 

There is a pleasure of a superior order in discovering and 
contemplating this wonderful assemblage of so many diverse 
ressorts combined in such just proportions. The spectacle of 
an Infinite Wisdom imparts tranquillity to the human mind, 
" It is not a small matter," said Leibnitz, " to be content 
with God and the universe." 

In 1832, science received a terrible blow ; Cuvier was car- 
ried off in a few days. 

The managers of the Museum thought it their duty to 
transfer M. de Blainville to the chair in which the modern 
Aristotle had immortalized himself. 

From this time forward, in the character of a vigilant and 
almost jealous guardian, M. de Blainville pitched his tent 
beside the collections, purchased by half a century of enlight- 
ened labour. A tent indeed it might be called — an abode 
worthy of our philosophers of the Middle Ages — where he re- 
produced both their lengthened meditations and inexhaustible 

Spending his life in a gloomy cabinet, and entrenching 
himself there in the depth of a vast easy-chair, surrounded 
by a triple rampart formed by a confused assemblage of 
books, original drawings, anatomical preparations, and ill- 
secured microscopes, if at any time a studious pupil was ad- 
mitted, he had more than one obstacle to surmount in order 

204 Biographical Notice of 

to introduce himself; for the confusion was general, and if it 
was difficult to find a seat, it was not less so to find a place 
for it. At last, after the good fortune of getting installed, 
if, in the ardour of study, a volume required to be sought for, 
it was usually necessary to draw it from the base of a moun- 
tain whose general overthrow amounted, in this chaos, to a 
real cataclysm, which, considering that it was so frequent, 
was not on that account attended with less confusion. 

If an adventurous visitor, after a long parley, reached the 
inviolable asylum, while still upon the threshold, and without 
any movement indicating that his presence had been observ- 
ed, a grave and sonorous voice was heard with the invariable 
question, " What is there here for your use, sir ? " Sometimes 
the stranger, on the first appearance of things, became dis- 
concerted, not supposing that there could be an itinerary for 
such a labyrinth as he saw before him, or not having sufficiently 
foreseen how painful it is for a deep thinker to have the 
course of his ideas deranged. In such a case he had to seek 
for safety in a quick retreat, and thereby excuse his impru- 
dence. If, on the contrary, the first words that escaped the 
disturber announced a person worthy of a learned conversa- 
tion, M. de Blainville, immediately raising his head, and 
divesting himself of the thoughts that occupied him, employ- 
ed all the advantages which his ready eloquence put at the 
service of great knowledge to delight his auditor. If the 
latter, pleased with his courtesy, prolonged his visit, he ex- 
posed himself after his departure to the risk of eliciting from 
the laborious savant the exclamation, " Again another hour 
lost I " 

But was it an old pupil that came to receive knowledge 
from his master ? He might confidently surmount every ob- 
stacle — the kindest reception awaited him ; for if M. de 
Blainville, as a true gentleman, required his pupils to render 
him complete faith and homage, it was with sincere and al- 
most paternal affection that he regarded them in return. 

It was from this sanctuary of study, that, after having 
been a long time enclosed, as poets tell us Minerva was in 
the brain of Jupiter, afterwards emerged in complete armour 

Marie-Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. 205 

that ardent controversy respecting all the arguments on 
which Cuvier founded the new science of Palseontology. 

The first germ of this surprising science of lost beings is 
to be found in an old belief — that of a great ancient deluge. 

In vain scholastic philosophy pretends that fossil shells were 
nothing more than freaks of nature, jeux de la nature. In 
vain the philosopher Voltaire, who, for reasons anything but 
philosophical, would not on any account that there had been 
a deluge, multiplies the number of pilgrims to explain the 
dispersion of marine shells ; neither freaks of nature nor 
pilgrims could answer the purpose. Supported by evidence 
of the fact, and by unextinguishable tradition, the common 
sense of men protested against such explanations. 

In the seventeenth century, the attention which had been 
excited by fossil shells, was directed to the gigantic bones pre- 
served in the bowels of the earth, whose first origin was 
equally concealed. 

In 1696, some bones of an elephant were discovered in the 
principality of Gotha. The Grand-Duke immediately assem- 
bled the council of learned men ; the council unanimously 
declared that they were jeux de la nature. 

About the same time some of the bones of the animal we 
now call the Mastodon, were found in Dauphine, one of our 
own provinces. 

A surgeon of that country bought these bones, and had 
them conveyed to Paris, where he exhibited them for money, 
affirming in a pamphlet, that they were taken from a tomb 
30 feet long, and that they were the remains of a giant, king 
of one of the barbarous people who were defeated near the 
Rhone by Marius. All Paris was anxious to see this trophy 
of Marius' glory ; and, according to their almost invariable 
practice, after believing at first all that was told them, they 
soon sneered at all they had believed. 

The eighteenth century at last brought on the serious study 
of such objects. Gmelin and Pallas make us acquainted with 
the fossil bones of Siberia ; they inform us that such bones 
are found there in prodigious abundance, some of them being 
those of a Rhinoceros, others belonging to an elephant, and 
gigantic ruminants. 

206 Biographical Notice of 

Who shall bo the fortunate interpreter of these strange 
facts 1 

Gmelin and Pallas think that an immense irruption of the 
sea, coming from the south-east, could alone transport these 
huge remains, all belonging to southern animals, into the 
northern lands. 

Inspired by a loftier genius, Buffon, now almost an octo- 
genarian, conceived the idea of extinct species. 

" The bones preserved in the bosom of the earth," he says, 
M are proofs as authentic as they are unexceptionable, which 
demonstrate to us the past existence of colossal species diffe - 
ent from all those now existing." 

11 It is with regret,'' he adds with eloquent emotion ; " it 
is with regret that I leave these precious monuments of a 
former world, which my advanced age denies me time to ex- 
amine. This investigation of beings which have disappeared, 
would of itself require more time than I have to live, and I 
can only recommend it to posterity ; others will come after 

This prophecy has been fulfilled. To the glory of our own 
age, Cuvier has created a new art ; he touches these scattered 
relics, and revives to our astonished view the extinct races. 
He examines every stratum of the globe, and each gives up 
to him its peculiar population. 

He first finds the Crustacea, mollusca, and fishes ; then rep- 
tiles ; next mammifera, but mammifera of a race no longer 
existing ; he finds the races now living only at the actual 
surface of the globe. 

Life, then, is developed only gradually, progressively ; and 
the beautiful theory of the succession of beings grows and 
rises like the most certain deduction from the best established 

There have been, according to Cuvier, many partial and 
successive creations ; these multiplied populations became 
perfected, while they became diversified ; and we must sup- 
pose violent and sudden causes to account for the rapid dis- 
appearance of so many species at once. 

M. de Blainville takes up each of these propositions, one 
after another, and combats them all. 

Marie-Henri Ducrotay de Blalnville. 207 

He contends for a single and simultaneous creation — a 
first and complete population, subjectto incessant extinctions ; 
and he requires only slow and ordinary causes to account for 
these repeated destructions. 

What ! he exclaims, you pretend that at each revolution 
you suppose, the Great Artificer of created things recom- 
menced his work ! 

But remark, in the first place, the general resemblance 
which connects living with lost species. In spite of all your 
skill, you have not been able to distinguish, by a certain 
feature, the fossil elephant from the existing elephant of the 

You yourselves admit that, among fossil animals, many 
are to be found which differ in nothing from living animals. 

The facts on which you found your theory are therefore 
insufficient and incomplete facts. Incomplete facts cannot 
be set as a limit to our conjectures. 

In the absence of complete facts, which he was no more 
possessed of than Cuvier, M. de Blainville sought for a su- 
perior reason which might in his estimation occupy their place, 
and free his impatient mind from the annoyance of waiting. 
This superior reason appeared to him to be found in the unity 
of the kingdom. And here science is indebted to him for one 
of its great steps in advance. 

As long as he confined himself to the study of existing 
species, the animal series presented to him everywhere lacu- 
nae and voids. In every quarter beings were wanting. It was 
then that, with the glance of genius, he saw and recognised 
in lost Nature the beings which were wanting in living Nature, 
and that he intercalated with surprising address the fossil 
species among the existing species, seizing from that moment, 
and being the first among all naturalists to disclose to us at 
last, the unity of the kingdom. 

The animal kingdom is therefore one, — the unity of the 
kingdom seems be to the first demonstrated point of the unity 
of the creation. 

After having explained the contrary opinions of the two 
authors, I proceed to examine their systems, which are not 
less so. 

208 Biographical Notice of 

M. Cuvier follows facts, alike determined both to wait for 
them, however slowly they appear, and to accept the result 
which they yield, whatever that may be, whether the theory 
of successive creations, if the species continue and are found 
everywhere separate and superimposed ; or the theory of a 
unique and simultaneous creation, if he at last finds them 
in some degree united and confounded. 

M. de Blainville takes a great fact, which he transforms 
into a principle ; the fact, the unity of the kingdom ; and 
from the unity of the kingdom he boldly infers the unity of 
the creation. 

It is always, on the one hand, the experimental method, 
with its process sure, and its results uncertain ; it is always, 
on the other, the dogmatic method, with its results pre- 
sented as certain, but obtained by a process which is not 

The human mind makes use of these methods, and judges 
them. It has this excellent quality, that it never finds 
rest except in the full and entire knowledge of things. It is 
this restlessness for truth — the continuous movement of a 
divine impulse — which forms its strength in labour, and its 
delight in discovery. In the new study in which we are en- 
gaged, a multitude of facts — I mean necessary facts — is still 
wanting to us. We have explored only a part of the globe's 
surface ; there are places where, in so important an inquiry, 
nature is surprised at not having been examined. It will 
raise up bold observers, who will lay open unknown regions. 
It will raise up new thinkers. The beautiful science of the 
Cuviers and de Blainvilles — for these two names are united 
by the very opposition of their ideas — has brought us at last 
to this important point, of fixing with precision the problem 
which divides it ; and this problem of the successive or simul- 
taneous order of created beings, is assuredly the greatest 
which the genius of man has ever conceived in the domain of 
natural history. 

Ideas so exalted and full of allurement having obtained 
the ascendency in his mind, M. de Blainville became less 
and less disposed to condescend to that confiding inter- 
course of friendship which renders life smooth. To excuse 

Marie-Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. 209 

himself for this to his own mind, he attributed to the rigour of 
principle what was nothing else than an error of judgment. 

He was then in possession of the privileges, sufficiently 
real, which attended success. This did not lessen his 
pretensions. He brought them with him into this Academy, 
in spite of the warning which Fontenelle has given us,— 
" Here we desire that all should be simple, that no one 
should believe himself pre-engaged to be in the right ; that 
no system should predominate, but that the avenues to truth 
should always remain open." 

This liberty of being in the right (d'avoir raison), of 
which he had too well learnt to exercise the entire powers 
in his professorship, appeared intolerable when it applied to 
him in his individual capacity. In replying with such deci- 
sive authority, M. de Blainville forgot that he had descended 
from his chair, and that in this place all the seats were 
equaL " Undoubtedly," said one of his associates, the judi- 
cious historian whom I have quoted, " undoubtedly the in- 
vestigation of truth requires, in the Academy, the liberty of 
contradiction ; but every society requires a certain degree of 
respect to be observed in contradiction, and he did not re- 
member that the Academy is a society. We did not fail to 
be sufficiently aware of his merits in spite of his manners .; 
but some degree of equity was necessary, and it is always 
better that men should be spared." 

These attempts at justice were only exerted by M, de 
Blainville, to enlighten and rouse to a sense of duty those 
around him, and to inspire his versatile but inactive col- 
leagues and academicians. Henceforth, adopting an extreme 
resolution, he seemed to say to himself-— 

Mon dessein 
Est de rompre en visiere a tout le genre hutnain. 

He deserted our assemblies ; and, like a new Alcestes, to 

Sur la terre un endroit ©carte 
Ou d'etre homme d'honneur on eut la liberte, 

he barricaded himself more securely in the recesses of his 


M. de Blainville had undertaken to give, in a great work 
VOL. IiVII. NO. CXIV. — OCTOBER 1854. p 

210 Biographical Notice of 

on Comparative osteography, a description of the collections 
entrusted to bis care, and he superintended, with that seve- 
rity of attention which was peculiar to him, the drawings 
made with that view, which no one could judge of better 
than himself. This undertaking was attended with enor- 
mous expense, and had every claim to the encouragement 
which public authority has always granted to great and im- 
portant publications. It was a matter of simple justice, 
therefore, that this work should be placed under the patron- 
age of government. But in order to obtain it, it was neces- 
sary to ask for it, and make these claims understood, and 
never was there a misanthrope less disposed to set aside the 
prerogatives of his bad humour. 

Estimating very highly, and with just reason, the value of 
the author and of the work, M. de Blainville alleged that 
they should come to him, and beg of him to accept of this 
aid ; for, in addition to the fearful hatred he had vowed 
against the human race, he treated everything like authority 
with a higher degree of irritation, as it hurt his feelings as a 
gentleman ; and he never could be prevailed on to conde- 
scend to make the demand in question. He suffered and 
complained bitterly, and gave himself all the satisfaction 
that could arise from accusing everybody ; his colleagues, 
the Academy, Institute, the minister, government, all were 
to blame, except himself. He never abated in his stubborn- 
ness, and thereby deprived himself of the possibility of com- 
pleting his immense and learned catalogue. 

This same individual, whose jealous hauteur was roused 
at the very appearance of receiving a favour from those in 
power, and whose previous history assuredly did not display 
him in the light of a pacificator, was however occupied, about 
this period, with a subject embracing the most delicate views 
of conciliation. 

Under the title of History of the Sciences of Organization, 
taken as a Basis of Philosophy, he gave to the public, in 
1845, a work whose object he describes as being the union of 
philosophy and religion. 

Always carried away by preconceived views, he proceeds 
in the same manner in history as he did in science. He 
forms types. Aristotle is the type of the natural sciences in 

Marie- Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. 211 

ancient times, Alfred the Great in the middle ages, and 
M. de Lamarck in our own days. He overlooks nearly all 
other naturalists ; and, in his prejudiced representations, he 
does not sufficiently recollect that history is a judge, and 
that the first duty of a judge is impartiality. 

Not less presumptuous as a diplomatist than as a histo- 
rian, he claims the first ranks of philosophy for Lamarck, 
Gall, and Broussais, whom he calls the great philosophers of 
our age. Under such imperfect guidance, he ventures into 
uncertain paths, and avoids the only one that is sure — that, 
namely, which Bossuet has followed in his immortal treatise 
On the Knowledge of God and of One's self. 

It is in vain to persist in this object, and a mere loss of 
time. The science of organization can never be the basis of 
philosophy; the domains are separate and distinct. What 
we now call philosophy, and what Descartes by a more 
precise term denominated metaphysics, has only one object, 
strictly circumscribed, namely, the study of the mind. 

As a rational means of appreciating the progress of the 
human mind in the natural sciences, it is worthy of being 
remembered that M. de Blainville' s book had been preceded 
by one from Cuvier on the same subject — the slowly matured 
production of a calmer intellect. 

On comparing this work with the former, we involuntarily 
call to mind the famous verse — 

" Mon flegrae est philosophe autant que votre bile." 

A great interval separates the penetrating mind which 
discovers what is weak in the ideas of others, and the re- 
flecting mind which judges its own thoughts. Too impatient 
to submit his theories to a severe analysis, but too prudent 
to leave them exposed to attacks which might be attended 
with danger, M. de Blainville had recourse to stratagem ; 
he carried the war into the territories of his rivals, and 
forced them always to remain on the defensive by allowing 
them neither peace nor truce. 

The desire of success, that implacable tyrant, made him 
by turns the stubborn contradictor, and the attractive and 
fascinating professor ; and in the latter capacity success was 
certain. When taking upon him the part of an instructor, he 

o 2 

212 Biographical Notice of 

not only displayed all his intellectual advantages, but he 
likewise permitted all his good moral qualities to appear. 
The trust of being useful, the hope of being loved, the at- 
traction of gratitude, removed at such a time all the asperities 
of his outer man. The feeling of predominance was suffi- 
cient to make obstinancy and pretension disappear; and 
confiding in his audience, and disguising none of his efforts, 
he gained much by being seen in this light. 

One day, on coining from one of his lectures, an old pupil 
came up to congratulate him on the successful manner in 
which he had treated a great question. " I am glad you 
are satisfied," M. de Blainville said to him ; " the subject 
w r as difficult, and for eight days I have meditated on this 
lecture from nine o'clock in the morning till midnight." 

This confession discovers a very severe conscience ; for 
never did any one possess in greater perfection the gift of 
brilliant improvisation. He has been often known, after a 
rich and impassioned lecture of an hour and a half, if but a 
little excited by some objection, to recommence again with 
closed doors, and, recovering immediately all his resources, 
continue arguing with all his might, yielding nothing, and 
always remaining the last champion in the field. 

Such keenness in dispute subjected the friendships he had 
formed to singular trials, and assuredly they never were in 
danger of becoming stagnant in a dead flat. " During 
nearly half a century," we are told by a faithful companion, 
the wise Pylades of this hot-headed Orestes, " during nearly 
half a century that our intimacy lasted, it was rather sus- 
tained and cemented by discussion than by a perfect agree- 

In fact, if M. de Blainville gained the cause too easily in 
behalf of the proposition he supported, he immediately took 
in hand the opposite one. At last it came to be exclaimed with 
impatience, What is really your opinion ? is it yes t — No, it is 
not yes. It is then no ? I have proved to you that it could 
not be no. It must be one or the other; say which, " ! ho ! '' 
he then exclaimed, " Do you forget then that I am a Nor- 
man ? " Everything in him, both physical and moral, re- 
called this origin. 

Marie- Henri Ducrotay de Blainville. 213 

He was of medium stature, but of remarkable vigour. His 
eye, lively and penetrating, indicated a superior intelligence. 
The simplicity of his exterior left us to infer his confidence 
in a personal value which would owe nothing to honorary 
distinctions — distinctions to which he had proved his entire 
indifference. No vain show or petty vanity lessened this 
man. It seemed as if he had said to himself that by study 
alone his life could be sufficiently distinguished. However, 
under all its coverings, the heart was always in its right 
place ; and even when it appeared impenetrable, if it did vi- 
brate, its emotions were only the more lively. 

Having become proprietor of the small seignorial domain 
of his ancestors, M. de Blainville went every year to look 
upon its plains and hills, to breathe the invigorating sea 
air, and invite the breeze which had cradled his early years 
to evoke pleasing recollections. During the time he occu- 
pied his small manor-house; the savant disappeared, and the 
gentleman was not a grumbler. Those who courted his society 
in his country-house were received with perfect amiability, 
which reminded them at once of the advantages of birth and 
superior acquirements ; and he displayed in society, espe- 
cially in that of ladies, a real coquetry of mind and agree- 
able manners, which threw back into the distant horizon, and 
among the mists of science, everything that savoured of the 

This pleasure, arising from recollections, found another 
aliment in the assembling of representatives of all the epochs 
of M. de Blainville's life. Frequently meeting in his house, 
this circle of friends opened their ranks to all the philoso- 
phies, to the most opposite opinions, to all social positions, 
and to all ages ; for the severe critic and profound thinker 
could not disguise his regard for the youngest among them. 
In return for so sincere an affection, an entire devotedness 
now consecrates the pious cares of filial regard to his illus- 
trious memory. 

In the beginning of the year 1850, M. de Blainville thought 
himself obliged, notwithstanding the alteration in his health, 
to open his course to the Faculty of Sciences. He re- 
appeared in his first lectures with an ability which had lost 
nothing either of its strength or lustre. 

214 L. Agassiz on 

Oppressed, however, by gloomy presentiments, on the 
evening of the 1st of May he left his modest mansion in the 
Museum, saying that he would very soon return ; he only 
wished, he said, to breathe his native air, and look again 
upon the spring and sunshine lightening the beautiful plains 
of Normandy. 

This wish was not accomplished. Scarcely had he taken 
his place in the waggon that was to convey him, when he was 
suddenly seized with illness, and this great man was no more. 
The authority which watches over the humblest citizens could 
alone guard his last moments, and restore to his friends and 
colleagues the mortal remains of a man so worthy of 
respect, and by whom the nothingness of life had never been 

Extraordinary Fishes from California, constituting a new 
Family, Described by L. Agassiz, Professor of Zoology 
and Geology in the Lawrence Scientific School at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts. 

About fifteen months ago, I received a letter from A. C. 
Jackson, Esq., soon after his return from San Francisco, 
California, informing me that while fishing in San Salita Bay, 
he had caught with a hook and line, a fish of the perch family, 
containing living young. The statement seemed so extra- 
ordinary, that though an outline of the specimen observed 
was enclosed, I suspected some mistake, and requested Mr 
Jackson to furnish me further information upon what he had 
actually seen, and if possible specimens of the fish preserved 
in alcohol. To this inquiry, I received the following an- 
swer : — 

" I regret much that the information which I sent you avails 
so little, without the actual specimens of the fish and young ; 
these, however, I have already taken active measures to obtain, 
and trust before many months to be able to send you at least 
specimens of the female, if not of the young. I should at the 
time I caught the fish have preserved them in alcohol, but at 
that time I was attached totheNavv Yard Commission, and 

Extraordinary Fishes from California. 215 

was with my comrades industriously prosecuting the exa- 
mination of the vicinity of San Salita, as to its adaptiveness 
for a navy yard, and could not leave for San Francisco without 
suspending the work ; and the means for preserving the fish 
could not be otherwise procured. This explains the apparent 
culpable indifference which allowed me to omit preserving 
the specimens. I have sent directions to California to have 
caught for me several of the fish ; and if at the present time 
(September 16th, 1852) the females were pregnant (which is 
not probable) to take from one the bag containing the young, 
and put mother and young in the jar of alcohol, and put 
several other females untouched into a jar also. These 
specimens will by direction and examination, even if they 
be not pregnant, and if the jar contains no young, determine 
the truth and accuracy of the statement I made in my former 
letter on the subject. This fact proved by these specimens, 
it will be very easy to obtain during the next spring and 
summer specimens in all stages of pregnancy. I think if 
I remain in the country, I can assure you a sufficiency of 
specimens, to determine to your satisfaction the true state 
of the affair, during the course of the next year. The fish I 
refer to, in my opinion, does not exist in very great numbers 
even in the waters of San Salita Bay, for the two which I 
caught on this occasion were the only ones which I fell in 
with, though I fished in the same place probably four times. 
There was a little peculiarity perhaps in the circumstance 
of my taking them as I did. I had previous to this time 
tried my rod and line, and as I mentioned before, four times, 
always with success as regards groupers, perch, &c, with- 
out a sight of the singular fish under consideraton. A few 
days, perhaps a week, after the four trials, and on the 1th of 
June, I rose early in the morning for the purpose of taking 
a mess offish for breakfast, pulled to the usual place, baited 
with crabs, and commenced fishing, the wind blowing too 
strong for profitable angling; nevertheless on the first and 
second casts, I fastened the two fishes, male and female, that 
I write about, and such were their liveliness and strength, 
that they endangered my slight trout rod. I however suc- 
ceeded in bagging both, though in half an hour's subsequent 

216 L. Agassiz on 

work I got not even a nibble from either this or any other 
species of fish. I determined to change the bait, to put upon 
my hook a portion of the fish already caught, and cut for that 
purpose into the largest of the two fish caught. I intended 
to take a piece from the thin part of the belly, when what 
was my surprise to see coming from the opening thus made 
a small live fish. This I at first supposed to be prey which 
this fish had swallowed ; but on further opening the fish, I 
was vastly astonished to find next to the back of the fish and 
slightly attached to it, a long very light violet bag, so clear 
and so transparent, that I could already distinguish through 
it the shape, colour, and formation of a multitude of small 
fish (all facsimiles of each other) with which it was well 
filled* I took it on board (we were occupying a small vessel 
which we had purchased for surveying purposes) ; when I 
opened the bag, I took therefrom eighteen more of the young 
fish, precisely like in size, shape, and colour, the first I had 
accidently extracted. The mother was very large round her 
centre, and of a very dark brown colour, approaching about 
the back and on the fins a black colour, and a remarkably 
vigorous fish. The young which I took from her were in 
shape, save as to rotundity, perfect miniatures of the mother, 
formed like her, and of the same general proportions, except 
that the old one was (probably owing to her pregnancy) 
much broader and wider between the top of the dorsal and 
the ventral fins, in proportion to her length than the young 
were. As to colour, they were in all respects like the mother, 
though the shades were many degrees lighter. Indeed, they 
were in all respects like their mother and like each other, 
the same peculiar mouth, the same position and shape of the 
fins, and the same eyes and gills ; and there cannot remain 
in the mind of any one who sees the fish in the same state 
that I did, a single doubt that these young were the offspring 
of the fish from whose body I took them, and that this species 
of fish gives birth to her young alive and perfectly formed, 
and adapted to seeking its own livelihood in the water. 
The number of young in the bag was nineteen, (I fear I mis- 
stated the number in my former letter), and every one as 
brisk and lively, and as much at home in a bucket of salt 

Extraordinary Fishes from California. 217 

water, as if they had been for months accustomed to the water. 
The male fish that was caught was not quite so large as the 
female, either in length or in circumference, and altogether 
a more slim fish. I think we may reasonably expect to re- 
ceive the specimens by the first of December. But I can 
hardly hope to get satisfactory specimens of the fish as I 
found it with young well grown , before the return of the 
same season, viz., June. By that time I trust the facts will 
be fully decided, and the results, as important as they may 
be, fully appreciated." 

In a subsequent letter, (dated January 31, 1853), Mr Jack- 
sou informed me that he had requested Capt. Case, U. S. N., 
who commanded a sloop of war in San Francisco, and who had 
also seen the fish, to supply my friend T. G. Cary junr., Esq., 
of San Francisco, with specimens of that fish, should he suc- 
ceed in getting any. I wrote myself also to Mr Cary, to be 
on the look-out for this fish. 

About a fortnight ago, I was informed by Mr Cary, in a 
letter dated San Francisco, August 10, 1853, that after a 
search of several months he had at last succeeded in obtain- 
ing several specimens of this remarkable fish, three of which 
were sent by express (which have reached me lately), while a 
larger supply was shipped round Cape Horn. After a care- 
ful examination of the specimens, I have satisfied myself of 
the complete accuracy of every statement contained in Mr 
Jackson's letter of February 1852, and I have since had the 
pleasure of ascertaining that there are two very distinct 
species of this remarkable type of fishes, among the speci- 
mens forwarded to me by Mr Cary. 1 propose for them the 
generic name of Embiotoca, in allusion to its very peculiar 
mode of reproduction. 

I feel some hesitation in assigning a family name to this 
type. It is probable that all its members will present the 
same peculiarity in their mode of reproduction, and that, 
therefore, the name Embiotoca may with perfect propriety 
be modified into Embiotocoidoz, as Didelphis has given its 
name to a numerous family, the Didelphyidai, after having 
been for a long time simply a generic name. Should it, how- 
ever, be found that other types of this family present various 

218 L. Agassiz on 

modifications in their viviparous reproduction, for which the 
name Embiotocoidai might be objectionable, I would propose 
to frame some family name from another structural pe- 
culiarity of these fishes, not yet observed in any others, the 
naked furrow-like space parallel to the base of the posterior 
dorsal fin, separating the scales which cover the base of 
the rays from those of the sides of the body, and name it 

The perseverance and attention with which Messrs Jack- 
son and Cary have for a considerable length of time been 
watching every opportunity to obtain the necessary materials 
for a scientific examination of these wonderful fishes, has in- 
duced me to commemorate the service they have thus ren- 
dered to zoology, by inscribing with their names the two 
species now in my hands, and which may be seen in my 
museum in Cambridge, labelled Emb. Jacksoni and Emb. 

A country which furnishes such novelties in our days, bids 
fair to enrich science with many other unexpected facts, and 
what is emphatically true of California, is in some measure 
equally true of all our waters. This ought to stimulate to 
renewed exertions not only our naturalists, but all the lovers 
of nature and of science in this country. 

Family Holconoti or Embiotocoidai. — The general ap- 
pearance of the fishes upon which this family is founded, 
is that of our larger species of Pomotis, or rather that of the 
broader types of Sparoids. Their body is compressed, oval, 
covered with scales of medium size. The scales are cycloid, 
in which respect they differ widely from those fishes they 
resemble most in external appearance. The opercular 
pieces are without spines or serratures. Branchiostegal 
rays six. The mouth is encircled by rather thick lips ; the 
intermaxillaries forming by themselves the whole margin 
of the upper jaw. The intermaxillaries and upper maxil- 
aries are .slightly protractile. Teeth only upon the inter- 
maxillaries, lower maxillaries, and pharyngeals ; none either 
upon the palatines or the vomer. In this respect, as well 
as in the absence of spines and serratures upon the opercular 
pieces, they differ much more from the Percoids, than from 

Extraordinary Fishes from California. 219 

the Sparoids ; but the cycloid scales remove them at once 
from the latter, in which the scales present a very uniform 
ctenoid type. The-thick lips might remind one of the Labroids, 
but the scales of the Embiotoca are neither elongated, nor 
provided with the characteristic branching tubes of that family. 

One long dorsal fin, the anterior portion of which is sup- 
ported by spinous rays, and the posterior by numerous arti- 
culated branching rays, which are sheathed at the base by 
two or three rows of scales, separated from those of the body 
by a rather broad and deep scaleless furrow. This last 
peculiarity has not yet been observed in any fish, as far as I 
know. There is indeed a district longitudinal space parallel 
to the soft portion of the dorsal, nearly of the width of a 
single row of scales, which is entirely naked and well defined, 
forming as it were, a furrow between the scales of the back, 
and those which rest against the base of the fin rays. 
Though protected in this way by a kind of sheath, the an- 
terior part of the dorsal fin alone can be folded backwards 
and entirely concealed between these scales, as in many 
Sparoids ; the posterior part only partially so. Moreover 
the scales of the sheath are separated by a furrow from those 
of the back, only along the base of the soft part of the dorsal 
fin. The first rays of the anal fin are short, comparatively 
small and spinous. The base of this fin is strangely arched, 
and sheathed between scales, in the same manner as the 
dorsal ; the spinous rays when folded back being more fully 
concealed in the sheath than the soft rays. 

The ventrals are subthoracic as in the Sparoids, and pro- 
vided with a strong spinous and five soft rays. 

Four branchial arches, supporting four complete branchiae 
with two rows of lamellse in each. The opening behind the 
last arch is very small and entirely above the base of the 
pectoral fins. Pseudobranchia very large, and composed of 
sixteen or seventeen lamellae. The alimentary canal is re- 
markably uniform in width for its whole length. It extends 
first on the left side as far back as the ventrals, turns for- 
wards and upwards to the right, then follows the middle line 
along the Large air bladder, to the second third of the abdo- 
minal cavity, then bends along the right side downward 

220 L. Agassiz on 

and slightly forwards almost to meet the first bend, when it 
turns backwards again, and ends in a straight course at the 
anus. The stomach cannot at all be distinguished externally 
from the small intestine by its size and form. There are no 
ccecal appendages at all in any part of the intestine. The 
whole alimentary canal contained large numbers of shell frag- 
ments of small Mytili. The liver has two lobes, a short one 
on the left side, and a long one along the middle line of the 

The female genital apparatus, in the state of pregnancy, 
consists of a large bag, the appearance of which in the living 
animal has been described by Mr Jackson ; upon the surface 
of it large vascular ramifications are seen, and it is subdivided 
internally into a number of distinct pouches, opening by wide 
slits into the lower part of the sac. This sac seems to be 
nothing but the widened lower end of the ovary, and the 
pouches within it to be formed by the folds of the ovary itself. 
In each of these pouches a young is wrapped up as in a sheet, 
and all are packed in the most economical manner, as far as 
saving space is concerned, some having their head turned 
forwards, and others backwards. This is therefore a normal 
ovarian gestation. The external genital opening is situated 
behind the anus, upon the summit and in the centre of a coni- 
cal protuberance formed by a powerful sphincter, kept in its 
place by two strong transverse muscles attached to the abdo- 
minal walls. The number of young contained in this sac 
seems to vary. Mr Jackson counted nineteen ; I have seen 
only eight or nine in the specimens sent by Mr Cary, but 
since these were open when received, it is possible that some 
had been taken out. However, their size is most remarkable 
in proportion to the mother. In a specimen of Emb. Jack- 
soni, 10£ inches long, and 4J high, the young were nearly 
3 inches long, and 1 inch high ; and in an Emb. Caryi, 
8 inches long, and 3J- high, the young were 2f inches long, 
and ^ths of an inch high. Judging from their size, I sus- 
pected for some time that the young could move in and out 
of this sac like the young opossums, but on carefully ex- 
amining the position of the young in the pouches, and also 
the contracted condition of the sphincter at the external ori- 

Extraordinary Fishes from California. 22 i 

fice of the sexual organs, I remained satisfied that this could 
not be the case, and that the young Mr Jackson found so 
lively after putting them in a bucket of salt water, had then 
for the first time come into free contact with the element in 
which they were soon to live ; but at the same time, it can 
hardly be doubted that the water penetrates into the marsu- 
pial sac, since these young have fully developed gills. The 
size of the young compared with that of the mother is very 
remarkable, being full one-third its length in the one, and 
nearly so in the other species. Indeed these young Embio- 
tocse, not yet hatched, are three or four times larger than the 
young of a Pomotis (of the same size) a full year old. In 
this respect these fishes differ from all the other viviparous 
species known to us. There is another feature about them of 
considerable interest, that while the two adults differ markedly 
in coloration, the young have the same dress, light yellowish- 
olive, with deeper and brighter transverse bands, something 
like the young trouts and salmons in their parr dress. The 
transversely banded species may therefore be considered as 
inferior to the other, since it preserves through life the sys- 
tem of coloration of the embryo. 

It will be a matter of deep interest to trace the early stages 
of growth of these fishes, to examine the structure of the 
ovary and the eggs before fecundation takes place, &c., &c. 
The state of preservation of the specimens in my hands pre- 
cluded every such investigation. 

Though I know thus far only one single genus of this type, 
I do not think it right to combine the generic characters with 
those of the family, as is generally done in such cases, as I 
would also object to the practice of omitting any specific 
characteristics where only one species is known of a genus. 
This shows an entire misapprehension of the relative value 
and subordination of the characters of animals. I would 
therefore characterize as follows the genus. 

Embiotoca, Agass. — Body much compressed and elevated. 
Head small, with scales only on the cheeks and opercular pieces. 
Teeth in both jaws, short, conical, arranged in one row, and 
slightly recurved. The pharyngeal teeth much shorter and 

222 L. Agassiz on 

blunter than those of the jaws, and arranged like pavement. 
Dorsal fin with nine or more spinous rays. The first three rays 
of the anal fin spinous, and much shorter than the following 
articulated rays, which are always finer and more numerous 
than the corresponding rays of the dorsal fin. The lateral 
line is continuous to the base of the caudal fin. Whether 
the peculiar mode of reproduction is a family or a generic 
character, remains to be ascertained by further investigations. 
It is, however, probable that with some slight modifications it 
will be found the same in all the members of the family. 

Some differences between the two species observed might 
render it doubtful whether they ought to be considered as 
belonging to as many distinct genera or not. But we know 
that in genera differing greatly from others, the range of the 
specific differences is also wider than in genera with many 
species ; so until I am taught differently by new discoveries, 
I would refer them both to one and the same genus. Such 
doubts could scarcely be entertained respecting families with 
many genera, where a standard to estimate genuine generic 
differences is easily obtained. 

1. Embiotoca Jacksoni, Agass. — The body is quite high, 
of an oval form, greatly compressed, and similarly arched 
above and below. The superior arch extends to the pos- 
terior base of the dorsal fin, whence it continues in a 
horizontal line to the base of the tail. The ventral arch 
of the body is similar to that of the dorsal outline. The 
profile from the dorsal fin to the end of the snout is rather 
precipitate and regularly arched, except obliquely above 
and in front of the eyes, where it is slightly concave. The 
greatest height of the body, including the dorsal fin, is 
equal to the distance from the end of the snout to the ex- 
tremity of the pectoral. The greatest thickness of the body 
is equal to one-fourth its height. The head is of moderate 
size, — its length, measuring to the posterior angle of the 
opercle, being about one-fourth that of the entire fish. The 
mouth is quite small, — the hind extremities of the intermaxil- 
laries and maxillaries extending not farther back than the 
line of the orbit. But a small portion of the superior 

Extraordinary Fishes from California. 223 

maxillary is exposed at the angle of the mouth. The an- 
terior edge of that part of the snout into which the inter- 
maxillaries fit, is on a horizontal line drawn immediately 
below the orbits. The upper jaw is slightly more prominent 
than the lower, the teeth of the latter fitting within those 
of the former. In the upper jaw there are fourteen or fifteen 
teeth ; in the lower there are two or three less. They all 
are slightly swollen near the top, and are not pointed but 
rather bluntly edged. They do not extend to the angles of 
the mouth, but leave a space without teeth on each jaw. 
The teeth of the upper jaw are but little larger than those 
of the lower. The teeth of the pharyngeals are much 
shorter than those of the jaws, and form two quite moveable 
plates above, and a triangular one below. There are not 
more than thirty teeth on each of the superior plates, and 
mostly truncated at the top. The four or five teeth which 
form the inner row of each plate are more prominent than 
the others, and somewhat pointed. The teeth of the inferior 
pharyngeal plate are similar to those of the upper, but the 
teeth of its posterior range are the most prominent, and 
pointed. The lips are rather fleshy, and entirely conceal 
the teeth. Beneath the lower lip there is an elongated pit 
on each side, extending towards the corner of the mouth ; it 
is covered by a thin border of the lip. The distance from 
the end of the snout to the anterior border of the orbit, is 
greater than the diameter of the latter by one-third. The 
inferior margin of the orbit is on the middle longitudinal 
line of the body ; and its posterior border is halfway between 
the end of the snout, and the posterior angle of the opercle. 
The opercular pieces are large. On the preopercle are four 
concentric rows of scales ; the two inner and anterior are 
the longer. There are thirteen large scales in the row 
nearest the eye, and the number is less and less in the 
others. Still within the row nearest the eye there is a space 
without scales, and marked by pores radiating from the edge 
of the orbit. The posterior and inferior border of the pre- 
opercle, outside of the ridge of the latter, is thin, membran- 
ous, and without scales, but marked with numerous pores or 

224 L. Agassiz on 

tubes similar to those around the orbits, and radiating from 
within outwards. 

The opercle, subopercle, and interopercle are covered with 
scales, which decrease in size from the former to the latter. 
There is a narrow membranous border to the opercle, ex- 
tending from its posterior angle to the height of the termin- 
ation of the lateral line. The notch between the subopercle 
and interopercle is on a vertical line with the edge of the 
posterior border of the preopercle. There is a small patch 
of scales, nine or ten in number, immediately above the 
superior attachment of the preopercle. The dorsal fin ex- 
tends over about f ths of the superior curve of the body ; its 
posterior portion is one-third higher, as well as longer, than 
its anterior. The spinous portion has nine or ten rays, the 
length of the first of which is equal to one-third that of the 
last. At the point of each spine the fin appears to extend 
backwards in a loose filament. There are 19£ articulated 
rays in the dorsal fin : the superior outline of this part is 
nearly equal in length. The furrow on each side extends as 
far forwards as the base of the first articulated ray, where 
there are three rows of scales forming the sheath ; but the 
rows are reduced to one towards the posterior attachment of 
the fin. 

The pectoral fins are of rather large size, and are placed 
below the middle line of the body, as well as below the pos- 
terior angle of the opercle. They extend about as near to 
the anal fin as do the ventrals. The second ray of the 
pectoral is but slightly arched towards its extremity. There 
are twenty-one rays in each pectoral. The base of the ven- 
trals are just in advance of the middle of this second ray of 
the pectoral. The spinous ray of the ventrals is fths the 
length of the following articulated ray. There is a long 
plate of scales between the ventrals. The anal fin is broad, 
and composed principally of fine slender rays. The last 
and longest of its spinous rays equals in length £th that of 
the following articulated ray, which latter is equal to the 
corresponding ray of the dorsal fin. The last ray of the 
anal fin is placed nearer the caudle fin than that of the dorsal. 

Extraordinary Fishes from California. 225 

The fin itself reaches nearer the base of the tail. The caudal 
fin is deeply forked ; it contains fourteen rays, omitting its 
outer and short rays. There are eight rows of scales be- 
tween the lateral line and the spinous portion of the dorsal 
fin, and eighteen rows below the lateral line in the same region. 
Sixty scales in the lateral line. Colour uniformly dark olive- 
brown along the back, fading slightly upon the sides ; dor- 
sal black, mottled with white ; caudal blackish, lighter upon 
the base ; anal deep black, with a light longitudinal band ; 
pectorals white ; ventrals black with light base. 

From the above description, it must be obvious that this is 
the species first observed by Mr A. C. Jackson, to whom I 
have inscribed it, or at least a species very closely allied to 
it. There is only one fact about it which surprises me, that 
while he observed mature young in it on the 7th of June, Mr 
T. G. Cary should have found it still with young as late as 
the beginning of August. Again Mr Jackson saw nineteen 
young in it, whilst in the specimens forwarded by Mr Cary 
I found only eight or nine young, which were transversely 
banded like Emb. Carjd. May there be two species so closely 
allied as to be easily mistaken % I must add, that Mr Jack- 
son does not mention the mottled appearance of the dorsal, 
nor the light band upon the anal of his fish ; which renders 
the supposition more probable that there are several, and not 
only two species of this remarkable genus, about San Fran- 
cisco. I would, however, not forego the opportunity of con- 
necting the name of Mr Jackson with his interesting dis- 
covery, and have therefore called Emb. Jachsoni that one of 
the species sent me by Mr Cary, which agrees most closely 
with his description, leaving it for the future to decide 
whether this species is truly the one he first saw — a circum- 
stance which is quite immaterial, since we already know two 
species of this extraordinary type. 

2. Embiotoco Caryi, Agass. — The body is much more 
elongated than in Embiotoca Jacksoni, yet equally com- 
pressed. Its height, including that of the dorsal fin, is 
less than the distance from the end of the snout to the ex- 
tremity of the pectoral ; and less than one-half the length 
of the fish. The profile is much less steep, and the snout 


226 L. Agassiz on 

quite as prominent ; hence the head is longer than high. 
The posterior border of the orbit is nearer the angle of the 
opercle than the end of the snout. The upper and lower 
curves of the body are equal, and approach more nearly 
towards the tail, making this latter narrower than in the 
first species. The scales of the back do not descend upon the 
head lower than one-half the distance from the first spine of 
the dorsal to the end of the snout. The forehead is slightly 
concave, as in Emb. Jacksoni. The posterior end of the in- 
termaxillary does not extend as far back as the anterior bor- 
der of the orbit. The nature of the lips, and extent of the 
upper maxillary, is much as in the other species, but the an- 
terior edge of the socket of the intermaxillaries is above the 
line of the lower border of the orbit. A vertical line through 
the orbit shows the height of the head in this region to be 
one-third less than in the E. Jacksoni. The opening of the 
mouth is directed more obliquely upwards. The teeth are 
more slender, but have otherwise the same form. In the 
upper jaw there are twelve, in the lower eight, teeth. The 
nasal openings are of tolerable size ; one before the other, 
and in advance of the eye, but slightly below the line of its 
superior border. The vertical diameter of the orbit is less 
than its longitudinal ; and its posterior border is nearer the 
angle of the opercle than the snout. The preopercle in this 
species is less rectangular than in the former. The inferior 
rounded angle of its ridge is in advance of the posterior mar- 
gin of the orbit. The scales of the preopercle are also much 
smaller and less conspicuous. Tubes radiate from the bor- 
der of the orbit and from the ridge of the preopercle, as in 
Emb. Jacksoni. The posterior membranous border of the 
opercle is narrower ; the notch between the subopercle and 
interopercle is on the vertical line of the posterior border of 
the preopercle. There is a patch of scales above the supe- 
rior attachment of the preopercle. The dorsal fin differs 
very little in form from that of the former, but extends some- 
what farther forwards, its first spine being immediately over 
the posterior angle of the opercle. The distance from this 
spine to the end of the snout equals the distance from the 
same back to the ninth articulated ray. The posterior rays 

Extraordinary Fishes from California. 227 

of the articulated portion are shorter than in the first species, 
but they are more numerous by three rays. The pectoral 
has twenty-one rays ; it is perhaps longer than in the other. 
The ventrals differ little. The anal fin, however, differs 
greatly ; it is very small and contracted, and is placed far 
behind the ventrals. The scales at its base form a waved 
outline much more marked than in E. Jacksoni. The spinous 
rays are very short, the last being less than one half the 
length of the following articulated ray, the base of which 
latter is directly under that of the fifteenth corresponding 
ray of the dorsal fin. Its posterior base and termination are 
as in the first species. The caudal fin, however, is more 
slender, and more deeply notched. The scales of the body 
are by no means so large. The lateral line follows the out- 
line of the back, as in E. Jacksoni ; there are seventy-five 
scales in it. 

Colour light olive, darker along the back ; light brown 
longitudinal bands extend between the rows of scales, and 
darker transverse bands reach from the back to the sides 
of the body, not extending below the lateral line in the an- 
terior part of the trunk, but more marked, and reaching 
nearly to the anal fin upon the tail. Head mottled black 
and white. Dorsal and caudal dotted with black and white. 
Anal with a large diffuse black mark upon lighter ground. 
Pectorals white. Ventrals white at the base, terminated 
with black. 

Only one female has been observed containing eight young. 
This species was discovered by T. G. Cary, Esq., in the Bay 
of San Francisco, in the beginning of August 1853. — (Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and Arts, vol. xvi., p. 380.) 


228 W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Experiments on the Dyeing Properties of Lichens. By W. 
Lauder Lindsay, M.D., Assistant Physician, Crichton 
Royal Institution, Dumfries. (Communicated by the 

I beg to present to the Society the tabulated results of be- 
tween 500 and 600 experiments made two or three years 
ago, the chief object of which was the endeavour to call at- 
tention to the fact that we possess in our own island lichens 
capable of furnishing dyes nearly, if not quite, equal in 
beauty to orchil, cudbear, and litmus. I have so fully oc- 
cupied the time of the Society on former occasions with de- 
tailed views on this subject, and with various papers on gene- 
ral points in the natural history of the lichens, that on the 
present occasion I confine myself to a few facts explanatory 
of the tables : — 

I. Certain genera and species of lichens, which are abun- 
dant in Scotland, and could be collected with comparative 
facility, and at a very moderate expense, might be tried with 
advantage, on the large scale, as substitutes for the foreign 
lichens used in the manufacture of orchil, cudbear, and lit- 
mus. I have already indicated a favourable result in investi- 
gating native lichens on the small scale ; but it remains for 
the manufacturer to test the permanence and utility of colours 
which may merely look brilliant without having any fixity. 

II. This subject is worthy of being followed out by the 
manufacturer on the one hand, and the chemist on the other, — 

a. On account of scientific interest, — the field being 

comparatively new and open, and at the same time 
most promising of good results. 

b. Were it only with the view of further developing the 

economic resources of our own country. 

c. Because the speculation (i.e., the substitution of home 

for foreign dye-lichens), promises to be remunera- 
tive, as the roccellas have frequently reached the 
high price of £1000 per ton in the London market. 

* This paper is partly a brief resume or abstract of a series of communica- 
tions to the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, made on various occasions during 
the years 1852, 1853, & 1854. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 229 

III. The collection and transport of lichens for the pur- 
pose of examining their colorific powers is very easy, viz. : — 

a. By simple desiccation and packing. 

b. By drying and pulverizing. 

c. By precipitating the colorific principles from a lime 

solution or a decoction by acetic or muriatic acid. 

IV. The colour of the thallus and that obtained by the 
action of Stenhouse's or Helot's tests on solutions of the 
lichen-colorific-principles do not always correspond in tint ; 
more frequently the reverse obtains ; hence it is impossible 
from the colour or other external character of the thallus of 
a lichen to predicate the nature of the reaction of its alco- 
holic solution with chloride of lime, or the tint it will yield 
on ammoniacal maceration 

V. The lichens richest in colorific principles, capable of 
yielding valuable colouring matters, are crustaceous and 
foliaceous species of a pale or whitish colour — whose alcoholic 
or aqueous infusion is nearly devoid of colour — which grow on 
rocks or stones, and in mountainous countries, or on sea-coasts. 

VI. The lichens most devoid of the same principles are 
species having a showy foliaceous thallus — attaining a con- 
siderable size — whose alcoholic and aqueous solutions are 
generally of the same colour with the thallus — and which 
grow on trees and in woods. 

VII. The colours educible from lichens are liable to be ma- 
terially affected, both as to quantity and quality, according to — 

a. Age of the specimen operated on, i. e., length of period 

that has elapsed since collection and desiccation. 

b. The geologic or other nature of its habitat. 

c. The nature of its basis of support — whether moist or 

dry — rock, stone, tree, or earth, &c. 

d. The amount of exposure to sun-light and atmospheric 


e. Amount of moisture in the air. 
/. Temperature of the locality. 

g. Elevation above the sea. 

h. Season and vicissitudes of the weather. 

i. Longitude and latitude in the two hemispheres. 

k. Decomposition of organic bodies in vicinity. 

230 W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

VIII. Westring's triple division of lichens according to the 
fixability or permanence of the colours they yield with or 
without mordants, &e. ; and his quadruple division, according 
as these colours are extractable by cold, lukewarm, hot, or 
boiling water, aided or not by various accessories, are incon- 
sistent and unnatural, and therefore not to be commended or 

IX. Westring's test of colorific power is inferior to Helot's 
or Stenhouse's ; but all are frequently fallacious, and are far 
from being applicable in all cases. It is probable that differ- 
ent alkalies and reagents are suitable in different cases for 
the elimination of colouring matters. 

X. The same circumstances, which modify the develop- 
ment of these colours on the small scale, cause material al- 
terations in the results of manufacture. The result, however, 
is not always proportionate to the nature and amount of the 
modifying cause, insignificant circumstances frequently giving 
rise to most important and opposite changes. 

XI. Speaking generally, the same process is equally ap- 
plicable to the evolution of the red colouring matters of all 
lichens ; but it is equally true that slight modifications of the 
process may cause a great variety in the degree or tint in any 
given species. 

XII. The chief tint educible from lichens, which can be 
of any permanent utility in the arts, is red: brown is also 
useful in a minor degree. 

XIII. Chloride of lime and aqua-ammonise are only suit- 
able for the development of a red colour — or more strictly of 
colorific and colourless principles capable of conversion into 
red colouring matters. 

XIV. Chloride of lime is not uniformly to be relied on as 
a lichen colorimeter ; for Table xii. shows — 

a. That the alcoholic solution of certain species may 
strike no blood-red colour with that reagent, and 
still yield beautiful red and purple colours on ammo- 
niacal maceration ; and 

b. Table xiii. shows that though the alcoholic solution 
of some species do strike this colour (blood-red), it 
does not follow that ammoniacal maceration produces 
the same or a similar colour, or any colour at all. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 231 

XV. Simple maceration in a weak solution of ammonia, 
aided by a moderate heat and moisture, is the surest and 
simplest means of evolving the red colouring matters of the 

XVI. Alcohol is an excellent solvent of the colorific prin- 
ciples of the plants, presenting them in a form readily acted 
on by chemical substances. Its use on the small scale is ex- 
ceedingly convenient. The reaction of ammonia on a boiled 
alcoholic solution, allowed to stand for three days, is gene- 
rally the same in tint, though not in degree, as on an aqueous 
solution exposed to the air for very long periods (1 to 12 
months); but in some cases they differ essentially. — Vide 
Table xiv. 

This difference is probably, in part, attributable to the 
small quantity of materials operated on, and the short period 
of maceration in the former case, and to the larger quantity 
of materials and the abundant exposure to atmospheric oxy- 
gen in the latter. 

XVII. The non-evolution of colour in many cases may 
arise from — 

a. Alcohol or water not being the best or proper solvent 
menstruum of the colorific principles in any particular 

b. Ammoniacal maceration not being the proper means 
of converting the colorific into coloured substances. 

0. The plant not containing colorific principles having 
the same chemical composition as orcine, &c, or 
showing similar reactions with chloride of lime and 

XVIII. If we accept, meanwhile, Stenhouse's and Helot's 
tests as sufficiently accurate indicators of colorific value, we 
should arrange the lichen genera, which contain species 
yielding colouring matters — according to their value — as 
follows : — 

1. Koccella, 5. Urceolaria, 9. Ramalina, 

2. Lecanora, 6. Parmelia, 10. Lecidea, 

3. Umbilicaria, 7. Evernia, 11. Isidium, 

4. Gyrophora, 8. Borrera, 12. Sphserophoron, 

species of which yield fine red colouring matters ; and 

232 W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

1. Parmelia, 5. Solorina, 9. Lecidea, 

2. Sticta, 6. Scyphophorus, 10. Peltidea, 

3. Cetraria, 7. Stereocaulon, 11. Collema, 

4. Nephroma, 8. Borrera, 

some of which furnish good brown colours. 

XIX. Among the general results of my experiments it ap- 
peared that of 540 specimens examined, 

22 Gave rich purple or red colours to ammonia alone, (i.e., by 

simple maceration). * 

8 Gave rich brown colours to ammonia alone. 
93 Alcoholic solutions gave rich purples or red on the addition 

of ammonia. 
81 Alcoholic solutions gave well-marked brown on the addition 

of ammonia. 
127 Alcoholic solutions gave well-marked orange on the addition 

of ammonia. 
42 Alcoholic solutions gave well-marked greenish-yellow on the 

addition of ammonia. 
79 Alcoholic solutions struck a deep blood-red with solution of 

chloride of lime. 

XX. The whole subject of the intimate chemistry of the 
lichen colouring matters is in a very unsatisfactory condition, 
demanding reinvestigation ; and I therefore repeat, that 
the branch of the Natural History of the Lichens, to which, 
in this and previous papers, I have endeavoured to draw 
scientific attention, will form a worthy object of research to 
the botanist and chemist, and possibly a remunerative one to 
the wholesale manufacturer. 

[If commanders and masters of ships were aware of the 
value of these plants, which cover many a rocky coast and 
barren island, they might, with a slight expenditure of time 
and labour, bring home with them such a quantity of these 
insignificant looking plants as would realize considerable 
sums, to the direct advantage of themselves and the ship- 
owners ; and consequently to the advantage of the state. It 
is with the view of inciting those to whom the opportunity 
may offer, of gathering a valuable article of commerce, the 
value of which they would little suspect from its external 
aspect, and inducing the owners of vessels to direct the at- 
tention of their officers to this subject, that I subjoin some 
simple methods (says Dr Lindsay) of detecting the various 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 
Table I. 


Showing the Number of Species of each Genus, with the varieties 

and duplicate specimens thereof, expert 




Name of Genus. 

No. of 


No. of 

mens ex- 






Borrera, . 







Cetraria, . 





Cladonia, . 





Collema, . 










Evernia, . 





Isidium, . 










Lecidea, . 





Lepraria, . 
Parmelia, . 












Peltidea, . 
























Roccella, . 





Scyphophorus, . 
Solorina, . 






Sphaerophoron, . 
Spiloma, . 









































Totals, . 





* Specimens of the same species or variety, collected in different countries, 
different habitats in the same country, or at different seasons of the year. 


W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 


Showing the effects of various Solvents and Reagents 

Roccella tinctoria. 

Name of Solvent or 


of JNIacera- 



Thin variety from 

Thickest variety from 



I. Water — common spring — cold 

14 days 

Very pale sherry* 

Dirty brownish-red 

at temperature of 80° 

10 days 

Light claret 

Light Claret 


14 days 

Deeper claret 


h hour 

Dirty brownish-red 

Dirty claret colour 

. . . Distilled — cold 

10 days 

Pale sherry 

Pale sherry colour 

II. Alcohol [Spirits of wine]. 

10 days 



III. Alkalies — 


Liquor — strong 

3 days 

Lt. crimson-purple 

Rich crimson-purple 

— dilute 

10 days 

Deep crimson-purple 

Bich deep purple 

Carbonate — solution, 2 grs.f 

14 days 


Muriate — solution, 2 grs. 1 
— cold ) 

14 days 

Pale brownish-red 

Pale sherry 

— sol. at temp, of 80° 

7 days 

Deeper brownish -red 

Light claret 


Aq. potassse — 

— strong 

3 days 

Light claret 

Deep claret 

— dilute 

10 days 


Acetate, 2 grs. 

14 days 

Pale sherry 

Very light claret 

Bitartrate, 3 grs. 

14 days 

Very pale sherry 

Pale sherry 

Carbonate, 2 grs. 

14 days 


Deep claret 

Iodide of potassium, 2 grs. 

14 days 

Very light red 

Light brownish-red 

Nitrate, 5 grs. 

14 days 

Pale brownish-red 


Prussiate, 2 grs. 

14 days 



Sulphate, 2 grs. 

14 days 

Nearly unaltered 

Nearly unaltered 

Soda — 

Bicarbonate, 2 grs. 

14 days 

Light brownish-red 

Deep sherry 

Biborate (borax), 2 grs. 

14 days 


Oarbonate, 4 grs. 

14 days 

Cherry red 

Deep claret 

Chloride of sodium, 5 grs. 

14 days 

Pale sherry 

Pale sherry 

Phosphate, 2 grs. 

14 days 

Pale sherry 

Light brownish-red 

Alkaline Earths — 

Baryta — nitrate, 2 grs. 

14 days 

Very light br.-red 


Lime, 2 grs., milk of — 1 
cold J 

14 days 

Light sherry 

Light purple-red 

— boiling 

1 hour 

Dirty sherry 

Deep purple-red 

— at teinp. of 80° 

7 days 


Rich purple-red 

Chloride of calcium, 2 grs. 

14 days 

Light brownish-red 

Light brownish-red 

* I have been somewhat embarrai 

>sed in the r 

laming of these colours. 

I endeavoured to arrange 

very different from that in common use, 

t The number of grains appended to this and other salts signifies the proportion in which they 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 



on the evolution of the Colouring Matters of Lichens. 

Roccella tinctoria. 

From Cape De Verde 

Roccella fuciformis from 
the Canaries, &c. 

Lecanora tartarea from 

Parmelia parietina from 
Grange, Edinburgh. 

Pale brownish-red 
Dirty brownish-red 

Light brownish-red 
Dark brownish-red 

Pale sherry 
Dirty sherry 

Pale straw-colour 
Dirty greenish-yellow 

Dirty sherry colour 
Light brownish-red 

Light sherry 


Light brownish-red 
Dirty reddish-brown 

Pale yellow 

Pale crimson-purple 
Rich purple 

Light brownish-red 
Dark purple-red 

Rich deep purple 

Dirty greenish-yellow 

Light sherry 

Light brownish-red 

Pale sherry 

Pale greenish-yellow 

Deep claret 

Deeper brownish-red 

Rich sherry 

Light brownish-red 
Deeper brownish-red 
Light brownish-red 

Light sherry 
Nearly unaltered 

Pale sherry 
Light brownish-red 

Deep claret 
Pale sherry 
Light brownish-red 
Nearly unaltered 

Rich purple 
Deep claret 
Deep sherry colour 
Rich purple 
Deep claret 

Light claret 
Sherry colour 

Dirty greenish-yellow 
Pale straw-colour 

Pale sherry 

Rich brownish-red 
Very It. brownish-red 

Light brownish-red 

Deep brownish-red 
Very It. brownish-red 

Deep brownish-red 
Pale sherry 
Light brownish-red 




Sherry colour 

Light brownish-red 
Deeper brownish-red 

'■ Light brownish-red 

Pale sherry 

Fine claret 

Light purple-red 

Deep purple-red 
Light sherry 

them according to the tah 

les in " Syme's Nomencla 

ture of Colours." His n 

omenclature, however, is 

were used to each fluid ounce of water. 


W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 


Roccella tinctoria. 

Name of Solvent or 

/"^"P \f HPAPf)B 



Thin variety from 

Thickest variety from 

Lime — Sulphate, 5 grs. 

14 days 

Nearly unchanged 

Light brownish-red 

Magnesia — 

Sulphate, 5 grs. 

14 days 

Light brownish-red 


Earths Proper — 

Alumina — 

Alum, 5 grs. 

14 days 


Light brownish-red 

Combinations of 

Lime and sal-ammoniac, lg. 

Macerated cold 

14 days 

Light orange- red 

Light claret 

— warm 

4 days 

Deep orange-red 

Deep claret 

Common salt and nitre, 2 g. 

macerated cold 

14 days 

Deep sherry 


macerated warm 

4 days 

Fine claret 

Deep red 

Carbonate of soda&nitre,3g. 

— cold 

14 days 

Deep claret 

Deep claret 

— warm 

4 days 


Deep purple -red 

IV. Metals, and their salts — 

Iron — perchloride, solution 

7 days 



— sulphate, 1 gr. 

7 days 



Arsenious acid, 1 gr. 

7 days 



Copper — sulphate, 1 gr. 

7 days 



Lead — acetate, 2 grs. 

7 days 

Nearly unaltered 


Zinc — sulphate, 2 grs. 

7 days 


V. Acids — 

Acetic — common vinegar 

14 days 



— strong vinegar 

14 days 


— pyroligneous acid 

14 days 


Nitric — strong 

1 day 



— dilute 

14 days 

. . . 


— — cold 

. . . 

— — warm 

14 days 


Muriatic — strong 

1 day 



— dilute 

— — cold 

14 days 

— — warm 

14 days 

. • . 


Oxalic, 1 gr. 

14 days 


S ulph ur ic — strong 

1 day 


— dilute 



— — cold 

14 days 


— — warm 

14 days 


. . . 

Tartaric, 2 grs. 

14 days 


Vide Expl 

ination, p. 248. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Koccella tinctoria. 

From Cape De Verde 

Nearly unaltered 

Nearly unchanged 


Deep claret 

Deep sherry 


Nearly unchanged 
Nearly unaltered 




Roccella fuciformis from 
the Canaries, &c. 

Palest sherry 

Light orange-r< 

Light claret 
Deep claret 




Lecanora tartarea from 

Pale sherry colour 

Purplish- red 
Deep red 

Parmelia parietina from 
Grange, Edinburgh. 



Dark claret 


Dirty brownish-red 

Nearly unchanged 



Nearly colourless 

Pale straw-colour 

Dirty straw-colour 

Dirty It. greenish-yel 


Dirty brownish-red 

Deep claret 


Very pale sherry 


W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Table III. 

Showing the Species and Varieties the Alcoholic Solution* of which gives 
a red"f reaction with Solution of Chloride of Lime. J 

Name of Lichen. 

Borrera furfuracea, 
Cornicularia aculeata ? 
Endocarpon Hedwigii, 
Evernia Prunastri, 
Gyrophora deusta, 

murina, 3 specimens from Switzer- 
land, Norway, and Scotland, 
hirsuta, 3 specimens from Swit- 
zerland and France, 
hyperborea, 2 specimens from Do. 
pellita, 3 specimens from Scotland 

and France, 
polyphylla, 4 specimens from Eng- 
land, France, and Switzerland, 
proboscidea, 3 specimens fromNor- 

way, France, and Scotland, 
vellea, .... 

Lecanora ccenisia, . 

glaucoma, .... 
parella var. albo-flavescens, 
tartarea,3 specimens from Scotland, 
France, and Switzerland, 
Lecidea atro-pruinosa, var. microphylla, 






\ Cherry. 

} = 

> Cherry. — 

} -- 




Cherry. — 




* This merely means the result of boiling the comminuted lichen in weak spirit. 
It may be considered a solution of the colorific principles of the plant, as most of 
these are soluble in alcohol. 

t This term includes light and dark shades of — 

a. yellowish or orange red. 

b. brownish-red, such as sherry and claret colours. 

c. cherry, blood, or pinkish red. 

The above list includes the greater number of the species useful as dye-agents. 
Most of them will be found to yield on ammoniacal maceration, rich red or purple 
tints, but not uniformly. (Vide Table xiii.) 

\ A solution of common bleaching powder. The active ingredient is probably 
the hypochlorite of lime it contains ; so that, so far as concerns its use as a colorific 
test, this solution may be considered one of hypochlorite of lime. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Name of Lichen 

Lecidea conglomerata, 







speirea, . 

Parmelia aleurites, 

fahlunensis var 

olivacea var. corticola glabra, 

omphalodes, .... 
perlata, 2 spec, from Scotland and 1 
the Canary Islands, . . J 

pulverulenta, . 
quercifolia var. munda, 


Roccella fuciformis, 5 spec, from So. America, 
Montagnei, .... 

tinctoria, 7 spec, from Africa, South ^ 
America, and the Canary and Cape > 
de Verde Islands, . . J 

Squamaria affinis, .... 

Umbilicaria pustulata, 3 spec, from Scot- 1 
land, Norway, and France, . . J 

Urceolaria bryophila, .... 
calcarea, .... 
scruposa, 3 spec, from France, 1 
England, and Scotland, J 
var. cretacea, . 
arenaria, . 

Fugitive. *°, 
s tint. 




Pink. Cherry. 

Pink. Cherry. 











Cherry. Purple. 
Cherry. Blood. 

240 W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 


Showing the effects or reaction of Solution of Chloride of Lime and 

tint on the 

Name of Genus. 





































Reaction of Chloride of Lime. 
No. of Per 
Species. Centage.* 





















6 30-0 















Brown or Brown - 
yellow Tint. 



These results may be considered negative so far as regards the object of my 
of conversion, by chemical means, into useful colouring matters. 

* The percentage is only to be accepted as a very rough indication, and 
number of specimens (not species) operated on, there is only an approximation 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 241 


of Aqua Ammonia — other than the development of a Red or Purple 
Lichen Genera. 


Ete-action of Ammonia. 

Chloride of Lime. 




Greenish-yellow . 




P. c. 


P. c. 


P. c. 


P. c. 


































































































. • • 

. • . 











































































. • * 














, . 

. . . 





































. . . 










. . . 









. . . 

. , 









ixperiments, viz., the detection of species 

? possessing colorific principles, capable 

not to be relied on as accurate ; for, having been calculated from the total 
to the truth. 



W. Lauder Lindsay^ Experiments on the 

Table V. 

Showing the Species the Alcoholic Solutions of which give, on maceration in 
dilute aqua ammonise, various shades of red or purple.* 

Name of Lichen. 

Red. Purple. 

Light. Dark. Light. Dark. 

Borrera Ashneh, ..... Cherry. — 

chrysophthalma, 3 specimens from lp. , p . , 
Zante, France, and Switzerland, J 

Cetraria islandica, 
Gyrophora hirsuta, 3 specimens, 

polyphylla, 2 specimens, 
Isidium coccodes, 
Lecanora albella, . 

oreina, . 

radiosa, v. inflata, 

ventosa, 2 specimens 
Lecidea aurea, 


erythrella, v. fusco — 
icmadophila, 2 specimens 
speirea, . 

Brown. Brown. 





Blood. — 






* Alcohol appears to be an excellent solvent of the active colorific principles of the plan 
presenting them in a condition to be readily acted on by ammonia or other reagents. 

The results of the reaction of ammonia on the alcoholic solution, is generally similar 
the effect of simple ammoniacal maceration, so that this mode of applying Helot's test i 
a very convenient and elegant one. There is sometimes, however, a considerable differenc 
between the effects ot ammonia on the alcoholic and aqueous solution. ( Vide Table xiv.) 


Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Name of Lichen. 

Red. Purple. 
Light. Dark. Light. Dark 

Nephroma resupinata, 


Parmelia aleurites, 






v. membranosa, - 


conspersa, 3 specimens, 




omphalodes, 2 specimens, 




parietina, 2 specimens, 


perlata, 3 specimens, 

Blood. — — 

saxatilis, 2 specimens, 


v. furfuracea, 2 specimei 

is, — 

v. leucorrhooa, 


Pcltidea aphthosa, 




Pertusaria communis, . 


Ramalina fraxinea, 

— — — 


— — 

Roccella tinctoria, 2 specimens, 

Cherry. Blood. — — 

Scyphophorus bellidiflorus, 












Solorina crocea, 2 specimens, 


Sphaerophoron coralloides, 2 specimens, . 


v. fragilis, 


v. csespitosum, 


Squamaria candelaria, 3 specimens, 


miniata, 2 specimens, 


Stereocaulon botryosum, 

Brown. Brown. 

Sticta pulmonaria, . 


scrobiculata, 2 specimens, 


Jmbilicaria pustulata, . 

Blood. — — 

Jrceolaria cinerea, . 

— — 

scruposa, . 

— — — 

v. ocellata, 

— — — 

Jsnea barbata, 


v. articulata, 2 specimens, 


"ladonia bacillaris, . 


'oilema nigrescens, . 



244 W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Table VI. 

Showing the Species, the Alcoholic Infusions of which give, on ma- 
ceration in dilute aqua ammonise, various shades of orange.* 

Yellow Red tint 
Name of Lichen. tint pre- predomi- 

dominant. nant. 

Bscomyces roseus, . . . Light. 

rufus, 2 specimens from France and 1 ^ 

Switzerland, J ^' 

Borrera furfuracea, 2 specimens, . Deep. 

Cetraria islandica, 3 specimens from Norway, 1 
England, and France, . J 

Cladonia degenerans, ... — 

v. alabra, . . — 

furcata, 2 specimens from France and 1 
. Switzerland, • J 

v. racemosa, 2 specimens, — 

rangiferina, v. vulgaris, . . — 

sylvestris, . . — 

uncialis, ... — 

incana, v. polydactyla, . . — 

vermicularis, v. subulifera, . — 

Collema marginale, ... — 

Cornicularia pubescens, ... — 

Evernia Prunastri, 2 specimens, . . — 

Gyrophora cylindrica, ... — 

murina, ... — 

hyperborea, ... . — — 

Tsidium coccodes, ... — 

coralloides, 2 specimens from England 1 
and France, . . .J 

Lecanora caenisia, ... — 

hseinatonima, . .... — 

parella, ... — 

v. pallida corticola, .. — 

v. albo — flavescens, . — 

speirea, . ... . — 

tartarea, . . . . — 

v. rupestris, . . — 

Turneri, ... — 

* Though this tint is greatly inferior in richness or usefulness to the red 
and purple, many of the above species yield very good dye agents. The orange 
is, in many cases, capable of conversion into red and purple by chemical means.' 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens 

Name of Lichen. 

Lecidea atro-pruinosa, v. anthracina, 
Candida, . 

conglomerata, 2 specimens, 

flavo-virens, v. fusco-virens, 

lurida, . . 


sabuletorum, v. fusco-cinerea, 
speirea, . 
Nephroma parilis, 
Parmelia aleurites, 
csesia, . 

fahlunensis, v. vulgaris minor, 

v. vittata, 2 specimens, 
quercifolia, v. munda, 

v. fuliginosa, 
rupestris, v. flaccida, 

v. pulverulenta, . 
Peltidea canina, . 
Pertusaria communis, 

Psora decipiens, . 
Ramalina fraxinea, 2 specimens, 

Roccella fuciformis, 6 specimens, 


Yellow Red tint 
tint pre- predomi- 
dominant. nant. 


W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Name of Lichen. 

Yellow Ked tint 
tint pre- predomi- 
dominant. nant. 

Scyphophorus cervicornis, 3 specimens from 1 

England, Scotland, & France, J 

cocciferus, 3 specimens, 

gracilis, 3 spec, from France, 1 

England, & Scotland, J 

v. abortiva, . 

chordalis, . 

polyceras, . 

pyxidatus, 3 specimens, 

v. communis, 



Sphserophoron coralloides, 

Squamaria csesia, 


lanuginosa, 2 specimens, 
Stereocaulon paschale, 
Sticta fuliginosa, 2 specimens, 
pulmonaria, 2 specimens, 
sylvatica, . 
Umbilicaria pustulata, 
Urceolaria calcarea, 

scruposa, 3 specimens, 
Usnea barbata, v. articulata, 
Variolaria faginea, 

Table VII. 

Showing the Species, the Alcoholic infusions of which give, on ma- 
ceration in dilute aqua ammoniae, various shades of brown.* 

£Jame of Lichen. 

Yellow Red tint 
tint pre- predomi- 
dominant. nant. 

grown ■ 

Alectoria jubata, 
Borrera furfuracea, 


* Few of the species yielding good brown dyes are capable also of giving 
red or purple ones. But this colour is a very durable, and, therefore, useful 
01103 it is extensively employed among the peasantry in this and other coun- 
tries. The processes for developing it are much more simple; but the lichens 
yielding brown dyes alone have never been articles of commerce. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Name of Lichen. 

Cetraria islandica, 

Cladonia bacillaris, 
Collema crispum 

Cornicularia aculeata 
Endocarpon fluviatile, 
Evernia divaricata, 
Gyrophora cylindrica, 
Isidium coralloides, 

Lecanora badia, 

callopisma, . 
circinnata, . 

parella, v. pallida, 
Lecidea atro-brunnea, 
Parmelia centrifuga, 

Yellow Red tint p 
tint pre- predomi- R 
dominant, nant. 

248 W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Name of Lichen. 

Parmelia cycloselis, 
Peltidea canina, 

Pertusaria communis, 
Psora testudinea, 
Kamalina pollinaria, 

Roccella fuciformis, 
Scyphophorus alcicornis, 
Solorina saccata, 
Spiloma gregarium, 
Squamaria candelaria, 
Sticta crocata, 

Thelotrema lepadinum, 
Urceolaria scruposa, . 

Verrucaria leucocephala, 

Yellow Red tint p 
tint pre- predomi- .. 
dominant. nant. 

Explanation of Table II. 
This table serves fully to illustrate — 

I. The negative action of all acids in evolving the colorific principles 
of lichens, or converting them into coloured substances. 

II. The powerful action of certain alkalies and alkaline salts, especially 
ammonia and its compounds, in the production of colour-produc - 
Hon and metamorphosis. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 249 

III. The influence of beat, moisture, exposure to atmospheric oxygen, 
&c, in assisting the development of the lichen colouring matters. 

a. Several other species were operated on ; various other combina- 
tions of the alkalies and alkaline earths, &c, and other reagents 
were used ; the experiments were conducted in the greatest possible 
variety, as regards the amount of heat and exposure to the air, the 
length of the maceration, the strength and degree of dilution of the 
reagents, &c. ; but the results, though differing sometimes slightly, 
or in some insignificant features, were essentially the same. 

b. The period of maceration varied from a few hours to as many 
weeks or months ; the shortest was half an hour, the longest period 
a year. Beyond a certain point, prolonged maceration did not 
appear materially to affect the nature or degree of tint ; nay, in 
some cases, the colour was greatly deteriorated or destroyed. In 
some species, the colouring matters were rapidly produced ; in 
others, again, very slowly ; in the former case, therefore, a short, 
while, in the latter, a long period of maceration was necessary. 

c. The same remarks apply to the degree of heat applied ; up to a 
certain point, it is an important auxiliary, but beyond this it be- 
comes very deleterious. 

d. During the course of the experiments, some of the solutions very 
rapidly became mouldy, while others stood for nine months or a 
year with little or no appearance of mould of any kind. It is 
foreign to my present subject here to specify the instances in which 
this phenomena did or did not occur ; the results possess interest 
merely as showing the effects of certain chemical reagents in pro- 
moting, retarding, or destroying the development and growth of 

e. In some of the solutions, a flocculent, or granulo- flocculent pre- 
cipitate was thrown down. Of the nature of this, in most cases, I 
am unable to speak, the question being a purely chemical one ; 
but, in some instances, it undoubtedly consists of the colorific 
principle of the plant. 

/. After the exhaustion of the red colouring matter of Lecanora tar- 
tar ea and the Roccellas by ammonia, they yielded very rich crim- 
son tints to alcohol ; and similar, though less brilliant, colours to 
solutions of carbonate of potash and carbonate of soda, &c. 

g. In some cases, the full colour was evolved only on second ma- 
ceration, or after the application of a series of reagents. 

h. In the case of solutions of salts used as macerants, the quantity 
or proportion of grains to the §i of water is given, 

[To be continued in the January Number of Jameson'' s Journal.] 

250 Marcel de Serres on the Old World 

The Old World compared with the New World. By M. 
Marcel de Serres, Professor of Mineralogy and Geo- 
logy at Montpellier.* 

The Earth, like Man himself, has had its different phases ; 
after having passed through its infancy, it has now reached 
mature age, and it is in this state that it presents itself to 
our notice. Our globe is far indeed from having always 
been what it is in the present day, and we shall endeavour 
to trace the various modifications it has undergone at dif- 
ferent periods of its history (See Note I, p. 258). 

The air we breathe, for example, is not the same as that 
from which the beings that preceded us here below derived 
the powers of life (See Note 2). The seas which cover 
nearly three-fourths of the earth's surface (See Note 3), have 
been more extensive still at the time when continents scarcely 
equalled the extent of moderate sized islands (See Note 4). 
None of the animals which now people our planet, nor the 
vegetables by which it is adorned, existed in those remote 
ages, when there was no human being to behold them. 

I have said that the atmosphere was not the same in com- 
position in former times as it is now. Let us examine what 
proofs we have for this fact, which is the more singular 
from no change having appeared in it during historical times, 
and indeed scarcely seems possible. 

Primitive vegetation, of the kind most remarkable for 
vigour and beauty, has left us indubitable proofs of it. 
These are to be found in the immense masses of coal, the 
remains of the ancient forests which covered the surface of 
the earth. But from what quarter have the trees of these 
forests derived this vast quantity of carbon, now become 
the source of so many industrial occupations % Did it exist 
in the soil ? The soil could not supply it, since as yet it con- 
tained neither humus nor any kind of vegetable substance. 
They found it in the great proportions of it which existed in 
the atmosphere (See Note 5). This excess of carbonic acid was 

* Outline of a Lecture lately delivered by M. Marcel de Serres. 

compared with the New World. 251 

singularly favourable to the vegetation of primitive times, 
while it in some degree arrested the development of air- 
breathing animals, which had scarcely begun to show them- 
selves. After the appearance of life, fishes were the only 
vertebrates which animated our earth ; but these animals 
only breathe air dissolved in water, richer in oxygen than the 
atmospheric air itself. 

Now, that the atmosphere contains a much greater quantity 
of vital air than during geological eras, the species which 
breathe air are as common in nature as they were formerly 
rare. It may almost be said that the arrival of Man has for 
ever fixed the constancy of the proportions of carbonic acid 
in atmospheric air; at least they do not appear to have 
varied since that event. 

Vegetables also found a new cause of development in the 
carbonic acid which volcanoes, then more numerous than 
now, diffused through the atmosphere. These striking phe- 
nomena, moreover, supplied them with abundance of ammo- 
niacal salts, which contributed in a powerful manner to im- 
part to them a vigour which has never been surpassed. 

If we compare primitive vegetation with the flora of ex- 
isting times, we shall soon perceive that none of the species 
which characterised it are like our living races ; they merely 
present some analogies to the plants of islands now situated 
in the warmest and most humid regions. Are we not, then, 
authorized to regard this double circumstance as a manifest 
proof of the influence which an elevated temperature, and, 
at the same time, a considerable humidity must have exer- 
cised on primitive vegetation ? 

Little doubt will be entertained on the subject, when we 
consider that the same fossil animals and plants are spread 
from Spain to the polar circle, and from South America as 
far as Australia and Van Diemen's Land (See Note 6). 
Therefore, the same vegetables, embedded in coal formations, 
have in former times lived simultaneously in the two hemi- 
spheres, as well in the torrid zone as under the ice of the 
poles (See Note 7). 

From these facts, we infer that the heat must then have 

252 Marcel de Serres on the Old World 

been uniform everywhere, and that the sun had not yet re- 
gulated and determined climates. The earth had not then 
need of his rays, since terrestrial temperatures depended on 
an entirely different cause. Their effect was to render cli- 
mates generally alike, as well as the natural productions to 
whose development they were alone favourable. 

This primitive uniformity could not, however, continue : 
it accordingly ceased altogether on the appearance of Man. 
If it had lasted, it would have partially destroyed the phy- 
sical and intellectual energy of our species. It likewise 
proves that, independently of the heat which the earth owes 
to the sun, it derives it also from another source. That 
source is in its own bosom, and its action has for a long 
time regulated, almost of itself, the greater part of terres- 
trial phenomena. The central heat, which with Buffon 
was only an hypothesis, must now be regarded as a fact 
almost demonstrated. 

It is so, more especially by this remarkable circumstance, 
that the heat, instead of diminishing below the terrestrial 
strata, where the calorific rays of the sun are no longer felt, 
increases in proportion to the depth (See Note 8). It is 
still further evinced by volcanic eruptions, and the constant 
temperature of thermal springs. These phenomena clearly 
indicate that a powerful source of heat must exist in the 
interior of the globe. We find, moreover, a new proof of 
the same thing in the general form of the earth, which has 
not depended solely on the movement imparted to it, but on 
its primitive liquidity (See Note 9). The earth has not 
derived this liquidity from water nor any other solvent, but 
rather from the action of a high temperature. This tem- 
perature is singularly diminished since the origin of things ; 
it does not, at least at the present time, affect the heat of 
the surface more than the thirtieth part of a centigrade 

It may be safely affirmed, that if the earth lost entirely 
this degree of heat, which it does not derive from the sun, 
it would not, on that account, become an inert and frozen 
globe, as Buffon supposed, when he expressed his belief that 

compared with the New World. 253 

Man was destined in time to perish from cold. We have 
no occasion to give way to such an apprehension. The diminu- 
tion of the central heat, far from injuring, may perhaps be 
of advantage to us. It will contribute at least to give addi- 
tional thickness to the crust of the earth, and, by confirming 
its solidity, render earthquakes and other phenomena which 
shake the surface of the globe of rarer occurrence. 

The terrestrial globe is, as we thus perceive, a singular 
habitation. Solid beds, of inconsiderable thickness, separate 
us from subterranean fires ; and a gaseous mixture scarcely 
a score of leagues in height {See Note 10) protects us 
against the glacial cold of the interplanetary regions {See 
Note 11). We thus revolve in space with an extreme 
rapidity, of which we are unconscious, and often without 
suspecting the singularity of our abode. We may inhabit 
it without fear ; — thanks to the harmony which reigns among 
created things, not only in this earth, but throughout the 
entire universe. 

Positive facts confirm the reality of the conditions which 
we have enumerated, and which have determined the beauty 
and richness of the vegetation of the earliest geological eras. 
An elevated temperature and a considerable humidity, aris- 
ing from the great extent of the seas and the activity of 
evaporation, have powerfully contributed to this result. 

These different causes have produced rain-torrents, of which 
nothing in the present day can give us any idea. The proof of 
their violence is written in the interior of the earth's strata, 
where what are believed to be traces of them have been found. 
They were probably never accompanied, in the early ages of 
the world, with the symbol of peace painted in prismatic co- 
lours on the sky, as happens in certain parts of America, where 
the rains are of such extreme violence that they cannot pro- 
duce this brilliant phenomenon. Finally, ancient inunda- 
tions indicate, by their extent, that they must have been the 
effect of more considerable masses of water than those which 
now produce even the greatest floods. Such is the Deluge, of 
which the tradition is preserved among every people, and 
which is attested by so many indisputable physical proofs. 

254 Marcel de Serres on the Old World 

We have reminded you of the extent of seas during geo- 
logical times ; you ought not therefore to be surprised that 
the examination of terrestrial strata enables us to discover 
so great a number of marine organic remains, often at con- 
siderable elevations, and very remote from the basin of 
existing seas (See Note 12). The ancient ocean has there- 
fore occupied the places where these remains appear ; as 
marine products are diffused over extensive spaces, the ocean 
must have been vastly greater than it is in the present day 
(See Note 13). 

But let not this lead you to suppose that the level of seas 
has ever reached the height of 2000 or 3000 metres above 
their present elevation. If we discover beings which have 
lived in their bosom at such elevations, they have been 
carried thither from the bottom of the ocean by upheavals ; 
this powerful cause has, in fact, greatly modified the surface 
of our planet, and is quite adequate to produce such effects 
(See Note 14). 

It is unnecessary to prove to you who now hear me, that the 
seas of geological eras occupied a greater extent than those 
of the present world. If any one, however, have any doubts 
on the subject, we should say to him, Dig into the ground 
on which this city stands, and if the marine remains you find 
there do not satisfy you, examine the beds which separate us 
from the Upper Cevennes, and you will everywhere meet with 
proofs of the long continued presence of the sea in districts 
which are now very remote from it. 

Science has not stopped here ; she has been desirous to 
ascertain the depth of the marine waters which covered 
portions of the earth now become continents, and also to 
trace out the shores of the ancient ocean. She has succeeded 
in determining, by observation, these different points of fact, 
and that by a very simple means. 

She has first endeavoured to ascertain if there was not, 
for each marine species, certain zones of depth which it never 
passed. The existence of these zones once established, she 
has applied to the ancient species the laws whose constancy 
had been determined in the distribution of analogous races. 

compared with the New World. 255 

By the aid of these facts, it has become possible to de- 
termine the extent of seas in the different geological epochs, 
and also to indicate, on charts of a new description, the points 
of their greatest depth, and even the contours of their coasts. 
These beaches, like the continents of which they formed a 
part, rose above the seas, in proportion as the latter sub- 
sided into the limits which they could not surpass. 

The knowledge of these facts, for which we are indebted 
to the spirit of observation by which science is now directed, 
is one of those things of which in modern times we have 
most reason to be proud. It is perhaps as important, though 
less useful, than that which enables us to assign, with a re- 
markable degree of precision, the depth at which we may expect 
to meet with sheets of water sending forth spouting springs. 
Who of you, gentlemen, can forget that one of the most 
beautiful applications of a principle so simple and fruitful in 
results has been made in sinking the famous wells of Gre- 
nelle 1 

Similar inductions are, in fact, scarcely possible, except 
in countries well known in their geological relations. It 
remains, therefore, to discover a means of supplying this 
method of appreciation ; it is a subject well worthy the 
attention and research of those who are interested in the 
progress of the useful and practical sciences (See Note 15). 

Another peculiarity of the ancient world not less remark- 
able, and which relates to the epoch when seas were of much 
greater extent, is, that during this long interval fresh waters 
do not appear to have existed on the surface of the globe. 
At least the aquatic vegetables and animals of that period 
present no characters which can lead us to suppose that they 
inhabited waters not saline. It is not till after the separation 
of interior seas from the ocean, that we can, without hesita- 
tion, distinguish fresh water beings from marine species 
(See Note 16). 

The vegetation of the early ages, luxuriant as it was, does 
not afford that almost infinite variety which characterises the 
present flora. If Man had existed at that time, it would have 
been vain for him to seek, by change of climate, or even of 
hemisphere, for those profound impressions which the name- 

256 Marcel de Serres on the Old World 

rous and varied trees of still virgin forests cause him to ex- 
perience, by their immobility as much as by their size. He 
would have found everywhere a depressing uniformity, and 
would have seen, in the most different and remote countries, 
the same species reproduced, with the same forms and the 
same aspect. 

The forests of the ancient world, independently of the 
monotony of their verdure, would have been still more pain- 
ful to traverse from the circumstance that no voice could ever 
be heard in them to interrupt the silence or dissipate the gloom. 

Do you ask if such a world could be made for us, and if we 
would not have been appalled at encountering in our fields 
lizards as large as whales, or beholding, flying in the air, 
dragons with murderous teeth, which, like Milton's Satan, 
might accomplish the most varied purposes \ (See Note 17). 

A characteristic difference in the vegetation of ancient 
times, was its want of variety compared with that which now 
adorns the surface of the earth. Thus, the flora of the epochs 
anterior to the appearance of Man, was composed of scarcely 
2000 species, while we are now acquainted with more than 
80,000, and probably upwards of 100,000 exist on the surface 
of the globe. 

The same peculiarities are observed in regard to animals ; 
and, to mention only one example, it may be stated that, 
instead of the 80,000 species of insects now contained in 
our collections, the fossiliferous strata of the ancient world 
afford us scarcely a thousand (See Note 18). 

Do not suppose that the vegetables and animals met with in 
a fossil state belong to the same species as those living in the 
present day. Recent sedimentary formations are, in fact, the 
only ones in which we find species having such a degree of 
analogy to actual races that we cannot distinguish them. 
Setting aside these rare exceptions, the life of geological 
times, although constantly regulated by the same laws, has 
nothing in common with the new creation, as far as relates 
to its specific types (See Note 19). 

As for the rest, it is not to be denied that Creative Power 
manifests itself as well in causing the ancient races to dis- 

compared with the New World. 2bl 

appear as by the appearance of new beings, their destruction 
necessarily bringing forward others on the scene of life. 

Neither suppose at the same time that, howsoever great the 
differences may appear to you between the old world and the 
new, the facts which were produced in the one are no longer 
reproduced in the other. Physical phenomena have fallen off 
only in their intensity and grandeur since Man set his foot 
on the globe. It may be said that at his approach the earth 
became tranquillized, and that disturbing phenomena by de- 
grees lost their violence. Thus the upheavals which have 
produced great chains of mountains, such as the Pyrenees, 
the Alps, the Himalaya, and the chain of the Andes, have 
been reduced to such feeble proportions, that they confine 
themselves to casual elevations of the ground, of a few cen- 
timeters, and that not over the entire earth, but at a few 
insulated points. 

Volcanoes — those safety-valves of the globe — have gradu- 
ally diminished since geological times, when vegetation could 
dispense with the gases which they afforded it in the early 
ages. Volcanoes can scarcely now be regarded as formid- 
able, except in the southern hemisphere ; they have there 
indeed preserved something of their primitive magnitude 
in the long chain which runs almost throughout the entire 
extent of it. Earthquakes have likewise diminished, both in 
number and intensity — (See Note 20). 

Perhaps the same thing has taken place with the aurorae 
boreales, those northern suns, whose brilliancy and splendour 
appear to be singularly impaired since climates have divided 
the earth into bands of equal mean temperature ; and elec- 
tricity, so intimately connected with heat, has been, like it, 
considerably diminished. 

Lastly, fossiliferous beds — those catacombs in which lie 
buried the flora and fauna of anterior epochs, by means of 
which we are enabled to go backwards through the series of 
ages — have never ceased to be reproduced. Only in the pre- 
sent day they inclose the beings of historical times, instead 
of concealing in their bosom species, all of which have lived 
before the appearance of Man on the earth. 


258 Marcel de Sevres on the Old World 

The beds of organic remains forming every day, differ from 
those of geological times only by their smaller extent, and also 
in the nature and species of the beings which they inclose 
— (See Note 21). 

There is at the same time a phenomenon which seems to 
have undergone no variation from the most remote times ; 
the constancy in the flow of mineral and thermal waters ap- 
pears to have been always the same. 

We have examined the principal differences between the 
ancient world and that which witnessed our arrival on the 
earth. Perhaps it might have been desirable to enter into 
longer illustrations of the collective phenomena submitted 
to your consideration ; but we have not time to do this in a 
manner worthy of the subject. We shall account ourselves 
fortunate if we have caused you to feel an interest in the 
facts disclosed to you, and which are already so remote from 
us ; for, as the priests of Sais said to Solon, We are but of 
yesterday on our aged earth. But the sciences count time 
and space as nothing ; generations succeed each other and 
pass away, and with them the majestic edifice of human 
knowledge becomes enlarged. Have we not, then, reason to 
hope that the general laws of the principal phenomena of the 
globe, now better known, will soon give us the key to those 
which yet remain mysterious to us ? 

Note 1. The various modifications which the earth has under- 
gone in geological times, and which have shaped the surface into the 
form we now witness, if considered in relation to us, are fearful re- 
volutions. But, when viewed relatively to the earth itself, the eleva- 
tion of the greatest chains of mountains is a phenomena of small im- 
portance ; for the inequalities they have produced on it are more 
insignificant in regard to dimensions than those which cover the sur- 
face of an orange. These, however, were necessary, since the globe 
had to receive vegetables and animals, and required the means of 
producing running water. The destruction of a great number of 
organised bodies has been the consequence of the modifications to 
which the outline of the earth's surface has been subjected, and of 
the gradual sinking of the temperature. This diminution of tem- 
perature has produced new climates. Existing species are no longer 
threatened by the instability of the ancient climates, nor by differ- 
ence in the composition of the atmosphere, which, like that of the 

compared with the New World. 259 

seas, appears to have reached a state of remarkable fixity, a charac- 
ter belonging to all the phenomena of the present era. 

Note 2. The atmosphere is now richer in oxygen than in geolo- 
gical times ; this excess corresponds to the volume of carbonic acid 
which served for the nutrition of the plants of primitive ages. It 
corresponds also to the quantity of carbon and hydrogen contained in 
the carbonaceous remains left by ancient vegetables. The quantity 
of carbonic acid now existing in the atmosphere is not more than 
from four to six ten-thousand parts. To compensate for this trifling 
proportion of carbonic acid, some of it is continually escaping from 
the interior of the earth, as well as from volcanoes. Continental 
waters carry some of it along with them, and mineral and thermal 
waters exhale more or less considerable quantities of it. It is pro- 
duced also at the expense of the carbonated hydrogen existing in the 
air, the decomposition of which takes place from the electrical dis- 
charges of the clouds, so frequent under the tropics. 

Note 3. The greater extent of seas, at different geological epochs, 
is demonstrated by the marine organic remains which they have left 
in sedimentary formations. These remains are in general more re- 
mote from present seas as they belong to more ancient periods ; it is 
the same with regard to their height above the level of the sea. 
Marine organic remains are referable principally to Zoophytes and 
Mollusks. They are distinguished into — 1st, pelagic species, or such 
as have lived in deep seas ; 2dly, others which have lived at a little 
distance from the shores ; and lastly, such as lived only near the 
shore, and which on that account have been named littoral. 
The different zones relative to the depth of water at which the 
ancient Zoophytes and Mollusks lived, likewise exist in modern seas ; 
each species is confined, by the conditions of its existence, to a de- 
terminate region. 

Note 4. Large continents are so recent, that they only date from 
the most ancient tertiary formations, that is, from the period when 
interior seas became separated from the ocean. Continents were 
formed by degrees during a long series of successive upheavals and 
sinkings. Other facts confirm their tardy appearance, and prove 
that they were originally islands, and these islands of small extent. 
Primitive vegetation has been essentially composed of acrogenous 
cryptogamic vegetables, which now flourish only in the small islands 
of the equatorial zone. They are particularly abundant in those 
where the maritime climate has reached its maximum ; accordingly 
these vegetables are characteristic of the transition and coal periods. 
The flora of the latter formations contained 250 species of ferns, 
while the whole of Europe affords scarcely 50 of them, that 
is 50 of the fossil species of this family. On the other hand, 
the gymnosperms do not exceed 25 species in Europe, while 
the flora of the coal formations has upwards of 120 of them, or nearly 
five times the amount. This flora, like that of the equatorial islands 


260 * Marcel de Serres on the Old World 

at present, contained few families; but such as existed in it had a 
greater number of species than the actual vegetable families. This 
ancient flora has left considerable masses of coal, and we can from 
that form an opinion of its vigour and beauty; it appears to have 
been tufted and luxuriant, like that of warm and humid islands. 
On the other hand, the arborescent flora of the coal period indicates 
a vegetation almost entirely terrestrial. It presents, in the last 
place, as an essential character, in every part of the globe where it 
has been met with, the most remarkable organic identity — a proof of 
the uniformity of temperature which then everywhere prevailed. 

Note 5. We may form an idea of the quantity of carbonic acid 
which existed in the atmosphere of ancient times, by referring to 
the observations of Theodore de Saussure. This skilful natural 
philosopher has proved that from six to eight hundred parts of car- 
bonic acid disseminated in the air rendered vegetation peculiarly 
vigorous, but that, when this proportion was considerably exceeded, 
the plants subjected to its influence rather quickly perished. If then 
the quantity of 6 or 8 per cent, existed in the atmosphere of ancient 
times, it would be a hundred times greater than the proportion now 
met with. Indeed, the proportion of carbonic acid in the atmo- 
sphere is now so inconsiderable, that it appears not to exceed from 
four to six ten thousand parts of its volume. Volcanic countries, and 
particularly the vicinity of Naples, are celebrated for their fertility 
just on account of the quantity of carbonic acid which is everywhere 
exhaled from the ground. The Grotte-du-chien is the locality 
where this exhalation is most abundant in Italy. 

Note 6. We know, from M. Goeppert's observations on the flora 
of amber, that the trees which produce this fossil resin occupied an 
immense area in northern countries, and probably extended to the 
polar regions of the globe. We now find nothing, in the same 
places, but mountains of ice. It is not necessary to suppose that the 
trees were of small dimensions ; for they belonged chiefly to these 
families Abietineae and Cupressinese, which contain the largest 
vegetables of the coniferous order. The articles published in these 
Journals in December 1853, on the discovery made by Captain 
MacClure of a district in the North Seas, all go to confirm these facts, 
affording us a new example of the vigorous vegetation which prevailed 
in geological times near the Poles. At a little distance from Bar- 
ing Land, (which is only at the southern extremity of that named 
Banks, the latter separated from Melville Island by an arm of the 
sea,) this intrepid navigator found, at about 500 feet above the level 
of the sea, a range of hills composed of a mass of wood in all states, 
from complete petrifaction to that of inflammable chips. He like- 
wise observed a large species of bivalve shell of the size of an oyster. 
These facts are remarkable, inasmuch as they indicate a vigorous 
vegetation in geological epochs in regions now covered with ice, and 
where the largest tree is the dwarf willow. We know that the 

compared with the New World. 261 

trunk of this miniature willow is scarcely thicker than an ordinary 
pipe. Certainly these woods and shells do not belong to the actual 
flora or fauna of these regions, as Captain MacClure himself remarks ; 
neither can they be regarded as proofs of a deluge, for they are 
greatly anterior to the dispersion of diluvial deposits. 

Note 7. The greater part of fossil species, embedded in the polar 
regions as well as every where else, are allied rather to the species of 
tropical countries than to those of temperate ones. This circumstance 
proves that the temperature must have been more elevated and at 
the same time more uniform, at the time when these beings lived, 
than it is now. 

Note 8. The calorific rays of the sun do not penetrate below 28 
or 30 metres of the solid beds. At this point the temperature is 
uniform, and nearly constant at all seasons. If the earth did not 
receive any other heat than that which it derives from the Sun or 
other stars, this heat ought to diminish below the invariable bed. Now, 
instead of diminishing, it increases in proportion as we penetrate 
into the earth's strata, which proves that the globe must have a tem- 
perature of its own. An objection, more specious than solid, has 
been opposed to this hypothesis. How can we judge of this increase, 
it is said, from a depth so inconsiderable as that of about 700 metres 
below which thermometers have been carried, and thence conclude 
that the temperature of the earth increases in a constant manner 
from the circumference to the centre \ No doubt this depth is no- 
thing when we think of the earth's radius ; but volcanic fires, ther- 
mal waters, and the increase of heat which is evident wherever we 
descend below the invariable bed of 28 or 30 metres, are sufficient 
to show that the supposition is far from being without support. 

Note 9. The influence of the figure and form of the terrestrial 
globe is as perceptible on the physical phenomena which take place 
at its surface, as on the migrations of its people, their laws, man- 
ners, and all the principal historical facts of which it has been the 
theatre. With regard to the primitive liquidity of the earth, proved 
by the form it has taken, it cannot be attributed to water ; the exist- 
ing quantity is much too small to have ever produced such an effect. 
That quantity scarcely amounts to the fiftieth-thousand part of the 
solid portion. Now as a liquid, whatever be its temperature, cannot 
dissolve a quantity of solid matter superior to it in weight, it follows 
that the terrestrial waters could not dissolve the entire materials 
composing the whole globe. We must therefore have recourse to 
another cause. Among those whose action has been manifested in 
a great number of phenomena, only one can produce such an effect. 
That cause is heat, as indicated by the composition of the portion of 
the earth known to us. It also follows from this, that the principal 
part of our globe presents not the least trace of organic remains, 
and is composed of rooks which are produced only under the influ- 
ence of a high temperature. 

262 Mavcel de Serres on the Old World 

Note 10. M. Biot's observations on the twilight, have proved 
that the height which has been rashly named as the limit of the 
atmosphere is much too great. As luminous phenomena may be 
produced independently of oxygen, Poisson inclined to believe that 
aerolites became inflamed much beyond the last gaseous strata of 
our atmosphere. But this department of science, like that occupied 
with the larger bodies composing the solar system, presents no solid 
foundation for our reasonings and researches, but that to which cal- 
culations and geometrical measurements can be applied. In like 
manner the atmosphere of the sun is confined, as M. de Humboldt 
has observed, to much more restricted limits than those to which the 
zodiacal light extends. 

Note 11. Fourier, the inventor of the theory of heat, has inferred 
from the whole of his researches, that the temperature of the in- 
terplanetary spaces was about 60 degrees below zero. M. Liais, de- 
sirous to verify the observations made before his time, has found it 
necessary to lower still further the figure given by Fourier, and that 
the heat of these spaces approached to — 100°. Observations have 
been always found to agree with the hypothesis of a very low tem- 
perature. Thus MM. Barrai and Bixio observed, in the ascent they 
made from Paris on 27th July 1850, that the barometer was at 
0m 5 33805, and their thermometer sunk to — 35° and even to 
— 39° 67, when they reached a height of 6512 metres. On the 
other hand, during a voyage undertaken in search of Captain Ross 
in the Icy Sea, the thermometer fell below — 56° 6, which may afford 
us an idea of the low temperature of the interplanetary spaces. 

Note 12. We cannot cast our eyes on the crust of our globe, 
without observing marks of a destroyed organic world. The sedi- 
mentary rocks present a succession of organized beings, associated 
in groups, the greater part of which have disappeared and been re- 
placed by others. As this phenomenon is renewed at many inter- 
vals, the superimposed beds, from one to another, reveal to us the 
fauna and flora of different epochs. A profusion of organic forms 
has predominated, at all periods of the earth, in the basin of the 
ocean ; it is there that life has had its chief abode both in the ancient 
and modern world. The infusorial fossils of the cretaceous formations 
and of the fresh water tertiary, show us the immense development 
life had acquired in these ancient epochs. Thus, the tripoli of the 
last formations is almost entirely composed of the skeletons or 
carapaces of microscopic animals. M. Ehrenberg calculates that 
each cubic inch of this substance, weighing about 220 grains, con- 
tains forty thousand millions of Gallionella distans, which gives 
about 187 millions to a grain. At each friction of the stone, there- 
fore, many millions, perhaps ten millions of entire fossils, are re- 
duced to powder or atoms. On the other hand, the sand of the 
Antilles contains more than 3,840,000 infusoria in 30 grammes. 
The dust we trample under our feet is also filled with these infinitesi- 

compared with the New World. 263 

mal minutiae ; it is the same with the ice of the pole. Still further ; 
the meteoric dusts brought from great distances from the coasts, for 
example 380 marine miles, are also of organic origin. They are 
composed in great part of microscopic infusoria. There is likewise 
developed, in regions where large organisms cannot exist, a kind of 
life infinitely minute, almost invisible, but incessant. It prevails in 
the eternal night of oceanic depths ; while vegetable life, stimulated 
by the periodical action of the solar rays, is largely diffused over 
continents where the mass of vegetables is incomparably greater 
than that of animals. 

Note 13. The strata of the earth not only inclose marine organic 
remains, but also afford numerous traces of terrestrial species. The 
fresh water races, as well as those of salt waters, have in general 
succeeded each other in the direct ratio of the complication of organ- 
ization, the most simple before the most complicated. At the same 
time, the relations between the age of formations and the physiolo- 
gical gradation of the species they inclose, does not appear in a 
regular manner except id the most complicated vegetables, such as 
the gymnosperms, monocotyledons, and dicotyledons. The same 
thing takes place with animals : the vertebrates are striking examples 
of it. Their classes, and to a certain point their families, follow 
each other and have appeared, according to the most general law of 
the ancient creations. On the other hand, the acrogenous crypto- 
gams, which formed part of the earliest vegetation, have entered 
upon the scene of the world in all their perfection ; such has like- 
wise been the case with the cephalopod molluscs. But these vege- 
tables and animals form part of the least complicated class of the 
branches to which they belong. They do not the less prove that 
the perfection of organization which has followed the order of time, 
has operated among the superior divisions, such as classes, rather 
than among orders and families. Nature seems to have arrived at 
the production of the most perfect vegetables and animals only by a 
series of trials, or, if we may so express it, successive attempts. 
Thus the didelphous mammifera, the least complicated of their 
class, have appeared long before the monodelphes, which exhibit 
the maximum of perfection in organism ; the latter have gone through 
many generations, and have seen many of their species perish, be- 
fore becoming the contemporaries of Man, the most perfect being in 

Note 14. Interior reactions have given its form to the surface 
of the globe, by raising chains of mountains through strata much in- 
clined. These reactions have prepared the field where the forces 
of organic life must have begun to operate after the return of tran- 
quillity, in order to develop there the profusion of individual forms. 
These conspicuous upheavals have in a great measure done away, 
in both hemispheres, with that uniformity of level which, had it con- 
tinued, would have rendered the globe uninhabitable. The most in- 

264 Marcel de Serres on the Old World 

fluential cause in the formation of mountains has, doubtless, been 
the raising up of the ground, whether it took place from the ex- 
pansion of elastic fluids, or was produced by some other action. But 
these causes have not acted alone. Others, though less powerful, 
have also modified the relief of the earth's surface, and given it the 
form which now meets our eyes and invites our observation. 

Note 15. M. Hericart de Theury thought that waters ready to 
burst forth might be found, at Grenelle, in the lower beds of the 
chalk, and that, as they would be fed by the same aquiferous reser- 
voirs found at Rouen and Tours, they would be met with at a 
depth of 560 or 575 metres. He estimated, moreover, before the 
wells at Grenelle were sunk, that the waters would spout out at 15 
or 20 metres below the surface, and that they would be abundant and 
of good quality. These predictions of M. Hericart de Theury were 
verified almost to the letter; instead of being obliged to dig to 560 
metres, the sheet of water was found at 547. It has furnished spout- 
ing springs which, when the probe-hole was furnished with a tube, 
rose to a height of nearly 30 metres. On the other hand, Mr Wal- 
ferdin had calculated that the aquiferous sheet was to be found in 
the neighbourhood of Tours, at 125 or 130 metres below the level 
of the sea, and that the waters would be ejected at Grenelle when 
the probe should reach the corresponding sheet. This calculation 
is as well verified as M. Hericart de Theury's predictions. 

Note 16. The Portland deposits, which belong to the secondary 
epoch, are the earliest formations in which animal species were dis- 
covered whose analogues now live in fresh or salt waters ; both 
have the closest affinity, not in regard to their specific relations, 
but in their generic characters, to living races. It is only in the 
time of the tertiary deposits that the distinction of fresh and salt 
water species becomes decided, and when the lacustrine formations 
have covered spaces of pretty considerable extent. Before the Port- 
land and Wealden formations, the nature of the deposits, and even 
the organization of vegetables and animals, present no character 
which enables us to recognise differences in the waters where the 
one or the other lived. 

Note 17. When we say that there existed, in geological times, 
lizards as large as whales, we do not mean to compare these ani- 
mals in regard to bulk, but only in respect to their length. We 
could not, in fact, establish a comparison between them, and place 
them beside each other in the first point of view, as will readily be 
seen when we consider that most lizards are provided with a tail, 
whose length equals that of their body, and that this part never 
acquires a great breadth, and consequently a volume, above certain 

Note 18. According to the enumeration we have given, the 
ancient vegetation was only a fiftieth, or at most the fortieth, of the 
present vegetation. The former appears to have acquired, in Europe, 

compared with the New World. 265 

more considerable proportions than anywhere else ; it was, in fact, 
the twentieth part of the flora of this country. This relation con- 
tinues nearly the same when we compare the flora of well deter- 
mined formations, as, for example, that of the coal and transition for- 
mations. It comprehends 500 species, while Europe possesses nearly 
12,000 living plants. Even though the flora of the ancient world 
should be the twentieth part of that which now adorns the earth, it 
would have been much inferior to the existing vegetation in regard 
to the variety of its species. The flora of amber, compared with that 
of Germany, although it occupied a much more considerable extent, 
yet gives us a smaller figure than the whole of the two vegetations. 
According to the last edition of Kocks (1851;, the flora of Ger- 
many comprehends 6802 cry ptogamous, 3454 phanerogamous species, 
amounting together to 10,256 species. The number of vegetables 
hitherto observed in the various amber deposits does nut exceed 162. 
This flora was, therefore, 63 times less considerable than the former. 
In truth, all the vegetables of the ancient world have not reached 
our times, and we are far from being acquainted with the whole of 
the fossil species ; but making a large allowance for these circum- 
stances, and reducing the relative number given by observation to a 
fortieth part, one of these floras would be still much more varied 
than the other. The same facts ought to appear among animals, 
since even those supported by flesh and living prey feed on herbi- 
vorous species. Two examples will be sufficient to prove the small 
number of the ancient animal races, compared with those living at 
the present time. We shall take them from the classes best known ; 
for example, the fishes. Eighteen hundred species appear to have 
existed in the old world, while about 9000 have been enumerated 
belonging to our own epoch, a relation which is : : 1 : 5. This rela- 
tion, superior to that presented by vegetables, is probably owing to 
this, that the study of fossil fishes is perhaps more advanced that 
that of the living species. It is entirely different with the insects 
of the ancient world ; not more, at least, have been observed up to 
the present time than about 1000 species, while the number of living 
races already amounts to 80,000. However considerable this num- 
ber may appear, it is still short of that which calculations, seemingly 
well founded, attribute to the species of our world. The latter is 
no less than 362,000, of which 282,000 remain to be discovered. 
Entomologists have, therefore, much to do in order to fill up this 

Note 19. It is only in recent sedimentary deposits that we find 
species like those now living. This identity between a small num- 
ber of the species of geological times and our own, admitted by 
English and Italian geologists, is however denied by some French 
naturalists. In order to determine on which side the truth lies, 
we have undertaken a work with the intention of definitely settling 
this question. This work is sufficiently advanced to enable us cer- 

266 On the Old and New World. 

tainly to affirm that the number of analogous races is extremely 
restricted, but that many exist, (principally among animals), which 
we cannot help regarding as identical with our own. It appears to 
be the same with vegetables. 

Note 20. Active volcanoes are true safety-valves for the adja- 
cent regions. It is the same with thermal waters. If the opening 
of a volcano has been closed, and the communication with the at- 
mosphere interrupted, the neighbouring countries are threatened with 
shocks. We may well suppose that there exist, in the interior of 
the earth, a source of electro-magnetic currents, polar aurorse, and 
irregular movements which disturb its surface. 

Note 21. Not only do the great phenomena which took place 
during geological times still occur in the present day, but it is the 
same with those which, by being on a smaller scale, are less fitted 
to arrest our attention. Thus the fall of stones or meteoric masses 
is constantly perpetuated on the surface of the globe ; they are dis- 
covered as well in the interior strata as on the surface of the earth. 
The phenomenon of aerolites is not peculiar to our epoch, since fossil 
ones exist; it is continued from geological times to our own day. 
On the other hand, the petrifaction of organized bodies is not con- 
fined to times anterior to our own epoch; it is taking place to-day 
both in fresh water and in salt. We have ourselves proved that 
vegetables petrify in the former, just as the remains of molluscs or 
shells do in the latter. If we are not certain that the same thing 
takes place with bones, it is probably because we have not been 
placed in circumstances favourable to the discovery of them in that 
state. It is not at least to be supposed, that wood, grains, shells, 
and the tubes of the annelides, should be capable of passing into a 
stony state, and that it should not be the same with osseous remains 
charged with calcareous matter, and already in a solid condition. In 
consequence of this peculiarity in a great number of organic remains, 
of being capable of being replaced by an inorganic matter more solid 
than that of which they were first composed, sandstones and beds 
of shells are forming every day on the beaches of existing seas ; 
these beds have the closest analogy to the shell-banks of the tertiary 

On the Changes the Faces of Man are undergoing. 267 

Observations on the Gradual Changes that the Human Races 
appear destined to pass through. 

Nature marches steadily towards perfection ; and it at- 
tains this end through the consecutive destruction of living 
beings. Geology and palaeontology prove a succession of crea- 
tions and destructions prior to any effacements of man ; and 
it is contended by Hombron and other naturalists, that the 
inferior races of mankind were created before the superior 
types, who now appear destined to supplant their prede- 
cessors. Albeit, whatever mav have been the order of crea- 
tion, the unintellectual races seem doomed to eventual dis- 
appearance in all those climates where the higher groups of 
fair-skinned families can permanently exist. 

The entire race of the Guanches, at the Canary Islands, 
was exterminated by the Portuguese during the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries ; not a living vestige remaining to 
tell the tale. Some of the pre-Celtic inhabitants of Britain, 
Gaul, and Scandinavia, seem to have shared a similar fate ; 
16,000,000 of aborigines in North America have dwindled 
down to 2,000,000 since the " Mayflower" discharged on 
Plymouth Rock ; and their congeners, the Caribs, have long 
been extinct in the West Indian Islands. The mortal destiny 
of the whole American group is already perceived to be run- 
ning out, like the sand in Time's hour-glass. Of 400,000 in- 
habitants of the Sandwich Islands, far less than 100,000 
survive, and these are daily sinking beneath civilization, 
missionaries, and rum. In New Holland, New Guinea, many 
of the Pacific Islands, and other parts of the world, the same 
work of destruction is going on ; and the colours of pro- 
selytism are vain, save to hasten its accomplishment. 

" Pourquoi cela \ " asks Bodichon. " It is because their 
social state is a perpetual strife against humanity. Thus, 
murder, depredations, incessant useless strifes of one against 
another, are their natural state. They practise human 
sacrifices and mutilations of man ; they are imbued with 
hostility and antipathy towards all not of their race. They 
maintain polygamy, slavery, and submit women to labour in- 
compatible with female organization. 

268 On the Extermination of Races. 

" In the eyes of theology they are lost men ; in the eyes of 
morality vicious men ; in the eyes of humanitary economy they 
are non -producers. From their origin they have not recog- 
nized, and still refuse to recognize, a supreme law imposed by 
the Almighty, viz., the obligation of labour. 

" On the other hand, all nations of the earth have made 
war upon the Jews in 4000 years ; the Egyptians, the As- 
syrians, the Greeks, the Romans, &c, — Christians and Mo- 
hammedans by turns ; with innumerable cruelties, physical 
and moral ; nevertheless, that race lives and prospers. Why ? 
Because they have everywhere played their part in the pro- 
gress of civilization. 

" True philanthropy (asserts Bodichon) should not tolerate 
the existence of a race whose naturality is opposed to pro- 
gress, and who constantly struggle against the general rights 
and interests of humanity. Omnipotence has provided for 
the renovation of manhood in countries where effeminacy has 
prostrated human energies. Earth has its tempests as well 
as the ocean. There are reserved, without doubt, in the 
destinies of nations, fearful epochs in the ravage of human 
races ; and there are times marked on the Divine calendar 
for the ruin of empires, and for the periodical renewal of the 
mundane features." 

" In the midst of this crash of empires (says the Philoso- 
phical Virez), which rise and fall on every side, immutable 
Nature holds the balance, and presides, ever dispassionately, 
over such events, which are but the re-establishment of 
equilibrium in the systems of organized beings." — (Nottand 
Gliddon on the Types of Mankind.) 

On the Intermingling of Human Races. 269 

On the Probable Direful Consequences from the Inter- 
mingling of Human Races. 

It is mind, and mind alone, which constitutes the proud- 
est prerogative of man, whose excellence should be mea- 
sured by his intelligence and virtue. The negro and 
other unintellectual types have been shown to possess heads 
much smaller, by actual measurement in cubic inches, than 
the white races ; and although a metaphysician may dispute 
about the causes which may have debased their intellects, 
or precluded their expansion, it cannot be denied that these 
dark races are greatly inferior to the others of fairer com- 
plexion. Now, when the white and black races are crossed 
together, the offspring exhibits throughout a modified ana- 
tomical structure, associated with sundry characteristics of 
an intermediate type. Among other changes superinduced, 
the head of a mulatto is larger than that of the negro, the 
forehead is more developed, the facial angle enlarged, and 
the intellect becomes manifestly improved. This fact is no- 
torious, viz., that the mulattoes, although but a fraction of 
the population of Hayti, had ruled the island till expelled by 
the overwhelming jealousy and major numerical force of the 
blacks. In Liberia, President Roberts boasts of but one- 
fourth negro -blood ; while all the coloured chiefs of depart- 
ments in that infant republic hold in their veins more or less 
of white blood ; which component had been copiously infil- 
trated prior to emigration from America into that population 
generally. If all the white blood were suddenly abstracted, 
or the flow of whitening elements from the United States 
to be stopped, the whole fabric would doubtless soon fall into 
ruins, and leave as little trace behind as Herodotus's famous 
negro colony of Colchis, or the more historical one of Meroe. 
From the best information procurable, we know that there 
has been a vast deal of exaggeration among colonizationists 
at home about this mulatto colony of Liberia abroad ; nor, 
much as we should be gratified at the success of the experi- 
ment, can we perceive how any durable good can be expected 
from it, unless some process be discovered by which a negro 

270 On the Intermingling of Hainan Races. 

can be highly cultivated mentally. History affords no evi- 
dence that cultivation, or any known causes but physical 
amalgamation, can alter a primitive conformation in the 
slightest degree. Loyele himself acknowledges : — " The 
separation of the coloured children in the Boston schools 
arose, not from an indulgence in anti-negro feelings, but be- 
cause they find they can in this way bring on both races 
faster. Up to the age of fourteen the black children advance 
as fast as the whites ; but after that age, unless there be an 
admixture of white blood, it becomes in most instances ex- 
tremely difficult to carry them forward. That the half-breeds 
should be intermediate between the two parent stocks, and 
that the coloured should therefore gain in mental capacity 
in proportion as it approximates in physical organization to 
the whites, seems natural ; and yet it is a wonderful fact, 
psychologically considered, that we should be able to trace 
the phenomena of hybridity even into the world of intellect 
and reason." Dark-skinned races, history attests, are only 
fit for military governments. It is the unique rule genial to 
their physical nature. None but the fair-skinned types of 
mankind have been able hitherto to realize, in peaceful prac- 
tice, the old Germanic system described by Tacitus : — " De 
minoribus rebus principes consultant de majoribus omnes ;" 
omnes, be it understood, signifying exclusively white men of 
their own type. 

The races of mankind obey the same organic laws which 
govern other animals ; they have their geographical points of 
origin, and are adapted to certain external conditions that 
cannot be changed with impunity. The natives of one zone 
cannot always be transferred to another without deteriorat- 
ing physically and mentally. Races, too, are governed by 
certain psychological influences, which differ among the spe- 
cies of mankind, as instincts vary among the species of lower 
animals. These psychological characteristics form part of 
the great mysteries of human nature. They seem often to 
work in opposition to the physical necessities of races, and 
to drive individuals and nations beyond the confines of human 
reason. We see around us, daily, individuals obeying blindly 
their psychological instincts ; and one nation reads of the 

Diversity of Animals in Geological Times. 271 

causes which have led to the decline and fall of other em- 
pires without profiting by the lesson. 

The laws of God operate not through a few thousand years, 
but through eternity, and we cannot always perceive the why 
or wherefore of what passes in our brief day. Nations and 
races, like individuals, have each an especial destiny ; some 
are born to rule, and others to be ruled — and such has ever 
been the history of mankind — no two distinctly marked races 
can dwell together on equal terms. Some races, moreover, 
appear destined to live and prosper for a time, until the de- 
stroying race comes, which is to exterminate and supplant 
them. The Caucasian race is destined eventually to con- 
quer, and hold every foot of the globe where climate does not 
interpose an impenetrable barrier. 

No philanthropy, no legislation, no missionary labours, can 
change this law ; it is written in man's nature by the hand 
of his Creator. 

If these remarks are correct, it is evident that the superior 
races ought to be kept free from all adulteration, otherwise 
the world will undoubtedly retrograde instead of advance. — 
{Br J. C. Nott and G. R. Gliddon on the Types of Mankind). 

The Primitive Diversity and Number of Animals in Geolo- 
gical Times. By L. Agassiz, Professor of Zoology and 
Geology in the Lawrence University, at Cambridge, Massa- 

The facts and data in this sound, philosophical, and ana- 
lytical paper of Professor Agassiz, in a great measure dis- 
proves the notion entertained by naturalists and geologists, 
that genera and species of animals and plants are greatly more 
numerous at the present age of the world than in any pre- 
vious geological period ; and this he clearly shows holds good 
in the distribution of the animal and vegetable kingdoms 
throughout the earth's orbit, with one or two exceptions. A 
mere chronological list of fossils is to him of very little im- 
portance, in comparison to a good typographical description 
of the species. He shows the necessity of acquiring a know- 
ledge not only of the general biological character of the epoch, 

272 L. Agassiz on the Diversity 

but also of the local fauna of each period. Agassiz states 
that our present list of fossils teem with chronological errors 
of the worst kind, arising from false identifications of strata. 
This we can well imagine, because our mineralogical, (geo- 
logically speaking) stratigraphical, and petralogical know- 
ledge are extremely vague. Agassiz further shows in this 
paper that the number of false identifications of organic re- 
mains that have accumulated in zoological works are truly 
frightful ; and he maintains that the materials thus accumu- 
lated are no longer fit to be used in the discussion of the 
questions that have been raised with the modern professors 
of geology, and that a thorough revision of all the identifi- 
cations of species is required, — and shows that without a 
complete knowledge of species, it is a hopeless task to at- 
tempt to determine the order of succession of the fossils in 
different geological formations. 

He concludes this valuable paper with important remarks 
on the disputed question of the period of appearance of dico- 
tyledonous plants in the geological science. He maintains 
that the dicotyledonese are inferior to the monocotyledoneae, 
and that there exists a similar gradation of types in the 
vegetable as in the animal kingdoms. 

There is a view generally entertained by naturalists and 
geologists that genera and species of animals and plants are 
greatly more numerous at the present age of the world than 
in any previous geological period. This seems to me an entire 
misconception of the character and diversity of the fossils 
which have been discovered in the different geological forma- 
tions, and to rest upon estimates which are not made within 
the same limits, and with the same standard. Whenever a 
comparison of the diversity and number of fossils of any geo- 
logical period has been made with those of the living animals 
and plants belonging to the same classes and families, it has 
been done under the tacit assumption which seems to me 
entirely unjustifiable, that the fossils formerly inhabiting our 
globe are known to the same extent as the animals which 
live at present upon its surface , while it should be well 
understood that however accurate our knowledge of fossils 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 273 

may be, it has been restricted, for each geological formation, 
to a few circumscribed areas. Comparisons of fossils with 
the living animals ought, therefore, to be limited to geogra- 
phical districts corresponding in extent to those in which the 
fossils occur ; or, more properly, a fossil fauna with all its 
local pecularities ought to be compared with a corresponding 
fauna of the present period, and not with all the animals of 
the same class living at present upon the whole surface of 
the globe. And when this is done with sufficient care, and 
proper allowance is made for the limited time during which 
investigations of fossils have been traced compared with that 
which has been almost everywhere devoted to the closer study 
of living animals, it will be seen that the number and diversity 
of species peculiar to each special fossil fauna is, in most 
instances, equal to those found to characterize zoological pro- 
vinces of similar boundaries at the present day. And this 
may be said of the fossil faunse of all ages. In many instances 
the result is even quite the reverse of what is generally sup- 
posed to be the fact, for there are distinct fossil faunse which 
have yielded much larger numbers of species, presenting a 
greater variety of types than any corresponding fauna in the 
present age. Some examples will justify this perhaps unex- 
pected statement. 

The number of species of shells which are found living 
along the shores of Europe, does not exceed six hundred. 
About six hundred species is again the number assigned to 
the whole basin of the Mediterranean, including both the 
European and African coasts. Now the most superficial com- 
parison between them and the fossil species which occur in 
the lower tertiary beds in the vicinity of Paris, shows the 
latter to exceed twice that number ; there are indeed twelve 
hundred species of fossil shells now known from the eocene 
beds in the immediate vicinity of Paris, affording at once a 
very striking evidence of the greater diversity and greater 
number of species of that geological period when compared 
even with those of a wider geographical area at the present 

If it be objected that the variety of forms which occur in 
tropical faunae is greater than that which we observe on the 


274 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

shores of our temperate regions, and that the temperature of 
the tertiary period having been warmer, we may expect a 
larger number of fossil species from those deposits, I would 
only refer to local enumerations of marine shells from several 
tropical regions, to sustain my assertion that the number of 
fossil shells of the eocene beds of the immediate vicinity of 
Paris is much greater than that of any local fauna of the 
present period, even within the tropics. A catalogue of not 
quite three hundred species of shells, given by Dufo, as occur- 
ring around the Sechelles Islands, the extent of which may 
fairly be compared with that of the lower tertiary beds around 
Paris, will suffice to show, that in a tropical local fauna the 
number of species known to exist in the present day is far 
inferior to the number of species known to have occurred 
during the deposition of the lower tertiary beds in the 
vicinity of Paris. Another catalogue by Sganzin, of the 
shells found about Mauritius, Bourbon, and Madagascar, 
gives also less than three hundred species for that extensive 
range of seas surrounding those islands. Let us further 
compare the results of the investigations of the shells of the 
Red Sea by Hemprich, Ehrenberg, and Riippel, and there 
again we find a smaller number, and a more limited variety 
of types than are found in the tertiary of Paris ; for the whole 
basin of the Red Sea has thus far yielded only 400 species 
of shells. Let us finally take the most accurate survey of 
this kind we have of any shore — that of Panama by Professor 
Adams, extending over 50° of latitude, 28° N. of the equator, 
and 22° S. of it, including the most favourable localities for 
the growth of shells in the Pacific under the tropics, and yet 
we shall find this list exceeding but little the number of 500 
species. In this instance, again, we find that the advantage 
in number and variety is in favour of the tertiary period, and 
not of the present age. If a different result has been ob- 
tained by the estimates made before this, it is owing to the 
circumstance, that the fossils known from, a few localities 
ivithin narrow geographical limits were compared with the 
living species known to occur upon the whole surface of the 
globe. But let us trace these comparisons through other 
geological periods, with reference to other classes also, and 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 275 

we shall find, in every instance, similar results. The tertiary 
fossils of Bordeaux, though less numerous in species than 
those of the eocene in the vicinity of Paris, will compare 
with any local fauna of the present period as favourably for 
variety and number of species as those of the lower tertiaries. 
This may be said, with the same certainty, of the tertiary 
shells of the Sub-Apennine Hills, or of those of the English 
Crag, of which we now possess a very complete list. 

If from the tertiary periods we pass down to the cretaceous, 
do we not find in the deposits of Msestricht, or in those of 
the age of the white chalk, a number and variety of shells as 
great as that which may be found on any shore or in any 
circumscribed marine basin of an extent at all comparable 
with that of the cretraeous beds within similar limits 1 Do 
we not find in the lower cretaceous strata, such as the green 
sand or the Neocomien, other assemblages of the remains of 
Mollusks, which, in number and variety, are not inferior to 
those of the white chalk ? The oolitic series, again, will 
stand a similar comparison quite as well. We need not 
even take the whole group of those deposits, but consider 
each subdivision of the Jurassic period by itself, and still we 
find in every one local faunae of Mollusks, assuming of 
course a different character from those of the cretaceous or 
tertiary, but nevertheless sufficiently diversified to admit of 
an estimate as advantageous with respect to the points un- 
der consideration, and to the local faunae of the present day, 
as to the cretaceous assemblages of fossils, or those of the 
tertiary period. Of course, in accordance with the peculiar 
character of the age, different families prevail in these differ- 
ent periods ; the Cephalopoda are extremely numerous and 
surprisingly diversified during the cretaceous and oolitic 
periods ; while they dwindle down to a few representatives 
in the tertiaries, and so with other families. The shells 
found in the deposits of the new red sandstone period, of 
the coal period, and of the still earlier ages, are perhaps less 
numerous on the whole, though they can hardly be said to 
be less diversified ; for the extinct forms which occur among 
them are quite an equivalent to the variety of their families 
which have lived during more recent periods ; and the daily 


276 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

increase of the species found in the different palaeozoic de- 
posits show that, even in point of numbers those ancient 
faunee may, even in the present state of our knowledge, be 
compared with local faunae of similar extent at the present 

Desirous of making the most accurate comparison possible 
between the subdivisions of the palaeozoic formations of the 
■ state of New York with local faunee of similar extent in the 
present seas, I have requested Professor J. Hall to furnish 
me with summary indications respecting the results of his 
extensive investigations in this field, and I have obtained 
from him the following statement : — 

" I regard the Potsdam and Calciferous Sandstone as 
disconnected with the groups above, forming of themselves 
with their fauna (not yet well known in this country) a dis- 
tinct geological period. The entire number of species thus 
far known in these rocks, admitting all of Owen's species, is 
however only twenty-six. 

u The Chazy Limestone has 45 species restricted to itself, 
and one other species which is also known in the Black 
River Limestone. The Birdseye Limestone has 19 species 
restricted to itself, and two others which pass upwards. The 
Black River Limestone has 13 species restricted to itself, 
and one common to it and the Chazy limestone, one common 
to it and Birdseye, and one common to it and the Trenton, and 
one other which is common to the beds below and above, ex- 
tending into the Hudson River group, 1 ' making together 81 
species for these three sets of beds. 

" The Trenton Limestone has 188 species restricted to it- 
self, and 30 species passing upwards into the Hudson River 
group. The entire number of species known as occurring in 
the Trenton Limestone, including those which occur in 
rocks above and below, is about 230. This statement in- 
cludes some species discovered since the publication of the 
1st volume of the Palaeontology of New York, and which 
would make the restricted species about 200. 

" The Hudson River Group, including Utica slate, has 
about 60 restricted species, besides those which are common 
to it and the rocks below, making altogether about 100 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 277 

u You will observe that the development of life at the 
Trenton period has been far the most marked, though it is 
true that this formation is much thicker than either of the 
preceding limestones, the Chazy being the thickest, and the 
Black River the thinnest, of the three below the Trenton. 

" In that portion of the upper Silurian period included in 
the 2d volume of the Palaeontology of New York, the fossils of 
the Medina Sandstone, Clinton group, Niagara and Onon- 
daga Salt groups, amount to 341. Medina and Clinton 
groups 123 species, Niagara and Onondaga Salt group 218 

" The Medina Sandstone and arenaceous beds of the Clin- 
ton group contain 50 species, which, added to the 218 species 
of the Niagara and Onondaga Salt groups, give 291 species 
as the total number of species of the calcareous beds of these 
groups. The Niagara is here the more important period, and 
though not thicker than either of the others, contains about 
200 species restricted to itself. Of the Niagara group 67 spe- 
cies are Corals and Bryozoa. Of the 73 species from the cal- 
careous beds of the Clinton group, 19 are Corals and Bryozoa. 

" In the lower Helderberg group, including the Water- 
lime, Pentamerous limestone, Delthyris Shaly limestone, and 
upper Pentamerous limestone, I expect to describe about 200 
species, exclusive of Corals and Bryozoa, of which I know 
already about fifty species. 

" The Oriskany Sandstone may contain about 60 species 
of fossils altogether, perhaps less. 

" In the upper Helderberg group, which is the next great 
Calcareous formation, I anticipate a less number of species, 
except Corals and Bryozoa, of which there are more than 
100 species in New York and the western localities. Of all 
that is yet known in these limestones, besides Corals and 
Bryozoa, it would be unsafe for me to estimate more than 
100 species. 

" From the Hamilton, Portage, and Chemung groups, I 
anticipate at least 300 species within New York, and I shall 
not be surprised if more complete investigations produce 
double that number in New York and the West. 

" The number of species given here I regard as only ap- 

278 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

proximate. I hope this general statement may meet your 
present requirement, but I regret that I cannot now give you 
more definite information, particularly regarding the Upper 
Helderberg. I give you from this and the higher groups an 
estimate based on the species known to me at the present 
time ; but my final investigations always reveal a greater 
number than I anticipate." 

These statements of Professor Hall place already each of 
the principal group of rocks of the state of New York in the 
category of distinct independent successive faunae, equivalent 
each to as many local faunae of the present period, for we 
may repeat that the fauna of the Sechelles contains only 258 
species, and that of Mauritius, Bourbon, and Madagascar, 
275. Nay, upon 3000 miles of coast along the western 
shores of the American continent, within the tropics, only 
twice the number of living species have been obtained as occur 
respectively in each successive greater subdivision of the 
palaeozoic system within the narrow limits of the state of New 
York only. — (See above the results of Professor Adams's in- 
vestigations upon the coast of Panama). 

It is a most unexpected and very significant coincidence 
that the late admirable investigations of Elie de Beaumont 
upon the mountain systems have led him to the recognition 
of nearly ten times as many periods of great disturbance in 
the physical constitution of the earth's surface as he himself 
knew twenty-five years ago, each attended by the upheaval 
of as many mountain chains, differing in their main direction. 
The investigations of palaeontologists having an entirely dif- 
ferent character, and founded upon facts which until recently 
have apparently had only a remote connection with the other 
series of phenomena, have nevertheless brought them at about 
the same time to like conclusions respecting animal life, 
showing that the periods of disappearance and renovation of 
organized beings upon earth have been much more frequent 
than could be supposed even ten years ago, each set having 
probably been 'characteristic of one of those long periods of 
comparative rest, intervening between two great successive 
geological cataclysms. 

What is true of Mollusca, may be said of all oth^r classes. 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 279 

Among Radiata, are not the coral reefs of the palaeozoic ages 
as rich in species as any coral reef of the Pacific 1 Let us 
even compare the most extensive list of corals yet given as 
belonging to any circumscribed locality, — those of the Red 
Sea as described by Ehrenberg,— those of the Feejee Islands as 
described by Professor J. D. Dana, — and let us inquire whether 
the palaeozoic rocks of the state of New York do not show as 
great a variety and as large a number of species in their 
successive reefs. Again, the coral reefs of the oolitic period 
in Normandy, or in the Jura of Switzerland, and the Alp of 
Wurtemberg, have they not increased our lists of fossils as 
largely, and introduced into our zoological works as various 
forms as are known from any of the most diversified coral 
regions in the world at the present day ? 

Passing from the Corals to the Echinoderms, the question 
may be reversed, and it may be fairly asked whether there 
is any sea shore extending over .tens and tens of degrees of 
longitude and latitude, even under the tropics, which has 
yielded as large a number of those Radiata, as occur in 
almost any of the geological formations % The number 
of Crinoids found in the single set of beds known under 
the name of Niagara limestone, equals the whole number 
of Echinoderms found around all the coast of the United 
States. The Crinoids, Echini, and Star-fishes of the oolitic 
period, or any of the subdivisions of that formation, sur- 
pass the number of species of that class which may be 
gathered around the coast of entire continents in the present 
day. The diversity of forms of these animals, comparing 
them with those of the cretaceous periods, is equally great, 
though the Crinoids begin to diminish in number. But the 
variety of Spatangoids and Clypeastroids which come into 
play, compensate largely for the diminution of the family of 

The type of Articulata may seem, in the present condition 
of our knowledge, to form an unanswerable objection to the 
broad statement I have made above, for the hundred thou- 
sands of insects which are known in the present creation will 
hardly allow a comparison with the fossils. But let us ex- 
amine, upon the principles by which we have been guided in 

280 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

the preceding computations, which is the true state of things 
respecting the occurrence of Articulata in former geological 
periods. We can, of course, hardly expect to find worms 
well preserved in geological formations, on account of the 
softness of their body, which will scarcely allow of preserva- 
tion to a greater degree than Medusae. But a few instances 
in which impressions of these animals have been found jus- 
tifies the assertion that they existed as well in former periods 
as now. The impressions of Medusae found in the lithographic 
limestone of Solenhofen, which are preserved in the Museum 
of Carlsruhe, not only carry back the existence of this class 
to the Jurassic period, but justify the question whether a large 
number of the fossil polypi from older periods, which have 
been described as belonging to that class, are not in reality 
nurses of Medusae similar to the Campanulariae and Ser- 
tulariae of the present day, which are now known to be no 
Polyps, but one of the alternate generations of Medusae. And 
as for the worms, we find in each geological formation, from 
the oldest to the most recent, fossil Serpulae, or similar solid 
cases of worms in as large numbers as we find these animals 
anywhere at the present day. And where the existence of 
Serpulae is established by such unquestionable evidence as 
that of their calcareous cases, are we not justified in the in- 
ference that those entirely naked worms, which are found 
everywhere existing with Serpulae, had also their corre- 
sponding representatives during former geological periods ? 
With the class of Crustacea the difficulty in the comparison 
is already less ; for, in the tertiary beds of Sheppy there have 
been found a variety of lobsters, shrimps, and crabs, which 
would favourably compare with the crab fauna of any limited 
shore in the present day ; and I doubt very much whether 
such a variety of Crustacea could be collected anywhere on 
a shore of equal extent to that of the white chalk of Sussex, 
as Dr Mantel has uncovered in the vicinity of Lewes. For 
a comparison of the Crustacea of the oolitic period, I would 
only refer the sceptic to the monograph of the Crustacea of 
Solenhofen by Count Minister, who has figured from that 
single locality more species than are known in the whole 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 281 

basin of the Mediterranean, excluding the minute species 
which have not yet been sought for among the fossils. 

In earlier geological ages, during the deposition of the 
coal and other palaeozoic rocks, the class of Crustacea pre- 
sents a very different character. The gigantic Entomostraca, 
and the extinct family of Trilobites, take the place of the lob- 
sters and crabs of later periods. But palaeontologieal works 
illustrating the fossils of Sweden, Russia, Bohemia, England 
and France, have made us acquainted with as great a variety 
of species of those families as are found of the later repre- 
sentatives of the class in more modern deposits. So that 
among Articulata the class of Crustacea can be said to have 
been, at all periods, as largely represented, and to have shown 
as great a variety of forms as occur anywhere within similar 
limits in the present time. 

The carcinological fauna of the whole Indian Ocean scarcely 
exceeds in variety or number of species that of Bohemia alone, 
as it is now known by the admirable investigations of M. 

From their minuteness and general structure, Insects might 
be excepted in such a comparison without affording a suffi- 
cient argument against the view I have taken of the subject, 
even if insects had nowhere been found in large numbers in 
a fossil state. For it must be plain that their preservation 
requires more favourable circumstances than the preservation 
of other animals more largely provided with solid parts. But 
though the fossil insects have not been sufficiently investi- 
gated in all geological formations, have we not several ex- 
amples which show that in some geological periods, at least, 
they were as numerous as in the present day ? The beautiful 
Monograph of Behrens, of the insects which occur in Amber, 
shows how varied these animals were during the period of 
the formation of that gum ; and the unparalleled investiga- 
tions of Professor Oswald Heer upon the insects of Oeningen 
and Radeboy have furnished us with means of comparison, 
which show that during the deposition of the Molasse of 
Switzerland, the insects were as numerous and as diversified 
there as they are anywhere in our day, within similar boun- 

282 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

daries. And the fragmentary information which we already 
possess upon the insects of Aix in Provence, and those of 
Oeningen, will justify the expectation that insects will finally 
be found very numerous in all the geological periods, from 
that of the carboniferous deposit to the present day ; that is 
to say, ever since terrestrial vegetation has had an extensive 
development. The discoveries by Hugh Miller of true trees 
in the old red sandstone, will justify the prophecy that insects 
will be found, some day or other, even among palseozoic rocks 
older than the coal period. 

But what of the Vertebrata 1 Is there not evidence that, at 
the present day, they are more diversified and more numerous % 
Here again I answer, decidedly, No ; granting only that there 
are periods during which the higher classes of these types 
did not exist, and that therefore, as a type the vertebrata of 
the present day are more diversified ; but the individual 
classes, from the time of their appearance, have been in each 
former period as numerous, and even as various, as they are 
at present. 

Let us apply to these the same measure which we have ap- 
plied to the Radiata, Mollusca, and Articulata to justify this as- 
sertion, which seems so completely at variance with our 
knowledge of fossil vertebrata. Fishes occur, as is well 
known, in all geological formations. But should we compare 
the fossil fishes of each geological period, as they are known 
from a few localities, with the whole number of fishes which 
exist all over the world in our day ? It would be as unphilo- 
sophical as it would be inconsistent with our knowledge of 
the geographical distribution of animals. Like all other 
living beings, fishes are located within definite boundaries, 
and it will be but fair to compare the fossil species of a given 
locality with the special Ichthyological faunae which occur 
in different oceans, or in different fresh-water basins. Now 
with this rule we may institute a comparison of the fossil 
fishes with the living ones, with reference to their number 
as well as to their variety. 

The number of species of fossil fishes known at present 
from the tertiary deposits, in a single spot upon the Island 
of Sheppy, is greater than the number of fishes which have 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 283 

been gathered around the coast of any of the islands of the 
Pacific Ocean, as far as we know the local Ichthyological faunae 
of those regions ; it is as great nearly as the whole number 
of fishes known from the shores of Great Britain. The same 
may be said of the fishes of Monte Bolca,or of Mount Lebanon, 
or of those of the white chalk of England, or of those of Solen- 
hofen, or of those of the lias of Lyme Regis ; and if we pass 
to older deposits, to the old red sandstone even — thanks to 
Mr Miller, and to the investigations of other British and 
Russian geologists — do we not know from that old forma- 
tion as many fishes as from any of the more recent ones, or 
from any circumscribed marine basin ? and is not the variety 
which occurs among them at each period as great, though of 
of a different character in each, as the variety which occurs 
at the present day ? So that it can be fairly said, that at all 
periods, fishes have presented as great a variety of forms, 
and as numerous species, as under corresponding circum- 
stances at the present day. 

The class of Reptiles will allow similar conclusions ; for 
though the giants of the class have chiefly been studied, do 
they not indicate an abundance and a variety of these ani- 
mals during the upper secondary' formations, as great as in 
any tropical region \ and have we not sufficient indications 
among the tertiarics to be justified in expecting that they 
also will turn out to be more numerous than they are now 
known to be \ 

The class of Birds seems to form an exception in this view. 
But there seems to be particular reason why the bones of 
birds should be more liable to destruction and decomposition 
than those of other vertebrata. And whoever has traced the 
discoveries made recently among the fossils of this class, 
will certainly not insist upon a supposed scarcity of birds in 
former periods, but rather be inclined to admit that the li- 
mited number now known is to be ascribed to the deficiency of 
our knowledge rather than to a want of these animals in 
earlier formations, — indications of their presence having been 
ascertained for several tertiary formations, for cretaceous de- 
posits, and even for deposits belonging to periods older than 
the chalk. 

284 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

Fossil Mammalia are comparatively too well known to call 
for many remarks, after what has been said above. Let us 
only remember that the number of fossil species found in 
Brazil alone equals the whole number of Mammalia known 
to live at present in that country ; that the fossil Mammalia 
of New Holland compare already favourably with the living 
species of that continent ; and that the locality of Mont- 
martre alone has yielded as many large Mammalia as occur 
all over Europe ; and the Mauvaises Terres in Nebraska as 
many as may be found in North America now. So that, if 
we grant simply that among vertebratathe diversity has been 
increasing with the successive introduction of their different 
classes, the number and diversity of these different classes 
at each period has been as great as it is at present. 

These facts are of the utmost importance with reference 
to the great question of the order of succession and gradation 
of animals in the different geological periods. They cut 
away for ever one of the arguments upon which the asserters 
of the development theory have insisted most emphatically. 
Before it could be granted that the great variety of types 
which occur at any later periods has arisen from a successive 
differentiation of a few still earlier types, it should be shown, 
that in reality in former periods the types are fewer and less 
diversified ; and we have now shown that this is so far from 
being the case, that in many instances the reverse is really 
true. I have already attempted elsewhere to show in out- 
lines what is the real order of succession of the great 
types of the animal kingdom, I need not therefore re- 
peat here what may be gathered from the diagram in the 
Zoological Text Book I have published jointly with Dr Gould. 
I shall limit myself to a few more general remarks upon the 
special difficulties involved in a more thorough investigation 
of the subject. 

The study of the order of succession and gradation of the 
organized beings which have inhabited our globe at different 
periods, presents indeed difficulties of more than one kind. 
Unhappily these difficulties have seldom been all considered 
in their natural connection by those who have ventured to 
consider the subject in its whole extent ; thus presenting 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 285 

certain results as general which would require various quali- 
fications to be true. In comparing fossils of one and the 
same or of different geological formations, it is in reality 
not enough to ascertain their true geological horizon, which 
we may call the chronological element of the inquiry ; 
it is equally important that the differences or resemblances 
arising from the geographical distribution over the wide 
expanse of the whole surface of the globe, which we may 
call the topographic element of the question, should be 
also considered, for it is already known that within certain 
limits the same differences and resemblances which are ob- 
served at present between the animals inhabiting different 
parts of the globe existed already in former geological periods. 
We must, therefore, become acquainted with the general 
biological character of the epoch, as well as with the locale 
faunrn of each period. The tertiary faunae of New Holland 
and the Brazils, for instance, resemble more closely the living 
faunse of those parts of the world than they resemble one 
another. Our lists of fossils teem with chronological errors 
of the worst kind, arising partly from false identifications of 
strata which in reality belong to different periods, but the 
fossils of which are thus represented as having inhabited our 
globe simultaneously, when in reality they may have been 
separated by long periods of time, and existed upon the earth 
under very different physical conditions. This chronological 
confusion is further increased by the too extensive limits 
frequently assigned by geologists to the successive groups 
of rocks forming the crust of our globe. For instance, when 
the cretaceous or the oolitic formations are considered re- 
spectively as indivisible natural groups, and the fossils of all 
their subdivisions are enumerated in one single list as the 
inhabitants of a long period, an infinitude of anachronisms 
are presented to the mind, which no special mention of loca- 
lities can rectify ; and until the fossils of each of the natural 
subdivisions of these formations shall have been grouped to- 
gether and compared carefully, as I have attempted to do 
in my Monographs of the Trigonice and of the Myce of Swit- 
zerland and the adjoining countries, or as Al. D'Orbigny has 
done upon a much larger scale in his Paleontologie Fran- 

286 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

coise, no correct ideas can be formed respecting the succes- 
sion of animals and plants characteristic of these long suc- 
cessive periods. I do not believe there is a single palaeonto- 
logist, whose opinion is worth having, who can suppose, at 
this day, that any of the animals, the remains of which are 
buried in the lias, lived simultaneously with those of the in- 
ferior oolite, or these with those of the Oxford clay, or these 
with those of the upper division of the so-called oolitic for- 
mation. The same may be said of the different natural sub- 
divisions of the cretaceous formation, and of the subdivisions 
introduced of late among the palaeozoic rocks, by Sir Rode- 
rick Murchison and Professor Sedgwick, and in America 
by Professor J. Hall. 

But even after this separation of the fossils, the synchron- 
ism of which may be fully established, our task is only fairly 
laid open, for then must begin the zoological identification of 
all the species, which has to be correct in every respect before 
general conclusions can be drawn from it. 

In the first place, the specific identity of organic remains is 
not so easily ascertained as many geologists would seem to 
suppose, if we judge from their statements ; but unless the 
validity of a species is sanctioned by a practised zoologist, it 
cannot be taken as a basis for sound generalizations in re- 
ference to questions of a purely zoological character. The 
number of false identifications which have been accumulated 
in geological works is truly frightful. It would be, however, 
very unjust to accuse geologists in general of inaccuracy for 
this; the fault is mostly to be traced to other. parties from 
which the names were obta ined. It should only be understood 
that the materials thus accumulated are no longer fit to be 
used for the discussion of the questions which have been 
raised with the modern progress of geology, and that a tho- 
rough revision of all the identifications made in former years 
is imperatively demanded by the modern progress of paleon- 
tology. It would be, however, sometimes amusing, were it 
not actually distressing, to see the manner in which some 
geologists deal with fossils, considering them simply as the 
characteristics of certain rocks, and hardly yet dreaming that 
there may be such a thing as a special zoology of the differ- 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 287 

ent geological periods, and that during each, local faunae 
may have existed with peculiar animals, &c. The ideas 
about characteristic fossils are still very crude, and nothing 
is more absurd than the complaints about unnecessary mul- 
tiplication of genera and species; as if both genera and spe- 
cies had not a natural existence, independent of the esti- 
mates of naturalists. It would be just as reasonable for as- 
tronomers to complain of the great number of stars, as for 
geologists to object to the investigations of zoologists, on the 
ground that they lead to the " making " of " too many 

The difficulty with reference to the identification of species 
is threefold : 1. Different species may be considered as iden- 
tical ; 2. Specimens of the same species in different states of 
preservation, or of different age or sex, &c, may be consi- 
dered as distinct species ; or 3. The same species may have 
been described by different authors under different names, 
and their identity afterwards overlooked by later writers. 
Who does not see what amount of error may accrue from the 
indiscriminate use of materials which are not first submitted 
to a very critical revision in these different respects, not to 
speak of the general difficulty of agreeing upon the limits of 
specific differences. With regard to this last point, however, 
I would say that whosoever would only use in discussing 
general questions materials revised candidly with the same 
principles, could not fail to obtain at least uniform results. 
And when the results of investigations made upon materials 
corrected in different ways by different authors are compared 
with one another, if these differences are kept in view, the 
disagreement in the results would not be found so great as it 
might otherwise seem. The astronomers and physicists have 
long learned to correct their observations before using them, 
and to take into consideration what they call the personal equa- 
tion of different observers. Are we never to learn from them a 
lesson in the estimation of our respective investigations, and 
shall our facts for ever be used without being first corrected 
for all the possible causes of error and disagreement \ As 
long as there are differences of opinion respecting the natural 
limits of genera and species, is it not absolutely necessary to 

288 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

reduce or expand the scale applied to the investigations of 
different authors, when using them for the same purposes, 
exactly in the same manner as thermometric observations 
made with the scales of Reaumur, or Celsius, or Fahrenheit, 
are reduced to the same standard, before being compared. 

In the second place, species must be referred to genera cir- 
cumscribed within the same limits, before they can fairly be 
compared, or at least lead to trustworthy general results. As 
long as certain bivalve shells of the carboniferous and oolitic 
series were referred to the genus Unio, it could appear that 
the family of Naiades began its existence at a very early pe- 
riod ; but since the oolitic species of this kind have been as- 
certained to differ essentially from our freshwater shells, and 
to constitute by themselves a natural genus more closely allied 
to Crassatella than to Unio, nobody thinks any longer of look- 
ing for Unios in marine deposits. As long as certain fossil 
fishes of the Zechstein and Lias were referred to the genera 
Esox and Cyprinus, the families of which these genera are 
the types could be supposed to have extended their range 
far beyond the tertiary formations, before which, however, 
no one of their representatives is to be found. Before the 
Spatangoids were divided into natural genera, the genus Spa- 
tangus was mentioned among the fossils of the oolitic as well 
as the cretaceous and tertiary formations ; now it is restricted 
to the last among the fossils, and found also among the living. 
I do not believe that a single genuine species of Gorgonia is 
found among the fossil Polypi, and yet that genus appears in 
the lists of fossils from the palaeozoic period to the present 

Since it is not my intention to enter here upon a special 
criticism of the innumerable errors of this kind still to be 
found in even modern lists of fossils, I shall not multiply my 
examples. These may be sufficient to show how important a 
correct generic identification of the fossils may be in the esti- 
mation of the order of sucession of organized beings ; and I 
cannot but lament the utter want of consideration evinced 
even by many distinguished palaeontologists in this respect, 
who seem to think that the knowledge of species is sufficient 
in itself to a proper appreciation of the order of creation, and 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 289 

that genera are arbitrary divisions established by naturalists 
merely for the sake of facilitating the study of species, as if 
the more general relations of living beings to one another 
were not as definitely regulated in all their degrees by the 
same thinking mind, as the ultimate relations of individuals 
to one another. 

In the third place the natural affinities of genera should be 
ascertained. Unless the genera are referred to the families 
to which they truly belong, unless the rank of these families 
in their respective classes is positively determined, unless the 
peculiarities of structure which characterizes them is taken 
as the foundation of such an arrangement and further corro- 
borated by the mode of development of their respective types 
it would be a hopeless task to attempt to determine the order 
of succession of the fossils in different geological formations. 
Before the Crinoids, which Lamarck placed along the Polyps, 
had been referred to the class of Echinoderms, nobody could 
have understood the beautiful gradation so fully ascertained 
now, which may be traced through all geological formations 
among these animals. Before it was ascertained that the 
little animal described by Thompson under the name Penta- 
crinus europ9eus,as a living Crinoid,for which M. De Blainville 
established the genus Phytocrinus, is in reality the young of 
a Comatula, nobody could have suspected the wonderful re- 
lations which exist between the changes animals now living 
undergo during their growth, and the order of succession of 
entire classes of animals during successive geological ages. 
As long as the natural position of Trilobites remained doubt- 
ful in the animal kingdom, the characters of the prototypes 
of the class of Crustacea could not be appreciated. Who 
does not see how impossible it was for those who classified the 
Trilobites with the Chitons to arrive at any sound results re- 
specting the gradation and order of succession of these ani- 
mals 1 Whilst now they are beautifully linked to the Mac- 
rura of the Trias, by the gigantic Entomostraca of the De- 
vonian and Carboniferous periods. Again, the knowledge of 
the embryology of Crustacea gives us a key to a correct ap- 
preciation of the early appearance of the Macrura and the 
late introduction of the Brachyura. The removal of the Bry- 

290 L. Agassiz on the Primitive Diversity 

ozoa from among Polypi to the class of Mollusks, will en- 
tirely change the aspect and relations of the faunae of the 
palaeozoic rocks. How different, again, would the order of 
succession of Mollusks appear, were we to adhere to Cuvier's 
view of separating the Brachiopods, as a class, from the other 
Acephala, to which they are now more correctly referred. 
The vexed question of the period of appearance of Dicotyle- 
donous plants in the geological series would have been set- 
tled long ago, had it been placed upon its real foundation. It 
is not in reality to be argued upon palaeontological evidence 
chiefly, for it resolves itself in the main into a botanical ques- 
tion, and the definite answer must depend upon the position 
finally assigned by botanists to the families of Coniferae and 
Cycadeae. If these natural orders of plants are really allied 
to the Dicotyledonae, then this type begins with the palaeozoic 
rocks in the Devonian system, and there is no gradation in 
the order of succession of plants during geological times. 
But if the view of Brongniart is more correct, if the Coniferae 
and Cycadeae have to be separated from the Dicotyledonae as 
Gymnospermae, and if, moreover, these latter should prove, as 
I believe they are, inferior even to the Monocotyledoneae, then 
we may at once recognise in the vegetable kingdom a similar 
gradation of types as among animals. These examples may 
suffice to show what is required for a proper investigation of 
the order of succession of organized beings in the course of 
time, and how little confidence the investigations in this field 
deserve, which have not been made with due reference to all 
the points mentioned above. It is indeed only in the classes, 
the structure and embryology of which is equally well under- 
stood, we are able to discover thelaws regulating the succession 
of animals and plants in geological formations, and our know- 
ledge is at present still too imperfect to carry the investiga- 
tion into all families of the animal kingdom. And yet enough 
is known to leave no doubt as to the final result; we may con- 
fidently await the time when the glory of the wonderful order 
of creation shall be fully revealed to us, and this may stimu- 
late us to renewed efforts, since the success depends entirely 
upon our own exertions. 

The geographical distribution of animals began only to be 

and Number of Animals in Geological Times. 291 

studied long after systematic zoology had made considerable 
progress ; but even to this day the limits of the faunae are no- 
where circumscribed with any kind of precision, the prin- 
ciples upon which they might be determined are in many re- 
spects questionable, and a large number of animals are daily 
described without any reference to their natural distribution 
upon the earth ; though much has already been done since 
Buffon, to place this branch of our knowledge upon a better 
foundation, and especially to ascertain the laws regulating 
the geographical distribution of certain classes and families 
considered isolately. The point which requires now particu- 
lar attention, is the combination of these different types 
within definite regions, and their common circumscription 
within natural zoological provinces. This study would be 
particularly important with reference to the comparison of 
the local faunae of former geological periods with those of the 
present creation. But since the latter even are comparatively 
little known, we must be satisfied to wait for the time when 
thorough comparisons shall be possible between the local 
faunse of each and all geological periods inter se, and with 
those of other periods. 

In closing this digression, I may sum up my criticism upon 
palaeontological investigations, by saying that any generaliza- 
tion respecting the succession of organized beings which is 
not based upon materials in which the synchronism and suc- 
cession of species and their geographical distribution is not 
duly considered, and in which the identification of species is 
not made with reference to sound zoological principles, with 
due regard to the equal limitation of genera, and also with 
reference to our improved classifications in zoology, is not fit 
to be trusted. All species taken into consideration should 
undergo a revision with reference to their chronology, their 
topography and their zoology, and in the last point of view 
the range and natural limitation as well as identity of the 
species, their generic affinities and their zoological classifica- 
tion should be equally tested. 

Returning now to the main subject of this paper, I have 
further to say that the very fact that certain stratified rocks, 
even among the oldest formations, are almost entirely made 

T 2 

21)2 On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 

up of fragments of organized beings, should long ago have 
satisfied the most sceptical that both animal and vegetable 
life was as active and profusely scattered upon the whole 
globe, at all times and during all geological periods, as it is 
now. No coral reef in the Pacific contains a larger amount 
of organic debris than some of the limestone deposits of the 
tertiary, of the cretaceous, or of the oolitic, nay, even of the 
palaeozoic period, and the whole vegetable carpet covering the 
present surface of the globe, even if we were to consider only 
the most luxurious vegetation of the tropics, and leave en- 
tirely out of consideration the whole expanse of the ocean, as 
well as those tracts of land where under less favourable cir- 
cumstances the growth of plants is more reduced, would not 
form one single seam of workable coal to be compared to the 
many thick beds contained in the rocks of the Carboniferous 
period alone. 

On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 

There are a number of minerals, with regard to which 
most mineralogists, geologists, and chemists, are of opinion 
that they can only have been formed by crystallization from 
a melted mass. A considerable portion of these minerals 
are, however, infusible ; or, at least, require such a temper- 
ature for fusion, as cannot reasonably be supposed to have 
been concerned in the formation of the rocks in which they 
occur. Some of these compounds, on the other hand, may 
be easily formed by fusion at a moderate temperature. Thus, 
more than thirty years since, Mitscherlich showed that augite 
or pyroxene — one of the most widely distributed minerals — 
may be formed by melting together silica and various bases of 
the magnesian series, in such proportions that the oxygen of 
the acid amounts to twice as much as that of the bases. 
He also showed that this mineral substance, with its proper 
form, occurs in the slags obtained in metallurgical opera- 
tions ; and the subsequent examination of slags has led to the 
recognition in them of several other compounds identical 
with, or analogous to, native minerals. 

Nevertheless, there are a great number of minerals, in 

On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 293 

whose origin, it is very probable, intense heat has exercised 
an essential influence, which have never been produced arti- 
ficially, nor observed in the products of metallurgical opera- 
tions. The very happy, and in some respects fertile, idea of 
Ebelmen to expose substances to the joint influence of heat 
and a solvent capable of being volatilized, and thus to obtain 
them crystallized, has furnished some very valuable results ; 
but, although boracic acid — the solvent used — has been found 
in many native minerals, in which its presence had not been 
suspected, still its occurrence is too rare to admit of the 
opinion that it has played any very considerable part in the 
production of the more widely distributed minerals constitut- 
ing the earth's surface.* 

Forchhammer has recently made experiments of the same 
character as those of Ebelmen, but with substances, as sol- 
vents, which are less rare than boracic acid — chloride of so- 
dium, calcium, magnesium, &c. 

The production of apatite was the object of his first experi- 
ments ; and he was led to them by the results of his analyses 
of sea water, and his observations of the constant presence in 
it of phosphate of lime, together with a still smaller amount 
of fluoride of calcium. 

After failing in every attempt to produce apatite in the 
wet way, and guided by the circumstance that apatite occurs 
chiefly in lava, dolerite, granite, and metamorphic rocks, 
under conditions which appear to indicate an igneous origin, 
he came to the conclusion that if this was the case, chloride 
of sodium might have been concerned in its formation. 

By melting phosphate of lime with chloride of sodium, and 
allowing the mixture to cool very slowly, a mass was ob- 
tained which presented a great number of cavities containing 
an abundance of long columnar crystals. The residue left, 
after treating this mass with water and then with acetic acid, 
consisted of — 



Hydrochloric acid, 


Phosphate of lime, 


Oxide of iron, 

a trace ; 

■* Ueber die Einwirkung des Kochsalzes bei der Bilduug der Mineralien 
Annalen der Physik und Cbemie, 1854, No. 4. 

294 On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 

corresponding therefore closely with Ramelsberg' s calcula- 
tion for apatite. 

The crystals obtained were too small for measurement, 
which the author considers sufficiently accounted for by the 
artificial conditions of their production. By examination, 
with the aid of the microscope, they were found to be six- 
sided prisms with terminal planes, and grooved lateral planes 
like beryl. In other respects they had the closest resem- 
blance to the acicular crystals of apatite, occurring in rocks at 
Capo di Bove. 

The density of this artificial apatite was found to be 3*069, 
and the hardness so great that a slab of fluor-spar became 
dull when rubbed with the powder. 

The solution of phosphate of lime in fused chloride of 
sodium, and its separation on cooling, furnish an excellent 
means of detecting minute quantities of phosphoric acid in 
rocks, &c. For this purpose the powdered substance is heated 
with 50 per cent, of chloride of sodium, which, when the sub- 
stance is tolerably fusible, separates from the silicates as an 
upper layer. When the substance is not fusible, the chloride 
of sodium remains partially mixed with it, in cavities distri- 
buted throughout the mass, and presenting, after the solu- 
tion of the chloride, a remarkable similarity to the vesicular 
cavities of amygdaloid. The small crystals of apatite gene- 
rally project like hairs from the surface of the partially dis- 
solved mass, and being soluble in very dilute hydrochloric or 
nitric acid, they may be collected by that means and esti- 
mated. The author has in this way detected phosphoric 
acid in greenstone belonging to the primitive and transition 
formations of Scandinavia ; in the greenstone, occurring as 
boulders, in the more recent formations ; in that of the trap 
formation of Greenland ; in the basalt of Steinheim ; in a 
course granular basalt or lava from Iceland ; in three varie- 
ties of granite and gneiss from Bornholm, and in two varieties 
of mica schist. From one Bornholm granite, remarkably 
fine and distinct, crystals of apatite were obtained. 

The observation, made some years ago by Fownes, of the 
presence of phosphoric acid in rocks, thus gains further con- 
firmation, in addition to the testimony of Swanberg and 

On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 295 

The occurrence of apatite in the magnetite beds of Scandi- 
navia, and the composition of the bog iron-ore of the same 
locality, suggested the possibility that the former might have 
originated from bog iron-ore under the influence of chloride 
of sodium at a high temperature. The bog iron -ore contains, 
besides, oxide of iron, phosphoric acid, lime, silica, titanic 
acid, and carbonaceous organic substance. The latter ingre- 
dient might correspond to the remarkable bituminous sub- 
stance of the magnetite beds ; and the silica, lime, and mag- 
nesia might be supposed to form, with oxide of iron, the 
numerous compounds of the amphibole series occurring in 
the magnetite beds, while apatite and titanium compounds 
might also be derived from the constituents of bog iron- 

For the purpose of ascertaining the behaviour of bog iron- 
ore when melted with chloride of sodium, a direct experiment 
was made with a pound of the ore, and half a pound of chlo- 
ride of sodium. The cooled mass presented cavities which, 
when the chloride of sodium was dissolved out, were found 
to contain apatite crystals. The ore itself had become black, 
strongly magnetic, and had acquired such a hardness as 
scarcely to be scratched by steel, together with a perfectly 
conchoidal fracture. 

In the larger cavities the mass was covered with small, 
sharply defined crystals, which, when magnified, were found 
to be regular octahedrons. The ore was therefore actually 
converted into magnetite, and the phosphoric acid had sepa- 
rated, as apatite, from the oxide of iron. In a comparative 
experiment with bog iron-ore alone, it did not show any 
signs of fusion or crystallization ; the colour, though dark- 
ened, was still brown. 

There is a great amount of evidence for the opinion that 
the blue tinge of some minerals, especially silicates and alu- 
minates, is intimately connected with the presence in them 
of phosphate of iron, and that vivianite is the hydrate of the 
compound, to which the colour of cyanite, sapphirine, spinell, 
and corundum, as well as of fluorite and apatite, is owing, at 
least in many instances. The author having ascertained, by 
analysis, the presence of phosphoric acid and iron in these 

296 On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 

minerals, endeavoured to obtain further evidence by synthe- 
tical experiments, and, first, to find whether the anhydrous 
phosphate of iron had the same colour as the hydrate. 

With this object, he heated protosulphate of iron with 
ordinary phosphate of soda, and an additional equivalent of 
soda, to obviate the formation of pyrophosphate, but was 
unable to effect the formation of phosphate of iron by double 
decomposition, as the mixture proved to be infusible at a 
temperature which rendered cast-iron perfectly liquid. He 
therefore had recourse to chloride of sodium, which he added 
in large excess, and exposed the mixture to the influence of 
an intense white heat for half an hour. When the crucible 
was thoroughly closed, and the heat had not been maintained 
so long as to cause considerable volatilization of the chloride 
of sodium, the melted mass was quite homogeneous, and gene- 
rally colourless, while its surface was covered with deep red 
micaceous laminae. By treatment with water a fine crystal- 
line residue was obtained. That portion of the melted mass 
which was in contact with the sides of the crucible had ac- 
quired a dark violet colour to the depth of two or three lines, 
and very similar to the colour of some varieties of fluorite. 
The principal part of the mass, however, was colourless 
protophosphate of iron ; at the surface, where oxidation was 
comparatively easy, phosphate of iron had been formed. 

When, on the contrary, there was a crack in the crucible, 
through which a portion of the chloride of sodium ran into 
the fire, or the temperature was sufficiently high and pro- 
tracted to effect the volatilization of greater part of the 
chloride of sodium, the appearance of the melted mass was 
quite different. The cavities in the chloride of sodium were 
then filled with black micaceous crystals, which had the 
greatest similarity to micaceous hematite. This substance 
consisted of protoxide and oxide of iron and phosphoric acid, 
and, rubbed to powder with water, presented a deep blue 

It is remarkable that this phosphate of iron, when oxidized, 
while washed with water, does not, like the phosphate of iron 
occurring in peat-bogs, and in some masses of lava, assume a 
blue colour when exposed to air; but becomes brown gra- 

On the Artificial Formation of Minerals* 297 

dually, and without passing through any shades of green or 

The results of these experiments, therefore, show that 
phosphate of iron is capable of producing, in combination 
with alumina especially, but likewise with other substances, 
a series of colours of which the intermediate phase is pure 
blue ; on the one side the dark violet seen in some varieties 
of fluorite, and on the other the bluish-green of the Arendal 
apatite. In some instances these colours may pass, by a 
subsequent oxidation, into yellow and red shades, like those 
so frequently observed in cyanite. 

The fact that the largest and most perfectly developed 
crystalline minerals occur either in druses or upon lodes, has 
been brought forward by Bischof as evidence in favour of 
their production through the agency of water. His whole 
argument, however, ends in establishing, by general reason- 
ing from physical and chemical principles and circumstantial 
evidence, a probable hypothesis, in place of vague and often 
contradictory opinions hitherto entertained. As yet the hy- 
pothesis is destitute of any such positive experimental evi- 
dence as would justify its reception as an adequate theory of 
mineral development and alteration. 

The argument for the aqueous origin of minerals derived 
from the presence of constitution water in minerals, zeolites, 
&c, has recently been met by direct experimental facts,* 
which, at least, destroy that portion of it that is intended to 
prove the impossibility of their formation by igneous agency, 
although the conditions of these experiments were probably 
too artificial to admit of their being applied as evidence for 
the mode of production of native minerals. 

Even admitting the general proposition, that native mine- 
rals have been produced through the agency of water, it is 
in very many instances difficult to furnish any satisfactory 

* The production of hydrated silicate of lime, 3 Ca 0, 2 Si 3 + aq. in crys- 
tals, by melting a mixture of lime and silica with caustic potash, and of crys- 
tals presenting all the characteristic features of native chabasite, by simply 
heating fragments of palagonite to incipient redness. — See Bunsen on the Rocks 
of Iceland ; Poggendorff's Annalen, 1851, No. 6 ; and Scientific MeraoirB, 1862. 

298 On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 

explanation of the processes in their details. Crystallization 
in the ordinary way does not appear very probable ; for, with- 
out reference to the assumption of indefinite periods, savour- 
ing too much of a past phase of geological speculation, the 
very minute solubility of the substances would, judging from 
analogy, seem to justify the opinion, that in gradually sepa- 
rating from solution in consequence of evaporation of water, 
they would be distributed over a considerable surface, rather 
than at particular points, as crystals are found in druses and 
upon lodes. 

The quantity of water evaporated in the formation of 
minerals by crystallization in this way would be enormous, 
in the case of quartz amounting to 25,000 times its volume at 
least. Moreover, when it is considered that this evapora- 
tion must be assumed to take place in the midst of immense 
masses of rock, perhaps saturated with water, the view which 
ascribes the formation of minerals to crystallization from 
solutions in the ordinary way certainly assumes a very ques- 
tionable aspect. 

The occurrence of minerals presents a great number of 
facts which unmistakably indicate a segregative action, in 
consequence of which particular compounds occur in masses, 
or as crystals imbedded in a matrix of a different kind ; 
and although the intimate nature of this process is not un- 
derstood, it is highly probable that the production of mine- 
rals by the agency of water was effected under some such 
conditions, by which the molecules in passing from the liquid 
to the solid state were brought within the range of their 
aggregative forces in a manner more favourable to the for- 
mation of crystals than deposition from so enormous a pro- 
portion of water by mere evaporation. 

From a conviction of the need of experimental evidence in 
favour of the aqueous origin of minerals, as well as of a more 
minute investigation of their mode of production, and guided 
by views similar to those expressed above, Drevermann * 
has instituted some experiments with this object, which, 
though not very extended, are sufficiently interesting to 
merit further prosecution. 

* Liebig'a Annalen, January 1854. 

On the Artificial Formation of Minerals. 299 

The results of Professor Graham's researches on the dif- 
fusion of liquids, suggested to him the idea that by means of 
this process a very gradual precipitation might be effected, 
which would be eminently favourable to the production of 
insoluble or sparingly soluble substances in a crystalline 

The first experiment, directed to the production of inso- 
luble lead salts, was arranged in the following manner : — 

Powdered nitrate of lead was introduced into a tall cylin- 
drical glass and covered with water ; chromate of potash 
containing carbonate and sulphate was placed in a similar 
glass with water, and both were then immersed in a large 
vessel of water. The saline solutions formed at the bottom 
of the glass cylinders diffused slowly upwards, and after 
some months, the water in the large vessel was found to 
contain nitrate of lead. There was then formed upon the 
outer edge of the second cylinder a yellow amorphous de- 
posit, which gradually extended towards the inner edge and 
assumed a darker colour. Upon this amorphous deposit, 
small patches of a bright purple red colour appeared after a 
time and rapidly increased to little warty protuberances, and 
finally formed a ring extending downwards in a horizontal 
zone round the inner side of the cylinder. The other por- 
tion of the cylinder became covered with a reddish film, 
which, after a few days, was seen to consist of small crys- 
tals. These increased rapidly in size, forming concentric 
groups of acicular crystals of a bright red colour. Some 
attained a length of four or five millimetres, and then fell to 
the bottom of the liquid. The crystals had adamantine 
lustre, and corresponded in crystalline form as well as in 
every other particular with native lehmannite (PbO, Cr0 3 ). 

Upon the dark red ring rhombic plates of a cochineal 
colour were formed and grouped together in branches, and 
agreeing in characters with phoenicite (3 PbO, 2 Cr0 3 ). 
The formation of these two compounds took place in such a 
manner, that near the mouth of the cylinder there was a zone 
of phoenicite only ; lower down, crystals of both compounds 
were associated, while below this point there was another 
zone of lehmannite only ; and when the liquid was tested with 

300 Richard Adie on the Influence of 

litmus paper, that portion within the latter zone was alka- 
line, while that within the former was neutral. 

Upon the sides of the larger vessel, and the outer sides of 
the two cylinders crystals of two different forms were de- 
posited — colourless six-sidedprisms,with avitreouslustre,and 
tabular brittle crystals also with a vitreous lustre. The for- 
mer were soluble in dilute nitric acid with effervescence, and 
proved to be cerussite (PbO, C0 2 ) ; the latter were insoluble 
in dilute nitric acid, and proved to be anglesite (PbO, S0 3 ). 

Experiments of a similar kind have been commenced by 
Vohl,* who uses very dilute solutions of equal density, and 
makes the diffusion take place through membrane, paper, or 
a thin plate of baked clay. B. H. P. 

On the Influence of Undulating or Hilly Ground in Check- 
ing Currents of Wind. By Richard Adie, Esq., Liver- 
pool. Communicated by the Author. 

Referring to my communication in No. 113 of this Jour- 
nal, I return to the subject in order to avail myself of the 
table of the fall of rain in the Lake District, published by Mr 
Miller at p. 88 of the same Number. Also to give the 
result of some further observations, which, although not 
directly connected with the question under discussion, have 
a collateral relation, and were suggested to me through the 
consideration of the effect of hilly ground on currents of 

The weight of aqueous vapour which crosses a ridge of 
sea-board of 100 miles long, was stated to be 4 J millions of 
tons per hour, counting the velocity of the wind at the mean 
rate ascertained at Liverpool. This weight, however, is also 
much governed by the thickness of the stratum of air in mo- 
tion, which, for the calculation, was assumed to be 100 yards. 
But in the Lake District where Mr Miller's rain gauges are 
situated, a portion of them at elevations from 1000 to 3000 
feet above the sea-level, the hourly weight of aqueous vapour 
which crosses over a district is probably far greater. 

* Liebig'fl Annalen, October 1853. 

Undulating or Hilly Ground. 301 

Mr Miller's gauges are distributed over 25 localities, in 
all of which the annual fall of rain greatly exceeds that of 
West Lancashire ; the mean depth shown by the 25, given in 

in his table, is 82*88 inches, 

From which deduct annual fall at Liverpool 28*05 „ 

54*83 „ 
the excess of rain due to hilly ground. A square of 25 
miles a side or 100 perimeter would inclose the chief portion 
of the district in question ; the yearly excess of water of 
54*83 inches deep, distributed over the area of the square, 
shows that the condensation of aqueous vapour amounts to 
252,852 tons weight per hour. If the 100 miles perimeter was 
made to inclose a circular area in lieu of a square one, the 
weight of water condensed per hour would be a little over J 

Sand Hills. — The action of a stormy atmosphere on a flat 
sea-chafed sandy beach, has the effect of producing a belt of 
sand hills that in some degree exercise the influence of hilly or 
undulating ground in checking currents of wind. I wish to sub- 
mit the view I take of the formation of these hills, which, I 
trust, may prove of interest, seeing that the question of stay- 
ing the progress of sand is in some countries one which is 
studied with anxiety. On the shores of France, of Holland, 
and in this neighbourhood, grasses are cultivated for the pur- 
pose of binding the sand, and preventing it from damaging 
adjoining fields. And it has been argued that in Egypt the 
object the ancients had in rearing those masses of masonry, 
the Pyramids, was for a like purpose. 

In Liverpool bay the tide flows over extensive sand-banks, 
and beats on a smooth sandy shore ; near the high -water 
line the sand is of a clear, sharp character, through which 
water percolates freely ; specific gravity 2*58. I have re- 
peatedly noticed that a brisk wind playing on a bank of this 
kind, within two hours from the time it had been dried by 
the tide, detached particles of sand, which the wind carried 
along the surface of the ground in the form of light, fleecy- 
like clouds. When this process is extended through ages, 
the result of it is that a quantity of sand is lodged above 

302 Richard Adie on the Influence of 

high-water mark by the effect of the sea breezes. If we 
come to consider the relative strength of land and sea winds, 
the preponderance of force will always be in favour of the 
latter, for they are unchecked by objects, like arboreal vege- 
tation, which the land-winds encounter. After they cross 
high-water mark, the respective character of the two changes ; 
the land-breeze there makes its escape from the obstacles 
which reduced its force, while the sea-breeze at the same 
point begins to encounter them. Thus, if the land and sea 
winds on a coast are supposed to be of equal duration through- 
out the year, the greater force of the latter would leave an 
excess of sand above high-water mark ; which is the case 
which occurs in nature. When the shores of Liverpool bay 
are viewed from a little distance, they appear to be skirted 
by a ridge of sand of from twenty to fifty feet high. This 
ridge nearer hand is found to be not continuous, but to 
have gaps at intervals, through which the ground in- 
land may be reached without ascending more than a few 
feet. These gaps appear to me to serve the purpose of per- 
mitting the wind to escape with less resistance than if the 
sand had formed an undivided ridge. The phenomenon of 
the formation of sand-hills on parts of our coasts which sup- 
ply the requisite conditions, can be explained by viewing them 
as the forms of least resistance the wind has arranged sand 
it has brushedup from the beach, and over which it has to cross. 
The dome or conical hill is the type of the form of least resist- 
ance, which in our climate is much modified by vegetation 
through the roots and stems of plants binding the sand. In 
Liverpool bay, the belt of sand-hills is broadest in the neigh- 
bourhood of Formby Point, where the flat character of the 
country inland offers slight impediments to the progress of 
the wind ; they attain the height of fifty feet, and the specific 
gravity of their materials agrees exactly with that of the ad- 
joining beach, namely, 258. 

A friend of mine, who has examined the sand-hills on the 
coast of Brazil, informs me that on the northern part of that 
coast domes of pure sand rise to the height of 150 feet. 
Their superior elevation in that place he accounts for by the 
steady regularity of the sea-winds and the dry nature of the 

Undulating or Hilly Ground. 303 

climate. On the shores of the Baltic, in the neighbourhood 
of Memel, I remember to have seen hills of sand about 100 
feet high ; but these I consider to be natural elevations of 
the ground, covered with sand, for I only found them at one 

The conditions required for the formation of sand-hills on 
a sea-board are, a flat coast, a scanty sea-chafed beach, and 
a stormy atmosphere. To those who are familiar with dif- 
ferent forms of beaches, localities will suggest themselves, 
where, owing to the want of one of the conditions required, 
there are no sand-hills. At our headlands, for example — 
Ardnamurchan, Point of Ross, the Ormshead — where the 
winds and waves play in their " wildest and angriest moods," 
sand can find no resting-place. Again, in the estuaries of 
the Dee, the Mersey, the Forth, and Morecambe bay, there is 
abundance of sand reposing on a flat sea-beach ; but in these 
places the winds have not force enough to detach the sand 
and carry it above high-water mark in sufficient quantity to 
form hills. 

A question of interest in this inquiry, but which is not 
easily determined, is the supply of sand from the sea-board 
requisite for the maintenance of a belt of sand-hills. The 
ground on the landward side of such a belt shows that there 
is a transfer of sand to the inland, and when it meets a low 
wall it rises over it ; where it meets a high fence wall, the 
sand is thrown back into a ridge about two feet from the 
base of the wall. If the quantity of sand annually carried 
inland could be ascertained, then, where the condition of the 
sand-hills are stationary, that would measure the supply 
from the sea-chafed beach. 

I fear that the view that the Pyramids were erected by the 
ancient Egyptians to stay the progress of sand from the 
Desert finds no support from the foregoing remarks ; for in 
their forms they approach to the sand domes which offer the 
least possible resistance to winds. And the masonry in the 
Pyramids, arranged as a series of dikes, these in time to 
become sand ridges, would check the advance of sand from 
the Desert more than if the materials were put in the form 
of Pyramids. 

304 Prize Subjects proposed by the 

The manner the tide arranges the materials on a sea- 
beach may here be noted as connected with the source of 
sand-hills. Where the shore is sandy and free from pebbles, 
the sand at half-tide level is finer and less permeable to 
water than it is near high-water mark, with the specific 
gravity of the two nearly equal. Where the shore is com- 
posed of sand and stones, the former occupies the half-tide 
level, and a belt of pebbles the high-water ground. This 
effect of the waves throwing up the coarser part of the sand 
to the top of the tide is very marked on the coast of Den- 
bighshire, on the borders of the Irish Sea ; also in Brodick 
bay, in the Island of Arran. 

Prize Subjects proposed by the Society of Sciences at 
Harlem for the year 1856. 

The Dutch Society of Sciences resident at Harlem pro- 
posed a great number of prize subjects for competition in 
1854. Three questions only have been taken up by the com- 
petitors ; 1st, That on the fossil vegetables of the chalk for- 
mations ; 2d, That on the air and water of the Low Countries 
in the neighbourhood of the sea, of which the Society re- 
quired an examination in respect to the existence or non- 
existence of iodine ; 3d, That on the spectrum of the elec- 
tric light, and the differences which the rays of Frauenhofer 
present when the luminous arc is formed between different 
metals. The last of these questions is the only one that 
has been treated in such a manner as to deserve the prize. 
The author of the memoir is M. Masson, Professor of 
Natural Philosophy in the Imperial Lyceum of Louis-le- 
Grand, at Paris. The society now proposes, for the compe- 
tition of 1856, the following prize subjects : — 

1. Some natural philosophers allege that apart of an electric 
current, passing along an electrolyte, traverses it without ex- 
ercising any chemical action. The society requires that this 
opinion should be submitted to a rigorous experimental ex- 
amination ; and that, in case of it being found correct, the 
experimentalist should determine, at least in respect to six 
different electrolytes, the numerical relation existing be- 
tween the part of the current which decomposes the electro- 

Society of Sciences at Harlem. 305 

lyte, and the part for which the electrolyte appears to be pos- 
sessed of conductibility similar to that of metals. 

2. Some recent experiments of M. Faraday, made with 
long metal wires covered with gutta-percha and immersed 
in water, have shown that the celerity of the electricity is 
not always the same in all conductors, metallic or otherwise. 
The Society desires that the circumstances which modify 
this celerity should be determined by exact experiments. 

3. It likewise requires that a rigorous examination should 
be made of the phenomena which some chemists still explain 
by admitting the existence of the force called catalytic, in 
order to decide whether it be proper definitively to admit or 
reject the existence of this force. 

4. M. F. G. W. Struve published in 1847, in a work 
entitled Etudes a'Astronomie Stellaire, certain views on the 
structure of the universe and the transparency of space, 
which have been approved of by some astronomers, and dis- 
puted by others ; among the former, M. Encke has declared 
that he considers these ideas as hypothetical and without 
foundation. A prize is offered by the Society for the best 
memoir, the author of which shall point out, as the result of 
deep study, what the actual state of astronomy allows us to 
consider as proved, or at least as probable, in the structure 
of the universe. 

5. By another question in its programme, the society re- 
quires it to be determined where, when, and how, sugar is 
produced in the human body. 

6. It offers another prize for a comparative description of 
the lymphatic and chyliferous vessels in fishes. It requires, 
1st, That the different relations of these vessels and those of 
the sanguineous system should be examined ; 2dly, That the 
observations of MM. Fohman and Treviranus on the lym- 
phatic vessels, should be repeated and discussed. The com- 
petitor must compare, in this point of view, at least three 
very different families, and describe, as completely as pos- 
sible, the entire system of these two kinds of vessels in the 
same species of fish, accompanying the descriptions with 

7. To inquire by a physiological examination, experi- 

306 Prize Subjects j>roposed by Harlem Society. 

mental and comparative, what is the function of the particu- 
lar matter secreted in the large intestine of many mammi- 
fera. This examination, forming the subject of the 7th 
prize, ought to embrace at least the Carnivora, Ungulata, 
and Rodentia. 

8. To inquire if there is a well established relation be- 
tween the hypertrophies of the spleen and a morbid state 
of the blood characterised by an abundance of white 
globules (leucohemia). To illustrate this subject by anato- 
mico-pathological investigations and clinical observations. 

9. With the view of terminating the uncertainty which 
always rests on the manner in which reproduction takes 
place in the Algae, the Society requires that it should be 
made the subject of new investigations, and that the de- 
velopment, from the embryo to the perfect state, of at 
least three plants belonging to different families, be ob- 
served, described, and as far as necessary illustrated by 

10. To show what are the characters by means of which, 
either by the examination of fossils or otherwise, it is pos- 
sible to decide with certainty whether the alluvium forma- 
tions have been deposited in fresh water, in water more or 
less saline, or in the sea. To confirm the exactness of the 
characters which shall be indicated, by the examination of 
different beds of the alluvium formations, whose origin is not 

11. To make a thorough geological examination of the 
formation situated at the ancient embouchure of the Rhine, 
near Katwijk, in order to decide, if possible, by what causes 
it was closed up, whether violent cataclysm, or progressive 
encroachments of the land. To describe the vestiges which 
this embouchure has left. 

12. To give the geological and palaeontological description 
of one of the inhabited Neerland Indian Archipelago other 
than the island of Java, and to determine the geological 
epoch of the formations of the island. 

The prize for each of these questions is a gold medal of 
150 Dutch florins, to which may be added, if the Society 
think proper, a gratuity of the same value. The memoir 
ma.y lie written, at the choice of the competitors, in any one 

Researches on Artificial Productions of Minerals. 307 

of six languages ; Dutch, French, English, Italian, Latin, or 
German. They must be addressed in the ordinary forms of 
competition, to the Secretary of the Society, M. J. Gr S. 
van Breda, before the 1st of January 1856. 

Researches on the Artificial Production of Minerals, be- 
longing to the family of Silicates and A luminates, by the 
reaction of Vapour on Rocks. By M. Daubree. 

Modern geology admits, as demonstrated, a modification 
of rocks in contact with, or in the vicinity of, massive 
crystalline formations. It is this theory which has procured 
for them the designation of metamorphic rocks. 

Since the memorable experiment of James Hall, elevated 
temperature has been admitted as the principal agent of 
metamorphism. But the intervention of heat alone cannot 
explain the important modifications which rocks have under- 
gone* in many countries ; complex chemical actions have 
contributed to alter the primitive type. 

In former researches, which the Academy has condescended 
to receive with favour, I have been principally occupied with 
the mineral formations that contain repositories of tin, and 
the reciprocal reactions of vapours, the one upon the other. 
The new experiment, the results of which I have now the 
honour to submit, along with a few modifications in the 
processes, have the same theoretical idea as I commenced 
with, and now extend the inquiry to the crystalline or azoic 

The chloride of silicium reacting, in a state of vapour and 
at the temperature of red heat, on the basis which enter into 
the constitution of rocks, becomes decomposed, forming by 
the change chloride of calcium and of silicic acid. Some- 
times this acid remains free, sometimes it combines in excess 
with the base, and forms simple or multiple silicates. 

This reaction is remarkable in this respect in a chemical 
point of view, and it is so especially in a geological one, that 
the silicic acid thus originating, and the silicates produced 
from it, have a great tendency to crystallize. The crystals 
are small, but in general very distinctly defined. 


308 . M. Daubree on the 

It is besides important to observe that the crystallization 
of these compounds takes place at a temperature much below 
their point of fusion. 

With lime, magnesia, alumina, and glaucina, we obtain 
crystallized quartz under the ordinary form of a pyramidal 
hexagonal prism, and a part of the base passes into the state 
of silicate. 

It is in this that the silicate of lime, named Wollastonite, has 
a great tendency to be produced, in rhomb tables with two 
broad truncated faces which replace the obtuse angles, the 
constant form of the natural crystals. These tables are 
often grouped perpendicularly between each other like the 
prisms of Staurotide. 

It is in this way that, with the magnesia, we obtain peridot 
in rectangular prisms. 

Alumina yields a silicate in elongated prisms with oblique 
bases, not acted upon by acids, and infusible, with all the 
characters of disthene. It is interesting to see in this case 
the chloride of aluminum forming at the expense of the 

In order to form a double or multiple silicate, it is neces- 
sary not only to mix the bases, that they may become silici- 
fied in the suitable proportions, but also to furnish the oxygen 
necessary for the formation of the silicic acid, by adding in 
excess one or other of them, or lime. 

A mixture of lime and magnesia yields crystals of pyrox- 
enous diopside, without colour and of perfect limpidity ; they 
present the large truncation and bevelment common to 

Seven equivalents of potassa or soda, one equivalent of 
alumina, or else an equivalent of alumina with six equivalents 
of lime, produce, under the reaction of chloride of silicium, 
crystals of oblique prisms with obtuse bevelments, nearly 
unaltered by sulphuric acid, fusible by the blow-pipe, and in 
short presenting all the characters of the felspars. 

By the same process, and by varying the nature and pro- 
portion of the bases submitted to the chloride of silicium, I 
have obtained silicates with the crystallographic and chemi- 
cal characters of Willemite, idiocrase, garnet, phenakite, 
emerald, euclase, and zircon. 

Artificial Production of Minerals. 309 

By mingling the elements which correspond to the com- 
position recently given by M.Rammelsberg for the magnesian 
and ferromagnesian tourmalines, and adding to them an ex- 
cess of magnesia or lime to supply the silicium with oxygen, 
I have obtained, among crystals of quartz, very well-defined 
hexagonal prisms, which present all the exterior and chemi- 
cal characters of tourmaline. 

The chloride of aluminum may be employed in the same 
way as the chloride of silicium. When treated with lime at 
a red heat, it produces chloride of calcium and of alumina in 
crystals, which may be referred to the proper types of corun- 
dum, the hexagonal prism, and acute pyramids. 

The same reaction takes place with magnesia, and besides, 
in the latter case, a part of the reproduced alumina may be 
combined with the magnesia in excess, so as to produce 
spinelle, recognizable by the form of its crystals in regular 
octahedrons truncated on the angles. At the same time, 
it is a better plan, in order to obtain spinelle, to bring to- 
gether a mixture of chloride of aluminum and chloride of 
magnesium, and lime brought to a red heat- With the 
chloride of zinc and aluminum, we produce the zinciferous 
spinelle, or gahnite. 

The chloride of titanium brought over lime, along with the 
other crystals, afterwards examined, yields oxidized tita- 
nium, under the form of Brookite. 

The oxide of tin, obtained in a similar way, is in crystals 
of the same form as that which I had formerly produced by 
reaction on steam. Thus the form of a rectangular prism 
remains, for the oxide of titanium and for the oxide of tin, 
produced by decomposition of the chlorates of these metals, 
at temperatures at least between 300 and 900 degrees. 

By causing the perchloride of iron to react upon lime, I 
have obtained oligistic iron, both in the most distant specular 
crystals, like those of St Gothard, and in transparent hexa- 
gonal plates, presenting by refraction the red colour of the 
ruby. The perchloride of iron mingled with the chloride of 
zinc yields, in the same conditions, a crystallized combina- 
tion analogous to Franklinite. 

Lastly, crystallized magnesia or periclase of the Somma, 

310 M. Daubree on the 

may likewise be easily obtained by the reaction of lime on 
the chloride of magnesium, which is found among the abun- 
dant chloriteous vapours of the fumeroles of Vesuvius. The 
same chloride, decomposed by steam, likewise gives periclase, 
and the chloride of zinc furnishes oxidated zinc crystallized. 

The results which have been indicated, lead to geological 
consequences which can be referred to here only very briefly. 

I do not mean to affirm as a fact, that all the silicates, which 
compose the mass of crystalline rocks, are formed by vapours. 
But even among the melted rocks of Vesuvius, a certain 
number of minerals are found, to which M. Scacchi has re- 
cently drawn attention, and which appear to be the products 
of sublimation. 

Among the minerals of the most ancient formations, there 
are likewise many which could not come, in the way of fusion, 
to line the fissures where these minerals are now met with so 
much insulated ; such as the pyroxenous diopside with garnet 
of Piedmont and the Oural, the adulaire and pericline felspars 
of the Alps, the epidotes and axinites of the Oisans, and 
many others. 

The privileged richness of the crystalline limestones in 
minerals, often strangers to the neighbouring rocks, cannot 
result solely from the circumstance that the lime, reacting 
in them on the silica, has formed particular silicates. What- 
ever may have been the original impurities of the limestones, 
corundum, spinelle, periclase, and chondrodite, could not be- 
come developed in them, without the subsequent introduction 
of chemical agents which were foreign to them. 
. All the varied productions of transport, silicates, alumi- 
nates, oxides, and other combinations, whether formed in fis- 
sures, or in the heart of rocks now become very compact, 
appear to me to be explained in the most satisfactory manner 
by the intervention of emanations of chlorides and fluorides. 
Besides, there is nothing to prevent us conceiving, in regard 
to compounds so volatile and penetrating, that their action 
should extend, on parting from the centre where they are set 
free, over considerable thicknesses, such as those of the cry- 
stalline rocks of the Alps or Brazil. Sometimes the substi- 
tution of the silicates thus formed has been only partial, as 

Artificial Production of Minerals. 31 1 

in many of the crystalline limestones which remain to us as 
perpetual witnesses of the ancient exhalations emanating from 
the neighbouring eruptive rocks. Sometimes the effect has 
been more complete ; and even the primitive mass may have 
disappeared, in the state of soluble chloride, as well as the 
water which has formed the oligistic iron of volcanoes. 

If we turn from the example of crystalline limestones and 
dolomites richest in minerals, to those of St Gothard, Sweden, 
Finland, and the United States, we perceive that the presence 
of chlorides mingled with fluorides, and sometimes sulphur- 
ated compounds, accounts for the formation of their most 
characteristic minerals. We must include, in this explana- 
tion, the rich deposits of red oxidated zinc, with the Franklin- 
ite of New Jersey, as well as diverse masses of oligistic 
iron and oxidulated iron, which have also been produced in 
the limestone. 

We see magnesian compounds, such as spinelle, chondro- 
dite, mica, pyroxine, amphibole, warwickite, and serpentine, 
accumulated sometimes with marked predominance, in lime- 
stones which contain no magnesia. This fact, hitherto un- 
explained, should be regarded as a consequence of the differ- 
ent chemical affinities of lime and magnesia ; for we always 
find, in our experiments, the chloride of magnesium to be 
precipitated by lime ; and when both these bases are in con- 
nection with chloride of silicium or aluminum, the lime 
yields its oxygen, and the magnesia, remaining in the state 
of oxide, enters by preference in the oxidized combination 
with the regenerated silica or alumina. The same principle 
explains the presence of the magnesia to the exclusion of the 
lime, in the oxidulated irons. Must we ascribe to the same 
cause the preponderance of the magnesia over the lime in the 
elements of granite and serpentine \ 

The causes to which quartz and silicates owe their pre- 
sence, principally in granitic rocks, has long been a difficulty 
in all the hypothesis of the formation of the primordial sys- 
tem of rocks. But, we now perceive in our experiments, that 
the quartz crystallizes at the same time, and even later than 
the silicates, at a temperature which scarcely exceeds the 

312 Researches on Artificial Production of Minerals. 

cherry-red, and, consequently, vastly below their point of 

Is it not likewise the same cause which appears sometimes 
to withdraw the quartz from the silicates or aluminates of 
the base ; as in granite, when it envelopes crystals of cymo- 
phane, instead of having formed a double silicate like emerald 
and euclase \ 

If mica still exhale by heat, fluorides of silicium and boron, 
or of lithium, dare we affirm that the granitic pastes did not 
likewise, at the time of their origin, enclose chlorides of sili- 
cium, boron, or aluminum ; which are wanting, it is true, 
among the vapours now collected near volcanic orifices, when 
they are decomposed and precipitated by steam on coming 
in contact with the atmosphere, and where we see them not- 
withstanding contribute very probably to the formation of 
silicates, now attributed by the best observers to a product 
of volatilisation ? Do we not still find, moreover, the chloride 
in considerable quantity in certain masses, such as the zircon 
syenite of Norway, and the rock of Ilmen (miascite). where 
this body is principally combined in eleolite, and where it ap- 
pears to have brought zirconium, tantalum, along with all 
the assemblage of rare elements which are the accompani- 
ments of these rocks 1 

It is by no means demonstrated that the presence of a cer- 
tain quantity of water should be, at high temperatures, an 
obstacle to such reactions, since we see silica and alumina 
become separate and anhydrous, from an aqueous solution at 
a temperature of from 300 to 400 degrees. And if, hitherto, 
experiments have referred principally to limited conditions 
of the different modes of formation, by the humid way and by 
the dry way, the same effect produced in these extreme cases, 
as the quartz and corundum, would perhaps sufficiently 
authorize us to conclude that it would likewise take place in 
intermediate conditions. — {Gomptes Rendus de V Academie 
des Sciences, 1854.) 

Siluria — Present State of Geology. 313 

Siluria — Present State of Geology. 

The geologist is now in possession of a vast amount of 
facts bearing on the history of the earth's structure, and the 
different epochs that extinct organic beings appear to have 
passed through ; and the most important of these facts have 
been studied with a strict philosophic spirit, and sound prac- 
tical results have been drawn from them, and are now of 
the utmost advantage for the progress of both science and art. 

No man of science deserves a deeper debt of gratitude 
from his country for the services he has rendered to it 
than Sir Roderick Murchison. Sir Roderick did not only 
lay down his military profession, but sacrificed a large por- 
tion of his great fortune, and the best part of his valuable 
life, in exploring the structure of what all must admit to 
be the most difficult part of the earth's crust, viz., the pro- 
tozoic, or the first epoch of organic existence. On this 
epoch, Sir Roderick has thrown more light than any man, 
either dead or alive. After long, unwearied labour, and 
with a fixed determination, he has arrived at the same 
result as to the protozoic epoch as the immortal Cuvier had 
done before him with the tertiary epoch. 

To be the discoverer and the historian of a period of the 
world's history when the first organic beings were called into 
existence on our habitable globe, is surely what any man 
would be proud of. But our intellectual and noble veteran 
has still a good deal to do before he completes his picture of 
the Ancient Siluria. He has to give us a better notion of 
the ancient Silurian meteorology and climate — of the pro- 
bable amount of solar heat required at that time for the de- 
velopment and growth of the vegetable and animal organic 
beings — and laws of geographical distribution. Such kind 
of knowledge is necessary to enable us to arrive at correct 
conclusions. We have, during the present period, many 
changes taking place, the conclusions in regard to which 
would certainly be incorrect if we were guided simply by 
the law of deposition. For example, we find, on a tropical 
coast, strata deposited daily from one of the great rivers ; 

314 Siluria — Present State of Geology. 

but along with the alluvia is deposited not only plants and 
animals of the surrounding country, but also plants and ani- 
mals brought down from the snowy heights by the same river. 
Similar strata found in a fossil state would undoubtedly lead 
the paleontologist to draw erroneous conclusions in regard 
to the climate of the period. We might give similar exam- 
ples, produced by the Gulf Stream, and also by glaciers, ice- 
bergs, and great inundations passing from one country to 
another. May not some of our present fossils that are found 
under a totally different climate from that under which they 
lived, be accounted for in this way ? 

Our earth was formed according to fixed and definite laws. 
Its rocks, minerals, and fossils have a definite structure, and 
a fixed position ; therefore, erroneous theoretical conclusions 
must ultimately be overturned by the true philosopher. 

The importance of a correct classification and a standard 
nomenclature, all must admit of — we mean a classification 
that will bear the surest of all tests — universality — a clas- 
sification that will show us that the work of Nature is one 
great plan. It is only on some of the minor subdivisions 
of the formations that diversity of opinions among geo- 
logists exist ; all agree on the main principles of classifica- 
tion — on the stratified and un stratified rocks, on the fossili- 
ferous and non-fossiliferous, on the great divisions of the 
formations and their relative age, derived from a know- 
ledge of superposition and organic remains. Our geological 
systems of classification have undergone a gradual improve- 
ment for many years, having passed through the hands of 
Werner, Macculloch, Conybeare, Al. Brongniart, Omalius, 
D'Halloy, De la Beche, Buckland, Mantell, Phillips, Sir 
Charles Lyell, the Rev. A. Sedgwick, and Sir Roderick 
Murchison. We still require much accurate knowledge for 
laying down correct boundary lines of our classification. 

The azoic rocks demand much patient investigation in 
regard to the laws of deposition before we can expect to 
arrive at correct information in regard to the age of these 
non-fossiliferous strata. 

But ere long we will arrive at as fixed and definite 
arrangement of these rocks as we now have of the protozoic, 

Siluria — Present State of Geology. 315 

and we shall find that the strata are arranged in a definite 

That the whole crust of our earth has been undergoing a 
metamorphic change from the beginning of time, there 
appears to be little doubt ; but the cause of its apparent 
more or less activity, as observed by the geologist in the 
structure of rocks of almost every line of country over 
which he travels, is still a mystery, and can only be settled 
by a close chemical and microscopical examination of the 

The relations of the sedimentary and Plutonian rocks 
are far from being properly understood. The general re- 
ceived notion that the Plutonic rocks, in a state of igneous 
fusion, were impelled from below against the strata that 
contorted them, fractured them, and filled up the spaces 
which they now occupy, appears not to be invariably correct, 
because we frequently find great tracts of country traversed 
in every direction by Plutonic agents without any change 
whatever being produced. " Let it, however, be understood," 
says Sir Roderick Murchison, " that the prodigious extent to 
which the metamorphism of the original strata has been 
carried in mountain chains, and at different periods through 
all formations, though often probably connected with such 
igneous outbursts, must have resulted from a far mightier 
agency than that which was productive of the mere eruption 
of molten matter or igneous rocks. The latter are, in fact, 
but partial excrescences in the vast spread of the stratified 
crystalline rocks — symptoms only of the grand changes which 
resulted from deep-seated causes, probably from the com- 
bination of heat, steam, and electricity, acting together with 
an intensity very powerful in former periods." * 

We are still in want of correct information in regard to 
the origin of stratification, lamination, different kinds of 
structure, seams, joints, cleavage planes, and metamorphic 
action ; we do not know if these changes are to be ascribed 
either to aqueous, igneous, or electric agencies, or molecular 
attraction, as connected with concretionary structure. 

* Murchison's Siluria, p. 4. 

316 Siluria — Present State of Geology. 

Much has been written on the metamorphic changes of 
rocks, but very unsatisfactory information has been arrived 
at. We still cannot tell how it happens that chalk, lime- 
stone, shale, sandstone, and coal, when traversed by gra- 
nites, porphyries, and trap rocks, are changed into crystalline 
limestone, siliceous slate, quartz, and coke, at one time ; and 
how, when in contact with the same Plutonian and trap rocks 
at another, produce no effect whatever. 

We regret much we have not space in the present number 
of our Journal to give an outline of the novelties Sir Ro- 
derick has introduced into his new work, entitled Siluria — a 
most elaborate work, which consists of 523 pages, containing 
163 woodcuts, 37 plates, and 2 maps. It is a faithful out- 
line of Sir Roderick's previous labours, with a detailed de- 
scription and condensed practical popular view of the older 
sedimentary rocks, and their characteristic organic remains, 
including all the most recent information on this subject. 
It is to the protozoic series of former accumulations, and 
the creatures entombed in them, that Sir Roderick's atten- 
tion is more particularly directed. Sir Roderick brings out, 
with very strong and conclusive evidence, that the Silurian 
System is an independent system, a system that appears 
to have been formed in various parts of the globe at one 
and the same time, formed of the same rocks and mine- 
rals, and inhabited by the same animals and plants ; and 
Sir Roderick maintains that the animals and plants found 
in the Silurian strata of the different quarters of the globe 
are not only analogous, but identical.* We are in want 
of sufficient data to enable us to say much in regard to 
the meteorology and hydrology of that early period. The 
higher temperature, which must have then prevailed all 
over the globe, appears to have been derived from the 
internal heat, and not the solar heat. We learn from 
the late palseontological researches, that nearly one hundred 
species of fossils are common to the lower and upper divi- 

* Such a conclusion cannot be held as correct, until we have acquired more 
accurate data of the biological character of the different epochs, as well as the 
local faunae of the periods. 

Siluria — Present State of Geology. 317 

sions of the Silurian System. Sir Roderick has established 
his Silurian system with uncontrovertible evidence in Great 
Britain and Ireland, Germany, France, Belgium, North 
America, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Cape of Good Hope, 
Himalaya Mountains, Hindostan, Australia, South America, 
United States, Falkland Islands, &c. 

We now give several extracts from the concluding remarks 
of Sir Roderick's work, written in a highly popular and gra- 
phic style, and we are sure that our general readers will not 
only be much delighted, but edified, with what follows, and 
hope it will induce many to study the work. 

" Passing rapidly over the earliest stages of the planet, which are 
necessarily involved in obscurity, our sketch of ancient nature began 
with the first attainable evidences of the formation of sediments com- 
posed of mud, sand, and pebbles. It was shown that the lowest 
accessible of these deposits, though of enormous dimensions, and 
occasionally less altered than strata formed after them, are almost 
entirely azoic, or void of traces of inhabitants of the seas in which 
they were accumulated. One solitary genus of zoophytes has been 
alone detected in most bottom rocks, the heat of the surface during 
these earlier periods having been, it is supposed, adverse to life. 

" Proofs were then adduced to demonstrate that in the next for- 
mations, scarcely differing at all in mineral character from those 
which preceded them, observers in various regions had detected clear 
and unmistakable signs of a contemporaneous appearance of animal 
life, as shown by the presence of a few genera of crustaceous mol- 
lusks and zoophytes, occupying layers of similar date in the crust of 
the earth. Proceeding upwards from this protozoic zone, wherein 
organic remains are comparatively rare, we then ascended to other 
sediments, in which, throughout nearly all latitudes, we recongise a 
copious distribution of submarine creatures, resembling each other 
very nearly, though imbedded in rocks now separated by wide seas, 
and often raised up to the summits of high mountains. Examining 
all the strata exposed to view that were formed during the first long 
natural epoch of similar life termed Silurian, we found that the suc- 
cessive deposits were charged with a great variety of forms — of the 
trilobite, a peculiar crustacean — of the orthoceratite, the earliest 
chambered shell — as well as with numerous exquisitely formed mol- 
lusks, crinoids, and zoophytes ; the genus graptolite, of the latter 
class, being exclusively found in these Silurian rocks. In short, my 
contemporaries have assembled from those ancient and now desic- 
cated marine sediments, or repositories of principal creatures, ex- 
amples of every group of purely aquatic animals, save fishes. The 
multiplied researches of the last twenty years have failed to detect 

318 Siluria — Present State of Geology. 

the trace of a fish amid the multitudes of all other marine beings in 
the various sediments which constitute the chief mass of the Silurian 
rocks. Of these, though they are the lowest in the scale of the 
great division vertebrata, we are unable to perceive a vestige until 
we reach the highest zone of the Upper Silurian, and are about 
to enter upon the Devonian period. Even on that horizon the minute 
fossil fishes, long ago noticed by myself, are exceedingly scarce, 
and none have since been found in strata of higher antiquity. In 
fact the few fragments of cartilaginous ichthyolites of the highest 
band of Silurian rock still remain the most ancient known beings of 
their class. 

" Looking, therefore, at the Silurian system as a whole, and 
judging from the collection of facts gathered from all quarters of the 
globe, we know that its chief deposits (certainly all the lower and 
most extensive) were formed during a long period, in which, while 
the sea abounded with countless invertebrate animals, no marine 
vertebrata had been called into existence. The Silurian (except at 
its close) was, therefore, a series in which there appeared no example 
of that bony framework of completed vertebrae from which, as ap- 
proaching to the vertebrate archetype, the comparative anatomist * 
traces the rise of creative power up to the formation of man. 

" Whether, therefore, the term of ' progressive ' or that of ' suc- 
cessive ' be applied to such acts of creation, my object is simply to 
show, upon clear and general evidence, that there was a long period 
in the history of the world wherein no vertebrated animal lived. In 
this sense, the appearance of the first recognizable fossil fishes is as 
decisive a proof of a new and distinct creation as that of the placing 
of man upon the terrestrial surface at the end of the long series of 
animals which characterize the younger geological periods. 

" Nor have we been able to disinter from the older strata of this 
long period of invertebrate life any distinct fragments of land plants. 
But just in the same stratum wherein the few earliest small fishes 
have been detected, there also have we observed the first of a dimi- 
nutive, yet highly organized, tree vegetation, j" 

" If it be granted that the position of the earliest recognizable 

* " See Owen on the Homology of the Vertehrate Skeleton, Reports Brit. Assoc. 
Adv. Sciences, 1849, p. 169. The general reader will find a powerful essay, 
embodying the opinions of the same high authority, on the proofs of a progres- 
sion in creation, Quarterly Review, 1851, p. 412, et seq. The arguments there 
employed have been strengthened by subsequent discoveries alluded to in this 
volume. I would also specially refer the reader to Professor Sedgwick's Dis- 
course on the Studies of the University of Cambridge, for a masterly and elo- 
quent illustration of several of the views which are here advocated." 

t Sir Roderick has long known the existence of bitumen and anthracite in 
the oldest greywacke or the Longmynd rocks, and considers that these sub- 
stances might have been derived from masses of sea-weed ; and it appears that 
Profr-ssor Nicol detected, under the microscope, a tubular fibrous structure in 
the ashes of anthracite. Anthracite has been discovered in the old greywacke 
of Cavan, Ireland, by Mr John Kelly. 

Siluria — Present State of Geology. 319 

vertebrata is good positive evidence on which to argue, still it might 
be contended that such forms may at a future period be found in 
the lower strata. In this work, however, I reason only on known 
data. Nor is it on this testimony alone, strong, clear, and univer- 
sal as it is, that my view is sustained ; for as soon as we pass into 
the formation immediately overlying, and quit the zone wherein the 
first few small fishes are to be detected, we are furnished with colla- 
teral proofs that this was the earliest great step in a progressive 
order of creation. In the following or Devonian period, we are sur- 
rounded by a profusion of larger fossil fishes, with vertebrae for the 
most part very imperfectly ossified, and with dermal skeletons of 
very singular forms, all differing vastly from anything of their class 
in existing nature. These fishes were thus clearly added to the other 
forms of marine life. Again, in this Devonian era we are presented 
with well-defined land plants, also of much larger dimensions than 
the very rare specimens in the uppermost Silurian, while towards the 
close of the period we meet with an air-breathing reptile. The lit- 
tle telerpeton had groves of tree-ferns or lycopodiaceous plants, and 
even of coniferse, amid the roots of which he could nestle. 

" Just as the introduction of cartilaginous fishes (onchus, e.g.) is 
barely traceable at the close of the long Silurian era, so, becoming 
soon afterwards more abundant, they are associated in all younger 
formations with true osseous fishes, whose remains are found inter- 
mixed with the other exuvise of the sea. Putting aside, therefore, 
theory, and judging solely from positive observation, we may fairly 
infer — first, That during very long epochs the seas were unoccupied 
by any kind of fishes ; secondly, that the earliest discoverable crea- 
tion of this class had an internal framework almost incapable of fos- 
silization, and so left in the strata their teeth and dermal skeletons 
only ; and thirdly, that in the succeeding period the oldest fishes 
having bony vertebrae make their scanty appearance, but become 
numerous in the overlying deposits. Are not these absolute data of 
the geologist clear signs of a progress in creation \ 

" In like manner, there is a progress in the productions of the 
land, the great carboniferous period being marked by the first 
copious and universally abundant terrestrial flora, the prelude to 
which had appeared in the foregoing Devonian epoch. This earliest 
luxuriant tree vegetation, the pabulum of our great coal-fields, is 
also specially remarkable for its spread over many latitudes and lon- 
gitudes, and together with it occur the same common species of 
marine shells, all indicating a more or less equable climate from 
polar to intertropical regions, a phenomenon wholly at variance with 
the present distribution of animal or vegetable life over the surface 
of the planet. 

" Lastly, while the Permian era was distinguished by the dis- 
appearance of the greater number of the primeval types, and by 

320 Sihtria — Present State of Geology. 

essential modifications of those which remained, it still bore a strong 
resemblance, through its plants and animals, to the Carboniferous 
period ; whilst, in unison with all the great facts elicited by our 
survey of the older strata, it was marked by the appearance of 
an animal of a higher grade than any one in the foregone eras — a 
large thecodont reptile — allied (according to Owen) to the living 

" In speaking of the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Per- 
mian rocks, let me however explain, that whilst each of the three 
latter groups occupy wide spaces in certain regions, no one of them 
is of equal value with the Silurian, in representing time or the suc- 
cession of animal life in the crust of the globe. When the Silurian 
system was divided into lower and upper parts, our acquaintance 
with younger formations simply sufficed to show a complete distinc- 
tion between its animal remains as a whole and those of the car- 
boniferous rocks, from which it is separated by the thick accumula- 
tions of the Old Red Sandstone. At that period the shelly, slaty 
rocks of Devonshire, were not known to be the equivalents of such 
Old Red Sandstone ; still less had the relations and lime contents of 
the strata now called Permian been ascertained. Judging from the 
fossils then collected, it was believed, that the Lower Silurian con- 
tained organic remains, very distinct from those of the Upper Silu- 
rian ; and yet the two groups were united in a system, because they 
were characterised throughout by a common fades. This so called 
system was, in short, typified by a profusion of Trilobites and Grap- 
tolites, with Orthides and Pentameri of a type wholly unknown in 
the carboniferous rocks. And whilst fishes were seen to exist in the 
intermediate masses of Old Red Sandstone, no traces of them could 
be detected below the very uppermost zone of the Silurian rocks. 
Nineteen years have elapsed, and after the most vigilant researches 
in various regions of both hemispheres, these great features remain 
the same as when first indicated. The labours, however, of those 
who followed me, have infinitely more sustained the unity of that 
system,* for its lower and upper divisions are now proved to be con- 
nected, not only by such generic types and analogous forms, but 
further by the community of a very considerable number of identical 

" In a broad classification of primeval life, one eminent naturalistf 
views the Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian rocks as simply 
the Upper Palaeozoic ; the Silurian rocks constituting the Lower 

* See the works of John Phillips, E. de Verneuil, Edward Forbes, Joachim 
Uarrande, James D. C. Sowerby, James Hall, J. W. Salter, D. Sharpe, T. 
Davidson, John Morris. The most recent researches in Britain give the large 
number of nearly 100 species of fossils, common to the Lower and Upper Silu- 

t Edward Forlxs. 

Siluria — Present State of Geology. 321 

Palaeozoic. But, whether this ancient series be divided into double 
or triple classes (some palaeontologists preferring to hold the Devonian 
as a separate and intermediate type), the result of the researches of 
the numerous authors appealed to in this volume has unquestion- 
ably justified the application of the term * system' to the Silurian 

" At the close of the Permian era, an infinitely greater change 
took place in life than that which marked the ascent from the Silu- 
rian system to the overlying groups. The earlier races then dis- 
appeared (at least all the species), and were replaced by an entirely 
new creation, the generic types of which were continued through 
those long epochs which geologists term secondary or menzoic, (the 
medieval age of extinct beings). In these, again, the reader will 
learn by consulting the works of many writers, how one formation 
followed another, each characterized by different creatures ; many 
of them, however, exhibiting near their downward and upward limits 
certain fossils, which link on one reign of life to another. 

" In surveying the whole series of formations, the practical geo- 
logist is fully impressed with the conviction, that there has, at all 
periods, subsisted a very intimate connection between the existence, 
or at all events the preservation of animals, and the media in which 
they have been fossilized. The chief seat of former life in each geo- 
logical epoch is often marked by a calcareous mass, mostly in a 
central part, towards which the animals increase from below, and 
whence they diminish upwards. Thus, the Llandeilo limestone of 
the Lower Silurian, and the Wenlock of the Upper Silurian, are 
respectively centres of animalization of each of those groups. In 
like manner, the Eifel limestone is the truest index of the Devonian ; 
the Mountain limestone of the Carboniferous; and the Zechstein, or 
English Magnesian limestone of the Permian. Throughout the 
secondary rocks the same law prevails more or less ; and wherever 
the typical limestone of a natural group is absent, there we perceive 
the deposits to be ill characterized by organic remains. For ex- 
ample, the Trias, so rich in fossil contents where its great calcareous 
centre the Muschelkalk is present, as in Germany and France, is a 
miserable sterile formation in Britain ; where, as in our own new 
Red Sandstone, no such limestone exists. 

" Among the terrestrial changes to which science clearly points, 
there is no one which better deserves to be recorded in a few part- 
ing words, than that great mutations of surface and its accompany- 
ing loss of warmth, by which extensive fields of ice were first formed 
upon the sea, and large glaciers upon the land. As very lofty 
mountains in moderate latitudes, and masses of land and water in 
Arctic or Antarctic regions, are now essentially the seats of glaciers 
and icebergs ; so we know that these bodies alone have the pow^ r of 
transporting huge erratic blocks from their native mountains to con- 
siderable distances by land, or for hundreds of miles over the sea in 
floating icebergs. Now, of the translation of such blocks we have 


322 Siluria — Present State of Geology. 

no evidence whatever in any former geological period ! On the 
contrary, whilst every boulder of the primary, secondary, or older 
tertiary rocks bears on its surface the signs of having been winter- 
worn, or rounded by aqueous or atmospheric agency ; the great 
blocks of the later cold period, (gigantic in comparison with all that 
preceded them), are often angular, or nearly in that state in which 
they left the mountain side, before, in short, they were wafted over 
seas or lakes, to be dropped, at remote distances from their parent 
rocks, upon sediments which, by subsequent elevation, have been 
made portions of our continents. Hence, independently of the in- 
dications of a more equally diffused and warmer temperature in 
olden times than at the present day, these large erratics are in them- 
selves decisive testimonials of that intense cold which, it is believed, 
was principally due to the great, elevated masses of land, which 
specially characterize the modern period. 

" Receding backwards from this general phenomenon, which, con- 
tinuing into our own times, has been so skilfully illustrated by 
eloquent writers, it is specially my province to endeavour to impress 
upon the reader the importance of endeavouring to form an estimate 
of the physical geography of the earth, during those remote periods 
when the Palaeozoic deposits were accumulated. If very lofty 
mountains did not then exist, we have indeed, in this single pheno- 
menon, what may have been one of the chief causes of that equable 
and warm climate, so indispensably requisite to harmonize with the 
facts recorded in this volume. And if we add the inference adopted 
by many philosophers and geologists, that the earth, in cooling down 
from its original molten state, must, during long succeeding ages, 
have diminished in heat over its whole surface, we are enabled, by 
reference to physical changes alone, to satisfy ourselves that we 
have in them the chief elements required to explain all climatal 

" From the effects produced upon my mind through the study of 
these imperishable records, I am, indeed, led to hope that my 
readers will adhere to the views which, in common with many con- 
temporaries, I entertain of the succession of life. For he who 
looks to a beginning, and traces thenceforward a rise in the scale of 
being, until that period is reached when Man appeared upon the 
earth, must acknowledge in such works repeated manifestations 
of design, and unanswerable proofs of the superintendence of a 
Creator.' 1 

Note. — We annex the following valuable table of the divisions of the older 
Rhenish rocks, as now understood by the geologists and palaeontologists cited 
in the pnges of Sir Roderick Murchison's work, and whose discoveries, coupled 
with Sir Roderick's recent observations, have led him to divide the Devonian 
rocks of the region into three parts. By having alongside of this table the gene- 
ral succession of some rocks as classified by M. Dumont, the reader will at once 
see that although the mineral order, which that author indicates, is doubtless 
correct, no one of his three terrains is in unison with a classification based 
upon the distribution of organic remains. 

Siluria — Present State of Geology. 





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324 Ancient Indian Mining Tools. 

Notice of some Ancient Indian Mining Tools, found in 
the Copper Districts of Lake Superior. By William 
Jory Henwood, F.R.S., F.G.S., Member of the Geolo- 
gical Society of France ; Corresponding Member of the 
Lyceum of Natural History, New York. 

Although the existence of native copper on the shores of Lake 
Superior has long been known, its abundance has been but lately 
discovered by the present inhabitants. It was, however, extensively 
wrought by the ancient population ; although no tradition relating 
to it remains amongst existing Indian tribes. So remote indeed 
was the period, that the oldest and largest trees of the forest have 
grown indifferently on and beside the old excavations. Few of 
these are found open ; for the primitive workmen seem not to have 
lifted their rubbish to the surface, but to have thrown it behind 
them ; thus filling their abandoned workings as they proceeded. 
The operation of obvious influences during the lapse of time has 
caused the loose stones and earth to pack more closely ; and thus 
to form those depressions of the surface which the sharp-eyed 
American explorers soon found to mark, very frequently, the sites of 
ancient Indian copper-mining; many of which have been lately 
re-opened. Traces of copper have been found in them all ; but the 
only instance in which riches were discovered, was one in which the 
mass of metal was about ten feet long, three feet wide, nearly two 
feet thick, and the weight more than six tons, on which the feeble 
means at command probably produced but little effect.* 

Amongst the rubbish so economically disposed of, thousands of 
stone hammers have been found ; sometimes singly, but more com- 
monly great numbers of them together. The one I have the 
honour of presenting to the Institution herewith, I took from a heap 
of about a wheelbarrowful, which I found lying on the brink of one 
of the lately reopened excavations near Eagle River in Michigan. 
It seems of siliceous sandstone, containing a few flakes of mica ; 
and is the hardest stone I found in the neighbourhood. It will be 

* *' In the winter of 1847-8, Mr Samuel 0. Knapp, the intelligent agent of 
the Minnesota Mining Company, found near the Ontonagon river a pit of 
twenty-six feet deep. At the depth of eighteen feet he came to a mass of 
native copper, ten feet long, three feet wide, and nearly two feet thick, and 
weighing over six tons. On digging around it the mass was found to rest on 
billets of oak supported by sleepers of the same material. The ancient 
miners had evidently raised it about five feet, and then abandoned the work 
as too laborious. They had taken off every projeoting point which was acces- 
sible, so that the exposed surface was smooth." — (Foster and Whitney's 
Report on the Copper-Lands of Lake Svperior, p. 159.) 

On the Botany of the Borders. 325 

found to present a rude edge at either end, and to be grooved 
round the middle, for the reception probably of the withe which 
served as its hilt. The splinters which have been split from it 
were, it seems likely, struck off in course of working. 

I have had no means of comparing it with the stone celts which 
are not uncommon in collections of antiquities ; * but if I correctly 
remember those I have seen — especially in the interesting anti- 
quarian museum of Mr Lukiss of Guernsey — it has a rude, though 
not distant, resemblance to some of those obtained on the opposite 
coast of the channel. 

These stone hammers are perhaps powerful enough for working 
the decomposing amygdaloidal trap-rock in which most of the copper 
occurs on the shores of Lake Superior ; and numerous as they are, 
they are the only tools which have yet been found there. If any 
others existed, they are however probably made of wood ; and the 
action of the influences already alluded to, during so long a time as 
must have elapsed since the earlier workings, would perhaps have 
sufficed for their destruction. 

I should not have offered so meagre a notice to the Institution, 
but that I thought not devoid of interest in a mining district, a 
memorial, however slight, of the extraction of copper in so distant a 
country at so remote a period. 

3 Clarence Place, Penzance, 
August 19, 1854. 

The Botany of the Eastern Borders, with the popular Names 
and Uses of the Plants, and of the customs and beliefs which 
have been associated with them. By George Johnston, 
M.D., Edinburgh. London : John Van Voorst, Paternos- 
ter Row, 1853. 

It is well for science that the author of the volume before 
us has thought fit, in the autumn of a busy life, to embody 
his researches in the natural history of his native district. 
In the preface the object of the work is concisely stated. A 
catalogue of its organic productions has been made as complete 
as possible; their limits of distribution and comparative abun- 
dance have been noted ; the importance of giving the local 
or provincial names of natural objects as tending to throw 

* During the present summer I have seen many stone celts in Jamaica. They 
seemed to consist of a very fine-grained and hard greenstone. Locally they 
are called " thunderbolts." 

326 Dr George Johnston on the 

" a faint light on the characteristics and descents of the peo- 
ple," and of recording the fragments of the simpler's lore, 
and dispensatory of our native plants which are fast fading 
into oblivion, is enforced with a quiet engaging earnestness. 
In the introductory chapter the district is denned as compre- 
hending the whole of Berwickshire, the liberties of Berwick, 
and the immediately adjacent parts of Northumberland and 
Roxburghshire ; it embraces an area of about 700,000 acres, 
of which about one half is arable, and the other half is hill 
pasture, or moor. The sea constitutes its boundary on the 
east, whilst on the other sides it is surrounded by high grounds 
of more or less elevation, where the Cheviots and the Lam- 
mermoors are the principal. Its fitness for the vocation of 
the naturalist is amply illustrated in the accompanying short 
descriptions of its hills, valleys, deans, lakes, and streams, 
both in their individual character and as component parts in 
the landscape ; for, to use the author's own words, — 

" I could not fail, at the same time, to discover its many pastoral 
— its many sylvan — its many landscape beauties, which lie hid 
amidst its hills and deans, and hard by its waters. And there was 
the additional attraction of visiting spots which have been made for 
ever eloquent by the events of which they are the monuments ; for 
the district is indeed rife with places that derive interest from his- 
torical recollections — with everlasting hills whence arose the smoke 
of druidical sacrifices — with rills whence was lifted the water of 
the baptism of the first converts to our Christianity — with cairns, 
camps, and seats of regal and lordly power — with ancient priories, 
and cells, and abbeys, that are still our admiration — with battle- 
fields of note — with strong castles, and towers, and bastiles — with 
fairy traditions and love passages — with much poetry and romance 
— with the birthplaces of men who have risen above common hu- 

Yes, truly we may say, — 

" Nullum sine nomine saxum." 

The deep, narrow glens, locally termed deans, are a very 
striking feature in the physical aspect of the district, and it 
is with pleasure that we quote in part a description of one 
of them as a favourable specimen both of our author's powers 
of description and of observation : — 

M The water has got increase, and has more force and velocity, and 

Botany of the Borders. 327 

it runs impatient in its rough channel. Hazle mingles with the 
willows, wild roses and brambles entangle the brake, a copsewood 
of sloe-thorn occupies the top of the bank, succeeded by a space 
covered by the braken ; and the opposite north bank bears a cover 
of the whin, gemmed with the herblets (Stellaria graminea, Orobus 
tuberosus, &c, &c), which delight in its shelter, and run up amidst 
its branches. This is a pleasant spot, full of botanical riches ; and 
we leave it with regret, for the steep banks that succeed are planted 
with wood — with beech, elm, and plane-tree, and with a few Scotch 
firs. There is not much here to interest us ; but as we emerge from 
the shade of this plantation, the banks nigh each other and their 
fronts become rocky and abrupt, and form a narrow passage through 
which the water must force itself. This it does in a rumbling 
fashion. It falls first over a linn about a yard in height into a cir- 
cular caldron of pure water ; and then it hurries away in a troubled 
stream, leaving on one side a little gravelled edge, and running on the 
other under a projecting ledge. Ferns from both sides, and from 
every crevice, overhang the darkened chasm. Above, the polypody 
leans over the bank in a dark green fringe ; below, tufts of Aspidium 
lobatum project from under shelving rocks, and the little elegant 
Asplenia hang out their pretty fronds everywhere, and in a manner 
that no pencil can delineate. The lady-fern grows here in large 
tufts ; and the Aspidium dilatatum is sure to be looking out along- 
side of its narrow fronded ally. The botanist lingers here long ; 
there is much for his study, and for his admiration. When at length 
he emerges from the gloom, he finds on one side an old quarry not 
without its peculiar interest. The bottom is rough, with broken 
stones grown over with docks and nettles ; in a corner there is a 
thicket of sloe-thorn, with a glorious bed of Stellaria Holostea ; at 
the base of the rock's face are tufts of the male fern and Aspidium 
dilatatum ; and the chinks of the face itself tufts of the blue-bell, 
the stately fox-glove, the showy viper's bugloss and a hanging bush 
of the whin, one mass of gold in its season. Follow the burn no fur- 
ther, for here it loses the dean, and pursues its future course through 
cultivated fields that vary their character yearly at man's will." 

No wonder, then, that the man who penned such like trans- 
cripts on Nature's solitudes, should love the modest drooping 
wood-sorrel above all other flowers ! ! In our author's de- 
scription of HornclifF, and of the Berwickshire Naturalist Club 
meeting at Etal, we obtain a still more extensive insight 
into the more characteristic aspects of^the vegetation of the 
Borders under varying circumstances, as well as of the genial 
character of the meetings of that club, which has been the 
parent of all similar societies in Great Britain. 

328 Dr George Johnston on the 

This volume is restricted to the botany of the district ; it 
contains a lecture on •• Our Wild Flowers in their relations 
to our Pastoral Life," replete with much that relates to the 
amusements of childhood, the popular beliefs, the gentler, and 
the darker love passages of the district, the trysting-trees, 
and the reputed haunts of the fairies and witches of the 
olden times. All the gentler feelings and associations with 
flowers are linked together in the story of the chequered for- 
tunes of a peasant family ; sentiments which will find an 
echo in every thinking bosom are wedded to some extracts 
from the best poetry of England and Scotland. There exists 
a pretty general prejudice against the very name of a local 
flora ; for in too many instances the descriptions of species, 
references to figures, and lists of synonymes, have merely been 
copied from other works. About twenty years ago, the author 
published a " Flora of Berwick-upon-Tweed," with original 
descriptions of all the species, and, independent of its other 
merits, it occupies a position in the list of our local floras, 
which perhaps has only been approached by Greville's Flora 
of Edinburgh. Now that we are provided with the critical 
and standard British Floras of Babbington, and Messrs 
Hooker and Arnott, our author has done well to adopt the 
nomenclature of the two last-mentioned authors, and to dis- 
card all descriptions, except a few original ones on the genus 
Rubus, and a few others. We believe that botanists in gene- 
ral will not only ratify this wise decision, but approve of the 
general plan of the work: — First, a defined area; second, 
a full list of species ; third, the relative scarcity or abun- 
dance of each species ; fourth, the time of flowering, and 
station ; fifth, the general distribution of each species, and 
the localities of the rarer ones ; sixth, the order in arrange- 
ment and precision in nomenclature approved of, or at all 
events known to botanists in every quarter of the world. 
Upon this solid foundation the author has built a short 
natural history of all the more interesting species, the popu- 
lar names, and the uses, customs, and beliefs which have 
been associated with them. This will form the chief attrac- 
tion for the general reader, as well as for the more philoso- 
phically-minded student. 

Botany of the Borders. 329 

If we agree in acknowledging that the poet hath well 
said — 

" It is the soul of man, with its hopes and its dreams, 
Which lights up all Nature with living gleams;" 

if we would endeavour to master the purpose for which this 
work was planned, and to comprehend the spirit in which it has 
been executed, it may be useful to inquire into the origin of 
the inhabitants of the district, and the more striking changes 
which have occurred in their social condition. 

Previous to the Roman Conquest in A.D. 80, little was 
known of the history, civil or religious polity, of the race ; no 
sculptured stones or storied bricks have ever been found; 
nothing but weapons of stone, of bronze, and, lastly, of iron, 
remain to attest the slow progress of a rude people towards 
a higher stage of civilization in the arts relating to the chase 
and to war. Roman chroniclers inform us that the original 
inhabitants belonged to the Celtic race, and that they were 
divided into various independent tribes, each governed by an 
hereditary chieftain. This peculiar institution flourished 
along the Scottish Border for centuries after the race had 
succumbed before the Saxon colonists, and long after these, 
in other districts, had bowed their sturdy necks to the feudal 
laws of the haughty Normans. After the withdrawal of the 
Roman legions in A.D. 426, the incipient civilization of the 
Romanised Britons disappeared before the incursions of the 
unconquered tribes of the North, and these in their turn 
gave way to the influx of Saxon colonists in 449. Early in 
the seventh century the land was subdivided and populous ; 
but in the following century, and down till 934, all this fair 
prosperity was blasted by the incursions of the ferocious 
Danes ; a proportion of the latter amalgamated with the in- 
habitants ; at a later period a few Norman chiefs appeared ; 
and thus the Borderers by descent are pre-eminently a mixed 
people. The Tweed and the Cheviot Hills were constituted 
political boundaries in 1018, when the Earl of Northumber- 
land ceded Berwickshire to Malcolm II. of Scotland. During 
that and the following century considerable progress was made 
in civilization ; but the long and bloody wars attending the 
disputed succession to the Scottish throne gave an impetus 

330 Dr George Johnston on the 

to the barbarous system of warfare, which, in defiance of all 
international law, raged for centuries along the Borders. 
The chase and war were deemed the only occupations wor- 
thy of a man. Where the law of the sword alone prevailed, 
the very worst passions of our nature were engendered, and 
selfishness rode triumphant over all ; even patriotism burnt 
with a flickering light, when the safety of a chief or the ag- 
grandisement of a clan were concerned. 

Previous to the embodiment and recognition of civil law,, 
when might was right, religion was the sole controlling 
power, and, besides the military chiefs, its priests alone ex- 
ercised any influence for moral good, and for uniting the 
various tribes in some common cause. Amongst the ancient 
Britons, the ranks of the priests were recruited from the 
noblest families ; their education, which often extended over 
a period of twenty years, comprehended the whole of the 
sciences of the age ; and, besides their sacred calling, they 
were invested with power to decide civil disputes. Their 
dwellings and temples were situated in the thickest oak 
groves, which were sacred to the Supreme Deity. The 
acorn, and above all the parasitical misleto, were held in 
high veneration ; and the latter was sought on the sixth day 
of the moon, and when found was only cut by a priest of the 
highest rank, for it was accounted a sovereign remedy for 
all diseases. The practice of the healing art has ever com- 
manded the esteem of the rudest nations ; hence it was the 
obvious policy of the priests, or Druids, to study the proper- 
ties of plants. Of their progress we have no record ; but 
who knows from what a far antiquity comes the traditionary 
virtues of many of our native plants 1 As we cannot ascer- 
tain how much of this kind of knowledge we owe to the 
Saxons, it might be instructive to know how much we pos- 
sess in common with the present inhabitants of northern 
Germany and of Scandinavia. 

Early in the seventh century, the disciples of Columba, 
from Iona, first preached the gospel with success amongst the 
barbarous Pagans who then inhabited the district. Their 
loving zeal for the truth was wrapped up in an anxious desire 
to promote the happiness of their people; but after a time their 

Botany of the Borders. 331 

good work was marred by incursions of the Northmen, and 
latterly they were driven out of the district by the machina- 
tions of the Romish missionaries. That Church w r as a tho- 
roughly compact body, and its principles were antagonistic 
to the spirit of military violence which characterized those 
ages. Within its pale were preserved and cherished those 
precious remains of ancient literature, science, and art, which 
had been rescued from the havock of the inroads of the bar- 
barians. Within its bosom, in the various grades of the 
priesthood, were to be found men whose natures were too 
gentle to cope with the spirit of those iron times, and stern 
natures that had grown sick of the mortal strife. Great was 
its moral and social influence, for the rudest warrior re- 
spected the sanctity of the altar, and trembled at the church- 
man's frown. Wells of medicinal repute, situated hard by 
the old sacred groves, and whose virtues were attributed to 
some presiding deity, were dedicated to some favourite 
saint ; and several plants were in like manner dedicated to 
the Virgin Mary. The fields of the monks exhibited a style 
of cultivation worthy of the practical students of Virgil and 
Columella, and the poor were fed at a bountiful rate from 
their well-stored granges. The frequent fastings and absti- 
nence from animal food led to the introduction from foreign 
lands of plants that were both useful and grateful to the 
palate. The attention bestowed by the clergy in ministering 
to the ailments of their people, were in like manner favour- 
able to the progress of gardening. Previous to the ascen- 
dancy of the Church of Rome, in the physic garden of the 
Saxon age we find " peppermint, rosemary, sage, rue, penny- 
royal, fenugreek, cummin, water-cress, cornflag roses, lov- 
age, fennel, tansy, white lilies, kidney-beans, and savory ; 
corianders and poppy were grown in the kitchen garden." 
At a later period, in monkish gardens might be seen " blue- 
bells, bachelor-buttons, balm, daffodil, golden and silver-rod, 
honesty, lily of the valley, marigold, mint, narcissus, Solo- 
mon's seal, southernwood, and Star of Bethlehem.' 1 Our 
author gives a quotation to show that above three hundred 
species of " medicinal plants were known to the monks and 
friars, and used by the religious orders in general for medi- 

332 Professor E. Forbes on the Distribution of 

cines." The evidence of the learned Chalmers is adduced 
to show, that in the thirteenth and fourteenth century every 
house in the Border towns and villages had a garden " for 
raising culinary herbs;" and we most cordially agree with 
our author, that a good history of monkish botany would 
prove invaluable for settling disputes about certain indige- 
nous and naturalized plants. 

The Borders had been originally covered with noble forests, 
which gradually disappeared before the improvident waster 
in peace, but, above all, by the havock of contending armies 
to prevent the frequent ambuscade of foes. Thus, in course 
of time, the whole country was bared to the sweep of the 
winter's blast ; bogs filled up the valleys, gendering unwhole- 
some exhalations ; the crops were scanty and late ; severe 
famine for both man and beast were of frequent occurrence. 
The Reformation swept away all monkish establishments. 
In the day of distress there were no well-stored granaries 
for the famished, no medicines for the afflicted ; yet some 
knowledge of medical botany lingered amongst the people, 
and was cherished in simple faith down to these latter days, 
and even yet it lingers amongst the unlearned in retired places. 

(To be continued in the next number of Jameson s Journal.) 

On the Manifestation of Polarity in the Distribution of Or- 
ganized Beings in Time. By Professor E. Forbes. 

Of the four relations among organized beings, viz. : Affinity (or 
relation through homology), Analogy, Representation, and Polarity, 
the three first have been recognized in the distribution of beings in 
Geological Time ; the fourth has never been observed nor sought 
for. The term itself is one not familiar in the language of Natural 
History, although proposed many years ago by the Swedish botanist 
Fries, and systematically employed by several naturalists for some 
time past. The word Polarity seems objectionable, since it has been 
appropriated with a peculiar signification by Physical philosophers. 
The sense in which it is employed by Naturalists, that of a manifes- 
tation of force of development at opposite poles of an ideal sphere, 
cannot, however, be indicated by any other word at present invented, 
implying as it does something very different from divergence and 
from antagonism, words which have been suggested as substitutes. 

Organized Beings in Time. 333 

The ordinary illustration of the relation of Polarity, in a natural 
history sense, is that representing the rela- 
tion of opposition or progression in oppo- 
site directions of the Animal and Vege- 
table series ; the meeting point of both being 
at the points of lowest development of 
each (a, v, in the accompanying diagram), 
where the animal and vegetable natures 
are almost confounded, whilst the strongest 
manifestations of each are at A and V, the 
highest animals being farthest removed 
from the highest vegetables, — in other 
words, at opposite poles of the sphere of 
organized beings. 

The earnest desire implanted instinctively in every inquiring mind, 
to discover a law or scheme in arrangements of Nature, has given 
origin to many speculations concerning the distribution of life in 
geological time, all of them founded on facts more or less clearly 
understood. Hence have arisen the hypothesis of an evolution of all 
organized types, during the course of time, from one rudimentary 
prototype ; that of the succession of distinctly originating forms of 
animals and vegetables in order of the progression within their re- 
spective series ; of the coeval starting of the great groups wholly or 
mostly at the beginning, but in each instance by the lower forms of 
the type ; of the representation by the faunas and floras of geo- 
logical epochs ; of the successive zones of life belting the geographical 
regions between the poles and the equator ; of a uniformity of life 
arrangements throughout time and repetition through substitution 
of equal and similar groups ; and of manifestations in the distribu- 
tion of life in time of analogies that are essentially theological. 

For several years I have been persuaded that the simple and un- 
questionable phenomena of substitution of groups by representative 
groups, manifested in the arrangements of the faunas and floras of 
all geological epochs, and comparable with like phenomena exhibited 
by the geographical distribution of existing organized beings, would 
prove sufficient for the explanation of all the appearances that have 
suggested such speculations, some purely hypothetical, some fairly 
theoretical, as those I have just indicated. The apparent contradic- 
tions and unexplained peculiarities presented by the more ancient 
epochs as contrasted with the middle and newer ones, seemed to 
depend on the incomplete state of our knowledge, and to be possibly 
explainable by supposing, that of some great geological epochs in time 
we had as yet discovered no traces. Thus the great gap between 
the Palseozoic and Mesozoic life might depend upon our not yet 
having discovered traces of the rudimentary formations that had 
been deposited during the interval between the Permian and Triassic 

334 Professor E. Forbes on the Distribution of 

But the rapid accumulation of palaeontological facts gathered within 
the last very few years, and the great additions that have been re- 
cently made towards our knowledge of the Palaeozoic fauna, all 
mainly in accordance with facts known before, have satisfied me that 
the explanation offered above does not sufficiently meet the full 
truth, and that the various theories concerning progression, develop- 
ment, &c., have all originated in the obscure perception and imperfect 
interpretation of the workings of some great law in the distribution 
of organic beings in time. 

It is no longer possible, in the face of palaeontological evidence, to 
hold any of the notions cited. The scale of the first appearance of 
groups of beings of any degree is most clearly not one of organic 
progression. Suitable conditions have been met by the creation of 
suitable types ; no type, whether generic and therefore ideally mani- 
fested, or specific and therefore manifested actually and through in- 
dividuals, visibly, being found to be ever repeated in time, when 
the full history of either is made out. This is a great law, and a 
grand result of geological research. Nevertheless, in the relative 
arrangements, so to speak, of generic types in time, there is an indi- 
cation of the working of a general law of another kind, and one which 
seems to me to depend on the manifestation of the relation of Po- 

We are accustomed to group all geological epochs under three 
great sections, the Palaeozoic or oldest, the Mesozoic or middle, and 
Cainozoic, more commonly termed Tertiary, or newest. If we con- 
sider the faunas and floras of these three great sections, we cannot 
but perceive that there is a far stronger affinity between the Mesozoic 
and Tertiary epochs than between the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic. 
This is especially manifest when we regard the details of the distri- 
bution of those preservable forms of animal life, which being inhabi- 
tants of the medium in which sedimentary strata are deposited, are 
most likely to afford an approach towards complete evidence. On 
the other hand, the forms of life that characterize the Palaeozoic 
formations, the products of a vast succession of time-periods, have, 
when regarded in their totality, a wonderful agreement and relation- 
ship among themselves. 

For this reason I propose to denominate the sum of the epochs 
after the Paleozoic, by the name of Neozoic. 

Now if we regard these two great periods separately, we find that 
the manifestation of generic types during each exhibits striking and 
contrasting phenomena. The maximum development of generic types 
during the Paleozoic period was during its earlier epochs; that during 
the Neozoic period towards its later epochs. And thus, during the 
Palaeozoic period, the sum of generic types and concentration of 
characteristic forms is to be observed in Silurian and Devonian 
formations ; during the Neozoic period it is during the Cretaceous, 
Tertiary, and present (itself part of the Tertiary) epochs that we find 

Organized Beings in Time. 335 

the maximum development of peculiar generic types (or ideas). On 
the other hand, during the closing epochs of the Palaeozoic and the 
commencing epoch of the Neozoic period there was a poverty in the 
production of generic ideas, with few exceptions the species of the 
epochs in question being members of genera that form constituents 
in the assemblage, accumulated during the epochs of maximum of 
generic types or ideas. 

The following table may render my meaning more evident : — 

'Present and Tertiary epochs 1 Epoch of maximum development 
NeOZOic J CretaceOUS epochs J of Neozoic Generic types. 

period. Oolitic epochs Intermediate. 

^IriClSSlC epochs I Epochs of poverty of production 

Permian epochs J °f Generic types in Time. 

Palaeozoic Carboniferous epochs . . . Intermediate. 

period. ' Devonian epochs 1 Epoch of maximum development 

.Silurian epochs J of Palaeozoic Generic types. 

Before the Silurian and after the commencement of the present, 
no special creations of generic types have as yet been shown to be 
manifested. In the system of life of which all known creatures 
living or extinct as yet described, so far as our knowledge extends — 
and there is a consistency in its co-ordination that suggests the 
probability of our being acquainted with its extremes — the creation 
of the fauna and flora of the oldest Palseozoic epoch would seem to 
be the primordial, and the appearance of Man the closing biological 

When the assemblage of characteristic Neozoic groups or genera 
is contrasted with that of the Palseozoic, there we find that the 
concentration of a maximum development of generic types towards 
the earlier stages of the one and the later of the other great period, 
includes something more than a mere numerical profusion of generic 
ideas. The two great manifestations of creative intensity are in 
opposition, or contrast, and respectively substitute each other ; 
groups that are parallel within their sub-kingdoms or classes taking 
the place of each other, and playing a corresponding part in the 
economy of nature. This replacement does not depend on the sub- 
stitution of a group of higher organization during the latter epoch, 
for one of lower during the former. Where there is such a substi- 
tution it must be regarded as an accident ; for the rule is not general, 
nor can it be held good except for a few instances. 

A few leading examples of the substitution of group for group 
during the contrasting epochs are cited in the following table, and will 
illustrate this point better than a mere abstract statement. 

Neozoic. Palaeozoic. 

Cycloid and Ctenoid Tubes . Ganoid and Placoid Tubes. 

Malacostracous Crustacea . . Entomostracous Crustacea. 

Dibranchiate Cephalopoda . . Tetrabranchiate Cephalopoda. 

336 On the Distribution of Organized Beings in Time. 

03 1 

/ Q \ 1 


« \ 

o \ 

t^- 1 > 

develop, of 

£* 1 

\ <*■ /\ 


o -\ 


*o ) 

\ COO / ' 

a.' / 

\° A. 


fe 1 

» Y ^ 

tion of 

-^ 1 

/\ '' 


o 1 

/ V-''' 


a. \ 

/ UJtO \ N 

'o \ 
o / 

/ o^-J \ 1 

/ <*3 \/ 

Max. dev. 



Lamellibranchiate Acephala . Palliobranchiate Acephala. 

Echinoidea Crinoidea. 

6-starred Corals 4-starred Corals. 

If we were to show by means of a 
detailed diagram the relations in each 
of these groups of the development of 
generic types to time, we should sym- 
bolise it by a cone or a pyramid, the 
base or fullest portion of which should 
be turned respectively towards the 
commencement of the Palseozoic, or 
termination of the Neozoic epoch. The 
last example given will show this 
strikingly, though in most instances 
the groups interlace. 

Relations of this kind may be mani- 
fested in a low degree, even within the 
range of a single group. 

From all these considerations, the numbers of species in a group 
or genus at any given epoch is to be excluded, not being an element 
in the discussion of the question, though apt to be introduced through 
mistake of the nature of the generalization attempted to be attained. 

There may appear to be a contradiction involved in the expression 
manifestation of polarity in time, for since time implies sequence or 
progression in one direction only, how can we connect with time an 
arrangement that involves the notion of progression in opposite direc- 
tions, proceeding from a median zero. 

But time is an attribute with which man's mind invests creation ; 
a mode of regarding Divine ideas, necessary for the conception of 
time by our limited faculties, and forming in itself no part or essence 
of the Divine scheme of organized nature. We speak of Polarity in 
Time, for want of a better phrase ; but this polarity, or arrangement 
in opposite directions with a development of intensity towards the 
extremes of each, is itself, if I am right in my speculations, an attri- 
bute or regulating law of the divinely originating scheme of creation ; 
therefore, strictly speaking, independent of the notion of time, though 
perceptible by our minds only in connection with it. 

By a diagram such as the above we may fairly express this view, 

Obituary of Dr Samuel George Morton. 337 

the shaded portions of the circles included within the great circle of 
the system of nature representing the maxima of development of 
generic ideas, and the dotted area, z 9 the region of their minimum 

In venturing on a speculation of this kind I am aware that it is 
subject to much misrepresentation and liable to be misunderstood; the 
more so since the suggestion must precede the demonstration. At 
present it can scarcely be received as more than a suggestion ; one 
put forth as worthy of consideration. But in issuing it I do so keep- 
ing in view a vast number of individual facts, and base it upon the 
results of investigations of no small extent. To lay these before the 
scientific world in detailed and tabulated shape will be the work of 
more leisure than can at present be given to the task. In the hope 
of acquiring fresh data for this investigation, I, rashly as some may 
think, make public this hypothesis. That it is the only one of its 
class which holds out a prospect of eliminating the germs of truth 
contained in the conflicting theories at present more or less in vogue, 
and the only one with which the presence of species of any group of 
organized beings at any geological epoch will not disagree, are surely 
considerations that should secure for it a friendly reception. If it 
be as true, as I believe it to be, then the truth that it contains is 
most important ; if it prove in the end to be a misinterpretation, it 
will at least have served the good purpose of stimulating inquiry in 
a fresh direction. — {Proceedings of the Royal Institution, London.} 

Obituary of Dr Samuel George Morton. 

America has sustained a very great loss from the death 
of the learned and highly accomplished Dr Morton. He be- 
longed to the Society of Friends. His school education 
he complained much of. He had an early passion for poeti- 
cal reading and composition — and many of his verses are 
considerably above mediocrity — for example, his " Spirit of 

" Spirit of Light! thou glance divine, 
Of Heaven's immortal fire, 
I kneel before thy hallowed shrine, 
To worship and admire. 
I cannot trace thy glorious flight, 
Nor dream where thou dost dwell ; 
Yet canst thou guard my steps aright, 
By thine unearthly spell. 


338 Obituary of Dr Samuel George Morton. 

I listen for thy voice in vain, 
E'en when I deem thee nigh ; 
Yet ere I venture to complain, 
Thou know'st the reason why. 
And yet when, worldly cares forgot, 
I watch the vacant air ; 
I see thee not, I hear thee not, 
Yet know that thou art there.'" 

He was the founder of the school of ethnology in America. 
His taste for natural science and for anthropology was ac- 
quired at the university here (Edinburgh) ; and he studied at 
a time when the university was in its glory, and was the centre 
of taste and philosophy, as well as of science, in Great Britain. 
He graduated here. His thesis (Tentamen Inaugurale de 
Corporis Dolore) was written in a clear and lucid style. 

The question now which involves the common origin of 
races is exciting much keen discussion in the scientific 
world, and Morton threw much light on the subject. 

The original diversity of races is only admitted by a few. 
Morton began his study of anthropology in 1828. His 
method of comparing crania (by the norma verticalis), and 
his distribution of races, were then both undisputed. In 
the year 1827, he published an " Analysis of Tabular Spar." 
About the same time he was also much employed in study- 
ing palaeontology, and he published a volume on this subject, 
entitled " Synopsis of the Organic Remains of the Cretaceous 
Group of the United States,''' illustrated with nineteen ad- 
mirable plates. In 1831 he read a paper to the American 
Academy of Sciences on " Some Parasitic Worms ;'' another 
in 1841, on " An Albino Racoon ;" and a third in 1844, on 
a U Supposed New Species of Hippopotamus." His Crania 
Americana, a very able work, he published in 1839. He 
published his renowned work the Crania ^gyptiaca, well 
known to all writers on ethnology, in 1844. In the same 
year he published a paper entitled, " An Inquiry into the 
distinctive characteristics of the Aboriginal Race of Ame- 
rica." Before his death he was actively engaged in the study 
of Archsoology — Egyptian, Assyrian, and American. He 
devoted much time to the subject of hybridity. 

Obituary of Dr Samuel George Morton. 339 

Amid these absorbing topics of research, he did not over- 
look his professional pursuits. He was largely engaged in 
practice, and was one of the leading practitioners of his 
day. He was the first to introduce into the United States 
the physical means of diagnosis in thoracic affections. He 
edited Mackintosh's " Practice of Physic,'' with Notes. In 
1849 he published " An Illustrated System of Human Ana- 
tomy, Special, General, and Microscopic. " Pie filled the 
chair of anatomy in the medical department of Pennsylvania 
College from 1839 to 1843. 

From the time he commenced the study of anthropology 
to the period of his death, he increased his collection of 
skulls. At this moment it is the most complete collection of 
crania extant. At the time of Dr Morton's death, it con- 
sisted of 918 human crania. The collection also contains 
crania of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes ; in all 1656 
skulls. The collection was purchased by citizens of Phila- 
delphia, and they presented it to the Academy. 

His commentary on Humboldt's word desolante, shows 
that he had much sound philosophy and plain common sense. 

" Humboldt's word desolante is true in sentiment and in 
morals ; but, as you observe, it is wholly inapplicable to the 
physical reality. Nothing so humbles, so crushes my spirit, 
as to look into a mad-house, and behold the drivelling brutal 
idiocy so conspicuous in such places ; it conveys a terrific 
idea of the disparity of human intelligences. But there is the 
unyielding, insuperable reality. It is desolante indeed to 
think, to know, that many of these poor mortals were born, 
were created so ! But it appears to me to make little differ- 
ence in the sentiment of the question whether they came into 
the world without their wits, or whether they lost them 
afterwards. And so, I would add, it makes little difference 
whether the mental inferiority of the Negro, the Samoiyede, 
or the Indian, is natural or acquired ; for, if they ever pos- 
sessed equal intelligence with the Caucasian, they have lost 
it ; and if they never had it, they had nothing to lose. One 
party would arraign Providence for creating them originally 
different; another for placing them in circumstances by which 


340 Obituary of Br Samuel George Morton. 

they inevitably became so. Let us search out the truth, and 
reconcile it afterwards." 

After five days' illness, he went peacefully and calmly to 
his eternal rest. 

We add with much pleasure a letter received by the dis- 
tinguished Dr Monro from Dr Morton. 

Philadelphia, May 26th. 

My dear Sir, — Your kind letter of September 16, and 
the two interesting volumes, were duly received, and should 
have been long ago acknowledged, had I not been looking 
for an opportunity to send you a memoir of my own in re- 
turn, which pleasure I now have. The Crania JEgyptiaca, 
having been originally published in the Transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society, is restricted within nar- 
rower limits than I would have desired, but I am now pre- 
paring a second and more extended edition. 

I have read with great interest and instruction your work 
on the Brain, and the internal capacity of the cranium, al- 
though I believe there is but one copy in this city, and that 
is in our Hospital Library. 

If you possess a duplicate copy of it, I should esteem it a 
great favour to possess one, having failed in every attempt 
to procure the work. 

I look back with pleasing recollections to my sojourn in 
Edinburgh, and the period of my graduation there in 1823. 
Since that time I have been engaged in professional duties 
in this city, but have found leisure to give some attention to 
natural science, and especially to geology and ethnology, 
which latter study is now my almost exclusive recreation. 

1 assure you that I feel much flattered by the kind senti- 
ments expressed in your letter, and permit me to add that 
it will always give me peculiar pleasure to serve you on this 
side the Atlantic. 

I will thank you to present my best respects to Dr W. P. 
Alison and Mr George Combe, both of whom I hold in 
grateful remembrance. I remain, dear Sir, very sincerely 
your obliged friend and servant, 

Samuel George Morton. 

( 341 ) 

Indications of Weather, as shown by Animals, Insects, and 
Plants. By M. W. B. Thomas of Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The possibility of foretelling weather has occupied the 
attention of observers of natural facts from the earliest 
period of our records. The certainty with which anything 
is arrived at on this subject, like all other parts of natural 
science, depends upon the knowledge acquired of those 
things with which nature has most intimately connected it. 

Without indulging in any comment, I will state a few par- 
ticulars in regard to the different indicators with which 
nature has supplied us. 

When a pair of migratory birds have arrived in the spring, 
they immediately prepare to build their nest, making a care- 
ful reconnoisance of the place, and observing the character 
of the season that is coming. If it be a windy one, they 
thatch the straw and leaves on the inside of the nest, 
between the twigs and the lining ; and if it be very windy, 
they get pliant twigs and bind the nest firmly to the limb, 
securing all the small twigs with their saliva. If they fear 
the approach of a rainy season, they build their nests so as 
to be sheltered from the weather ; but if a pleasant one, 
they build in the fair open place, without taking any of those 
extra precautions. In recording these facts, we have kept 
duly registered the name of the bird, the time of arrival in 
spring, the commencement of nesting, the materials of nest, 
and its position ; the commencement of laying, number of 
eggs in each nest, commencement of incubation, appearances 
of young, departure in autumn. 

But it is our insects and smaller animals which furnish us 
with the best means of determining the weather. 

We will now take the Snails, and show the various phe- 
nomena they present. These animals do not drink, but im- 
bibe moisture in their bodies during a rain. At regular 
periods after the rain, they exude this moisture from their 
bodies. We will take, for example, the Helix alternata. 
The first fluid exuded is the pure liquid. When this is ex- 
hausted, it then changes to light red, then deep red, then 

342 M. W. B. Thomas on Indications of Weather 

yellow, and, lastly, to a dark brown. The helix is very 
careful not to exude more of its moisture than is necessary. 
It might exude it all at once, but this is not in conformity 
to its general character, as this would prove too great an 
exertion. The Helix alternata is never seen abroad, except 
before a rain, when we find it ascending the bark of trees, 
and getting on the leaves. The Helices arborea, indentata, 
ruderati, and minuta, are also seen ascending the stems of 
plants two days before a rain. The Helices clausa, ligera, 
Pennsylvania, and elevata, generally begin to crawl about 
two days before rain will descend. They are seen ascending 
the stems of plants. If it be a long and hard rain, they get 
on the sheltered side of the leaf ; but, if it be a short one, 
they get on the outside of the leaf. The luccinea have also 
the same habits, differing only in colour of animals, as, before 
the rain, it is of a yellow colour, while after it is blue. The 
Helices solitaria, zaleta, albolabris, and thyroideus, not only 
show signs by means of exuding fluids, but by means of pores 
and protuberances. Before a rain, the bodies of zaleta and 
H. thyroideus have large tubercles rising from them. 

These tubercles commence showing themselves ten days 
previous to the fall of rain they indicate ; at the end of each 
of these tubercles is a pore. At the time of the fall of the 
rain, these tubercles, with their pores opened, are stretched 
to their utmost, to receive the water. Also, for a few days 
before a rain, a large and deep indentation appears in the 
H. thyroideus, beginning on the head, between the horns, 
and ending with the jointure at the shell. The Helices so- 
litaria and zaleta, a few days before a rain, crawl to the 
most exposed hill side, where, if they arrive before the rain 
descends, they seek some crevice in the rocks, and then close 
the aperture of the shell with glutinous substance, which, 
when the rain approaches, they dissolve, and are then seen 
crawling about. In the Helix albolabris, the tubercles 
begin to rise after a rain, while before, they grew smaller, 
and, at the time of the rain, the body of the snail is filled 
with cavities to receive the moisture. The II. zaleta, thy- 
roideus, and albolabris, move along at the rate of a mile in 
forty-four hours. They inhabit the most dense forests, and 

as shown by Animals, Insects, and Plants. 343 

we regard it as a sure indication of a rain to observe them 
moving towards an exposed situation. The Helices appressa, 
tridentata, falla, and paliata, indicate the weather not only 
by exuding fluids, but by the colour of the animal. After a 
rain, the animal has a very dark appearance, but it grows of 
a bright colour as the water is expended, while just before 
the rain, it is of a yellowish- white colour. Also, just before 
a rain, striae are observed to appear from the point of the 
head to the jointure of the shell. The superior tentacida 
are striated, and the sides are covered with tubercles. These 
helices move at the rate of a mile in fourteen days and six- 
teen hours. If they are observed ascending the cliff, it is a 
sure indication of a rain. They live in the cavities in the 
side of cliffs. The Helix hirsuta is of a black colour after a 
rain, but before, it is of a brown, tinged with blue around 
the edges of the animal. The tentacula are marked by 
cross strise, and there is also to be seen, a few days before 
the rain, an indentation, which grows deeper as the rain 
approaches ; this helix also exudes fluids, but not with the 
changes of colour of those before-mentioned. 

We can also foretell a change of weather by the wasps 
and other insects. 

The leaves of trees are even good barometers ; most of 
them for a short, light rain, will turn up so as to receive 
their fill of water ; but, for a long rain, they are doubled, 
so as to conduct the water away. The Bana, Bufo, and 
Hyla, are also sure indicators of rain ; for, as they do not 
drink water, but absorb it into their bodies, they are sure to 
be found out at the time they expect rain. 

The Locusta and Gryllus are also good indicators of a 
storm. A few hours before the rain, they are to be found 
under the leaves of trees, and in the hollow trunks. We 
have many times found them thus, but we have never known 
the instinct of these little fellows to lead them to unnecessary 

344 M. de Sanarmont's Experiments upon the 

Experiments upon the formation of Minerals in the Humid 
way in Metalliferous Repositories. By M. de Sanar- 


Geology has means of investigation which are peculiar to 
itself, and now comprehend a certain number of special truths 
definitely acquired to science. It is thus that geology has 
been able, without foreign aid, to characterize the manner of 
the formation of the sedimentary rocks, and to arrange them 
in series ; it is thus that it has succeeded in distinguishing 
in crystalline rocks, and in metalliferous repositories, different 
classes, of which it can assign the probable origin ; and in 
so far as it has not drawn conclusions too far removed from 
its fundamental principles, its anticipations have been almost 
always confirmed by experiment. It is to mineralogical che- 
mistry that geology owes the useful experimental control of 
its rational conceptions. Crystalline minerals have, in fact, 
a complete chemical origin ; and a more thorough study and 
knowledge of them must be advanced by chemical experi- 
ment. Chemistry, then, can do much for geology, by lending 
its means for experiment ; but upon the condition of itself 
remaining purely geological, and of borrowing in its turn 
particular means of study, and the general data which the 
science, a priori, has collected upon all the conditional pecu- 
liarities of structure, relative position, association, or mutual 
exclusion, to which certain mineral species must needs be sub- 
ject. In a word, it is necessary that all the circumstances 
where the natural position has left characteristic traces, dis- 
covered by the geologist, should reappear in the artificial 
operation of the chemist. 

The experiments, then, of mineralogical synthesis should 
embrace the different groups of mineral species which are 
united in nature, and should support themselves upon certain 
probable geological inductions concerning the formation of 
the beds which they inclose. Certain isolated species have 
already been obtained, and principally those which approxi- 
mate to the usual products according to the dry method. I 
have attempted to do more, and to discover some indices of 

Formation of Minerals. 345 

the general causes which have originated the different classes 
of metalliferous beds. I commence this problem by the study 
of the concretionary veins which approach most nearly to the 
existing formations, and the principles I have just explained 
have been the starting point of the researches I am about to 
submit to the academy (French Academy.) 

The concretionary repositories seemed to be formed by so- 
lution ; the mineral species we there find would then be the 
products of the humid method, derived from liquid deposits, 
and to a certain extent may be compared to geysers and ther- 
mal springs. Moreover, the principles most generally preva- 
lent, even at the present day, in these springs, are the car- 
bonic and hydro -sulphuric acids, the alkaline salts, and 
amongst others the carbonates and the sulphates ; these, 
then, are the reagents I propose first to employ. But amongst 
the different influences which may modify in the subterranean 
canals the usual chemical reactions, we must undoubtedly 
reckon first pressure, and a temperature increasing indefi- 
nitely with the depth ; and I have endeavoured to realize this 
double experimental condition. It is very evident that this 
creates numerous difficulties ; and we must not be surprised 
if the crystalline state of the products thus formed is some- 
times imperfect, and always microscopic. Besides, it is not 
the size of the crystals which results from such problems, it 
is the mere fact of their creation ; and in order to obtain more, 
all that is required is time, space, and rest, powerful means 
which belong to nature alone. 

The method I have pursued essentially consists in produc- 
ing all the chemical reactions in a liquid condition, and in 
glass tubes, hermetically sealed, heated from 100° to 350° C. 
I have almost solely employed solutions of carbonic and hydro- 
sulphuric gases, of bicarbonates and alkaline sulphurs, alone 
or mixed in variable proportions ; I have then, I repeat, as a 
starting point, the composition of mineral waters and their 
most energetic principles. By these means of procedure, I 
have artificially formed a great number of natural compounds. 
Each family of minerals generally group themselves around 
a common generating agent ; so that we might then classify 
them thus in relation to the presumed composition of the 

346 Experiments upon the Formation of Minerals. 

thermal depositions which have served to produce them. 1 
do not wish to make this approximation too absolutely, as it 
appears to me to go beyond the immediate interpretation of 
the facts ; and I shall limit myself here to the mention of the 
compounds which I have obtained, and the different classes 
of minerals to which they belong. 

Native Metals. — Copper and silver, mixed, but not com- 
bined, as observed in certain mineral repositories in North 
America. Native arsenic. 

Oxides. — Red iron ore, Fe 2 3 ; quartz, Si 3 , in regular six- 
sided prisms, acuminated with six planes, with striae, and 
sometimes with unequally-developed acuminating planes, so 
frequent in natural crystals. Red copper ore, or red oxide 
of copper, in red shining translucent octahedrons. 

Carbonates. — Carbonates of magnesia, of iron, manganese, 
of cobalt, of nickel, of zinc, of copper, or malachite. 

Sulphates. — Sulphate of baryta, in the primitive form. 

Sulphurates. — Realgar, in transparent crystals, with the 
colours, lustre, and form, as in mineral veins. Sulphuret of 
antimony, in circular shining metallic-looking crystals. Sul- 
phuret of bismuth, with similar characters as the preceding. 
Sulphurets of iron, of manganese, of cobalt, of nickel, of zinc, 
of copper. These last mentioned are massive, as is the case 
with those prepared in our laboratories ; but it appears that 
the hydro-sulphuric acid, under certain conditions of tempera- 
ture and pressure, is a solvent of sulphurets, and a general 
agent of crystallization. The properties of this acid explain 
the accumulation of metallic sulphurets in the deep parts of 
mineral repositories, and of metallic carbonates near their 
crop or out-goings. Arsenio-sulphurets, and antimonio-sul- 
phurets were also formed. 

Conclusions. — I had proposed to establish, upon experi- 
mental proofs, the controverted, and, as I think, very probable 
opinion, which attributes the filling up of the concretionary 
veins to incrusting thermal depositions, and to show that the 
formation of a great number of minerals which we there meet, 
whether they be crystallized or amorphous, do not always pre- 
suppose conditions or agents far removed from the actual 
existing causes. We thus, in fact, perceive that the two 

On the Natural Provinces of the Animal World. 347 

principal elements of the most extended thermal springs, the 
sulphurets and the alkaline bicarbonates, have sufficed to pro- 
duce twenty-nine distinct mineral species, almost all crystal- 
lized, belonging to all the great families of the chemical com- 
pounds peculiar to concretionary beds, each of which has some 
representatives in my experiments. Means of synthesis 
equally simple, applicable however to compounds as variable, 
give certainly a great probability to the speculative ideas 
which have directed me in these researches. It will, more- 
over, be necessary to diversify them to a much greater extent, 
and we shall, in the same manner, have studied the different 
chemical agents, and the influences of every kind which can 
modify their effects ; we shall undoubtedly succeed in defining 
the probable condition of the formation peculiar to each class 
of metalliferous beds, and by tracing their origin, step by 
step, in the same order of systematic experiments, we may 
finally arrive at the crystallized rocks which associate them- 
selves to these beds by methods and phenomena of continuity 
which it is impossible to mistake. 

On the Natural Provinces of the Animal World, and their 
Relation to the different Types of Man. By Louis 

There is one feature in the physical history of mankind which has 
been entirely neglected by those who have studied this subject, viz., 
the natural relations between the different types of man, and the 
animals and plants inhabiting the same regions. The sketch here 
presented is intended to supply this deficiency, as far as it is possible 
in a mere outline delineation, and to show that the boundaries 
within which the different natural combinations of animals are 
known to be circumscribed upon the surface of our earth, coincide 
with the natural range of distinct types of man. Such natural 
combinations of animals, circumscribed within definite boundaries, 
are called fauna, whatever be their home — land, sea, or river. 
Among the animals which compose the fauna of a country, we find 
types belonging exclusively there, and not occurring elsewhere ; such 
are, for example, the ornithorynchus of New Holland, the sloths of 

* Dr Usher, Dr Nott, and G. R. Gliddon, on the Types of Mankind. 

348 Louis Affassiz on the Natural 


America, the hippopotamus of Africa, and the walruses of the 
Arctics ; others which have only a small number of representatives 
beyond the fauna which they specially characterize, as, for in- 
stance, the marsupials of New Holland, of which America has a few 
species, such as the opossum ; and again, others which have a 
wider range, such as the bears, of which there are distinct species 
in Europe, Asia, or America, or the mice and bats which are to be 
found all over the world, except in the Arctics. That fauna will, 
therefore, be most easily characterized, which possesses the largest 
number of distinct types proper to itself, and of which the other 
animals have little analogy with those of neighbouring regions, as, 
for example, the fauna of New Holland. 

The inhabitants of fresh waters furnish also excellent characters 
for the circumscription of faunae. The fishes, and other fluviatile 
animals, from the larger hydrographic basins, differ no less from each 
other than the mammalia, the birds, the reptiles, and the insects of 
the countries which these rivers water. Nevertheless, some authors 
have attempted to separate the fresh water animals from those of 
the land and sea, and to establish distinct divisions for them, under 
the name of fluviatile faunse. But the inhabitants of the rivers and 
lakes are too intimately connected with those of their shores to allow 
of a rigorous distinction of this kind. Rivers never establish a sepa- 
ration between terrestrial faunse. For the same reason, the faunse 
of the inland seas cannot be completely isolated from the terrestrial 
ones ; and we shall see hereafter that the animals of southern Europe 
are not bound by the Mediterranean, but are found on the southern 
shore of that sea, as far as the Atlas. We shall, therefore, distin- 
guish our zoological regions according to the combination of species 
which they inclose, rather than according to the element in which 
we find them. 

If the grand divisions of the animal kingdom are primordial and 
independent of climate, this is not the case with regard to the ulti- 
mate local circumscription of species ; these are, on the contrary, 
intimately connected with the conditions of temperature, soil, and 
vegetation. A remarkable instance of this distribution of animals 
with reference to climate may be observed in the Arctic fauna, which 
contains a great number of species common to the three continents 
converging towards the North Pole, and which presents a striking 
uniformity, when compared with the diversity of the temperate and 
tropical faunae of those same continents. 

The Arctic fauna extends to the utmost limits of the cold and 
barren regions of the North. But from the moment that forests ap- 
pear, and a more propitious soil permits a larger development of 
animal life and of vegetation, we see the fauna and flora not only 
diversified according to the continents on which they exist, but we 
observe also striking distinctions between different parts of the same 
continent ; thus, in the Old World, the animals vary, not only from 

Provinces of the Animal World. 349 

the polar circle to the equator, but also in the opposite direction. 
Those of the western coast of Europe are not the same as those of 
the basin of the Caspian Sea, or of the eastern coast of Asia, nor 
are those of the eastern coast of America the same as those of the 

The first fauna, the limits of which we would determine with pre- 
cision, is the Arctic. It offers the same aspects in three parts 
of the world, which converge towards the North Pole. The uniform 
distribution of the animals by which it is inhabited forms its most 
striking character, and gives rise to a sameness of general features 
which is not found in any other region. Though the air-breathing 
species are not numerous here, the large number of individuals com- 
pensates for this deficiency ; and among the marine animals we find 
an astonishing profusion and variety of forms. 

In this respect the vegetable and animal kingdoms differ entirely 
from each other ; and the measure by which we estimate the former 
is quite false as applied to the latter. Plants become stunted in 
their growth, or disappear before the rigours of the climate ; while, 
on the contrary, all classes of the animal kingdom have representa- 
tatives, more or less numerous, in the Arctic fauna. 

Neither can they be said to diminish in size under these influ- 
ences ; for, if the Arctic representatives of certain classes, particu- 
larly the insects, are smaller than the analogous types in the tropics, 
we must not forget, on the other hand, that the whales and larger 
cetacea have here their most genial home, and make amends, by 
their more powerful structure, for the inferiority of other classes. 
Also, if the animals of the north are less striking in external orna- 
ment — if their colours are less brilliant — yet we cannot say that they 
are more uniform ; for, though their tints are not so bright, they 
are none the less varied in their distribution and arrangement. 

The limits of the Arctic fauna are very easily traced. We must 
include therein all animals living beyond the line where forests 
cease, and inhabiting countries entirely barren. Those which feed 
upon flesh, seek fishes, hares, lemmings — a rodent the size of our 
rat. Those which live on vegetable substances are not numerous. 
Some gramineous plants, mosses, and lichens, serve as pasture to the 
ruminants and rodents ; while the seeds of a few flowering plants, and 
of the dwarf birches, afford nourishment to the little granivorous 
birds, such as linnets and buntings. The species belonging to the 
sea-shore feed upon marine animals, which live themselves upon 
each other, or upon marine plants. 

The larger mammalia which inhabit this zone are — the white 
bear, the walrus, numerous species of seal, the reindeer, the musk 
ox, the narwal, the cachalot, and whales in abundance. Among 
the smaller species, we may mention the white fox, the polar hare, 
and the lemming. The birds are not less characteristic. Some 
marine eagles and wading birds, in smaller numbers, are found ; 

350 Louis Agassiz on the Natural 

but the aquatic birds of the family of palmipedes are those which 
especially prevail. The coasts of the continents and of the nume- 
rous islands in the Arctic seas are peopled by clouds of gannets, of 
cormorants, of penguins, of petrels, of ducks, of geese, of mergan- 
sers, and of gulls, some of which are as large as eagles, and, like 
them, live on prey. No reptile is known in this zone. Fishes 
are, however, very numerous, and the rivers especially swarm with 
a variety of species of the salmon family. A number of represen- 
tatives of the inferior class of worms, of Crustacea, of moliusks, of 
echinoderms, and of medusaj, are also found here. 

Within the limits of this fauna we meet a peculiar race of men, 
known in America under the name of Esquimaux, and under the 
names of Laplanders, Samoyedes, and Tchuktshes, in the north of 
Asia. This race, so well known since the voyage of Captain Cook 
and the Arctic expeditions of England and Russia, differs alike from 
the Indians of North America, from the whites of Europe, and the 
Mongols of Asia, to whom they are adjacent. The uniformity of 
their characters along the whole range of the Arctic seas forms one 
of the most striking resemblances which these people exhibit to the 
fauna with which they are so closely connected. 

The semi-annual alternation of day and night in the Arctic 
regions has a great influence upon their modes of living. They are 
entirely dependent upon animal food for their sustenance ; no fari- 
naceous grains, no nutritious tubercles, no juicy fruits, growing 
under those inhospitable latitudes. Their domesticated animals are, 
the reindeer in Asia and a peculiar variety of the dog, the Esquimaux 
dog in North America, where even the reindeer is not domesticated. 

Though the Arctic fauna is essentially comprised in the Arctic 
circle, its organic limit does not correspond rigorously to this line, 
but rather to the isotherm of 32° Fahr., the outline of which pre- 
sents numerous undulations. This limit is still more natural when 
it is made to correspond with that of the disappearance of forests. 
It then circumscribes those immense plains of the north which the 
Samoyedes call tundras, and the Anglo-Americans barren lands. 

The naturalists who have overlooked this fauna, and connected it 
with those of the temperate zone, have introduced much confusion in 
the geographical distribution of animals, and have failed to recog- 
nize the remarkable coincidence existing between the extensive range 
of the Arctic race of men, and the uniformity of the animal world 
around the northern Pole. 

The first column of the accompanying table represents the types 
which characterize best this fauna, — viz., the white or polar bear, 
the walrus, the seal of Greenland, the reindeer, the right whale, 
and the cider duck. The vegetation is represented by the so-called 
reindeer moss — a lichen which constitutes the chief food of the her- 
bivorous animals of the Arctics and the high Alps during winter. 

To the glacial zone, which incloses a single fauna, succeeds the 

Provinces of the Animal World. 351 

temperate zone, included between the isotherms of 32° and 74° 
Fahr., characterized by its pine forests, its amentacea, its maples, 
its walnuts, and its fruit trees, and from the midst of which arise, 
like islands, lofty mountain chains or high table-lands, clothed with 
a vegetation which in many respects recals that of the glacial re- 
gions. The geographical distribution of animals in this zone forms 
several closely-connected but distinct combinations. It is the 
country of the terrestrial bear, of the wolf, the fox, the weasel, the 
marten, the otter, the lynx, the horse and the ass, the boar, and a 
great number of stags, deer, elk, goats, sheep, bulls, hares, squirrels, 
rats, &c, to which are added, southward, a £ew representatives of 
the tropical zone. 

Whenever this zone is not modified by extensive and high table- 
lands and mountain chains, we may distinguish in it four secondary 
zones, approximating gradually to the character of the tropics, and 
presenting therefore a greater diversity in the types of its southern 
representatives than we find among those of its northern boundaries. 
"We have, first, adjoining the Arctics, a sub- Arctic zone, with an al- 
most uniform appearance in the Old as well as the New World, in 
which pine forests prevail, the home of the moose ; next, a cold 
temperate zone, in which amentaceous trees are combined with pines, 
the home of the fur animals ; next, a warm temperate zone, in 
which the pines recede, whilst to the prevailing amentaceous trees 
a variety of evergreens are added, the chief seat of the culture of 
our fruit trees, and of the wheat ; and a sub-tropical zone, in which 
a number of tropical forms are combined with those characteristic 
of the warm temperate zone. Yet there is throughout the whole of 
the temperate zone one feature prevailing — the repetition, under 
corresponding latitudes, but under different longitudes, of the same 
genera and families, represented in each botanical or zoological pro- 
vince by distinct so-called analogous or representative species, with 
a very few subordinate types peculiar to each province ; for it is not 
until we reach the tropical zone that we find distinct types prevail- 
ing in each fauna and flora. Again, owing to the inequalities of 
the surface, the secondary zones are more or less blended into one 
another ; as, for instance, in the table-lands of Central Asia and 
western North America, where the whole temperate zone pre- 
serves the features of a cold temperate region ; or the colder zones 
may appear like islands rising in the midst of the warmer ones, 
as the Pyrenees, the Alps, &c, the summits of which partake of 
the peculiarities of the Arctic and sub-Arctic zones, whilst the 
valleys at their base are characterized by the flora and the fauna 
of the cold or warm temperate zones. It may be proper to remark, 
in this connection, that the study of the laws regulating the geo- 
graphical distribution of natural families of animals and plants 
upon the whole surface of our globe differs entirely from that of the 

352 Louis Agassiz on the Natural 

association and combination of a variety of animals and plants within 
definite regions, forming peculiar fauna and flora. 

Considering the whole range of the temperate zone from east to 
west, we may divide it, in accordance with the prevailing physical 
features, into — 1st, An Asiatic realm, embracing Mantchuria, Japan, 
China, Mongolia, and passing through Turkestan — into, 2d, The 
European realm, which includes Iran as well as Asia Minor, Meso- 
potamia, Northern Arabia, and Barbary, as well as Europe, pro- 
perly so called ; the western parts of Asia, and the northern parts 
of Africa being intimately connected by their geological structure 
with the southern parts of Europe ; and, 3c?, The North American 
realm, which extends as far north as the table-land of Mexico. 

With these qualifications we may proceed to consider the faunae 
which characterize these three realms. But, before studying the 
organic characters of this zone, let us glance at its physical consti- 
tution. The most marked character of the temperate zone is found 
in the inequality of the four seasons, which give to the earth a pe- 
culiar aspect in different epochs of the year, and in the gradual, 
though more or less rapid, passage of these seasons into each other. 
The vegetation particularly undergoes marked modifications ; com- 
pletely arrested, or merely suspended, for a longer or shorter time, 
according to the proximity of the arctic or the tropical zone. We 
find it by turns in a prolonged lethargy, or in a state of energetic 
and sustained development. But in this respect there is a decided 
contrast between the cold and warm portions of the temperate zone. 
Though they are both characterized by the predominance of the 
same families of plants, and in particular by the presence of numerous 
species of the coniferous and amentaceous plants, yet the periodical 
sleep which deprives the middle latitudes of their verdure is more 
complete in the colder regions than in the warmer, which is already 
enriched by some southern forms of vegetation, and where a part 
of the trees remain green all the year. The succession of the sea- 
sons produces, moreover, such considerable changes in the climatic 
conditions in this zone, that all the animals belonging to it cannot 
sustain them equally well. Hence a large number of them migrate 
at different seasons from one extremity of the zone to the other, 
especially certain families of birds. It is known to all the world that 
the birds of Northern Europe and America leave their ungenial 
climate in the winter, seeking warmer regions as far as the Gulf of 
Mexico and the Mediterranean ; the shores of which, even those of 
the African coasts, make a part of the temperate zone. Analogous 
migrations take place also in the north of Asia. Such migrations 
are not, however, limited to the temperate zone ; a number of 
species from the arctic regions go for the winter into the temperate 
zone, and the limits of their migrations may aid us in tracing the 
natural limits of the faunae, which thus link themselves to each other, 
as the human races are connected by civilization. 

Provinces of the Animal World. 353 

The temperate zone is not characterized, like the arctic, by one 
and the same fauna ; it does not form, as the arctic does, one con- 
tinuous zoological zone around the globe. Not only do the animals 
change from one hemisphere to another, but these differences exist 
even between various regions of the same hemisphere. The species 
belonging to the western countries of the old world are not identical 
with those of the eastern countries. It is true that they often re- 
semble each other so closely, that until very recently they have 
been confounded. It has been reserved, however, for modern zoology 
and botany to detect those nice distinctions. For instance, the co- 
niferse of the Old World, even within the subarctic zone, are not iden- 
tical with those of America. Instead of the Norway and black pine, 
we have here the balsam and the white spruce ; instead of the com- 
mon fir, the Pinus rigida ; instead of the European larch, the hac- 
matac, &c. ; and further south the differences are still more striking. 
In the temperate zone proper, the oaks, the beeches, the birches, 
the hornbeamSj the hop hornbeams, the chestnuts, the buttonwoods, 
the elms, the linden, the maples, and the walnuts, are represented 
in each continent by peculiar species differing more or less. Pecu- 
liar forms make here and there their appearance, such as the gum 
trees, the tulip trees, the magnolias. The evergreens are still more 
diversified. We need only mention the camellias of Japan, and the 
kalmias of America, as examples. Among the tropical forms ex- 
tending into the warm temperate zone, we notice particularly the 
palmetto in the southern United States, and the dwarf chamserops 
of Southern Europe. The animal kingdom presents the same fea- 
tures. In Europe we have, for instance, the brown bear, in North 
America the black bear, in Asia the bear of Thibet ; the European 
stag and the European deer are represented in North America by 
the Canadian stag or wapiti and the American deer ; and in Eastern 
Asia by the musk deer. Instead of the mouflon, North America 
has the rocky mountain sheep, and Asia the argali. The North 
American buffalo is represented in Europe by the wild auerochs of 
Lithuania, and in Mongolia by the yak ; the wild cats, the martens, 
and weasels, the wolves and foxes, the squirrels and mice (excepting 
the imported house mouse), the birds, the reptiles, the fishes, the 
insects, the mollusks, &c, though more or less closely allied, are 
equally distinct specifically. The types peculiar to the Old or the New 
World are few. Among them may be mentioned the horse and ass, 
and the dromedary of Asia, and the opossum of North America. 
We would add, that in the present state of our knowledge we recog- 
nise the following combinations of animals within the limits of the 
temperate zone, which may be considered as so many distinct zoo- 
logical provinces or faunae. 

In the Asiatic realm, — 1st, a north-eastern fauna, the Japanese 
fauna; 2d, a south-eastern fauna, the Chinese fauna, and a cen- 
tral fauna, the Mongolian fauna, followed westward by the Caspian 


.°>5-l Louis Agassiz on the Natural 


fauna, which partakes partly of the Asiatic and partly of the Euro- 
pean zoological character; its most remarkable animal, antelope 
saiga, ranging west as far as Southern Russia. The Japanese and 
Chinese faunae stand to each other in the same relation as Southern 
Europe and Northern Africa, and it remains to be ascertained by fur- 
ther investigations whether the Japanese fauna proper, and a more 
western continental fauna, which might be called the Mandshurian 
or Tongusian fauna. But since it is not my object to describe sepa- 
rately all faunas, but chiefly to call attention to the coincidence 
existing between the natural limitation of the races of man, and 
the geographical range of the zoological provinces, I shall limit 
myself here to some general remarks respecting the Mongolian 
fauna, in order to show that the Asiatic zoological realm differs 
essentially from the European and the American. The most re- 
markable animals of this fauna are the bear of Thibet (JUrsus thi- 
betanus), the musk deer (Moschus moschiferus), the tzeiran {Ante- 
lope gutturosa), the Mongolian goat (Capra siberica), the argali 
(Ov is argali), and the yak {Bos grunniens). This is also the home 
of the Bactrian or double-hunched camel, and of the wild horse 
{Equus caballus), the wild ass {Equus onager), and the dtschigetai 
{Equus hemionus). The wide distribution of the musk-deer in the 
Altai and the Himalayan and Chinese Alps, shows the whole Asiatic 
range of the temperate zone to be a most natural zoological realm, 
subdivided into distinct provinces by the greater localization of the 
largest number of its representatives. 

If we now ask what are the nations of men inhabiting those 
regions, we find that they all belong to the so-called Mongolian race, 
the natural limits of which correspond exactly to the range of the 
Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, and Caspian faunae taken together, 
and that peculiar types, distinct nations of this race, cover respec- 
tively the different faunae of this realm ; — the Japanese inhabiting 
the Japanese zoological province, the Chinese the Chinese province, 
the Mongols the Mongolian province, and the Turks the Caspian 
province ; eliminating, of course, the modern establishment of 
Turks in Asia Minor and Europe. 

The unity of Europe (exclusive of its arctic regions), in connec- 
tion with South-western Asia and Northern Africa, as a distinct 
zoological realm, is established by the range of its mammalia and 
by the limits of the migrations of its birds, as well as by the physi- 
cal features of its whole extent. Thus we find its deer and stag, 
its hare, its squirrel, its wolf and wild cat, its fox and jackal, 
its otter, its weasel and marten, its badger, its bear, its mole, its 
hedgehogs, and a number of bats, either extending over the whole 
realm in Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa, or so linked 
together as to show that in their combination with the birds, reptiles, 
fishes, &c, of the same countries, they constitute a natural zoologi- 
cal association analogous to that of Asia, but essentially different in 

Provinces of the Animal World. 355 

reference to species. Like the eastern realm, this European world 
may be subdivided into a number of distinct faunae, characterized 
each by a variety of peculiar animals. In Western Asia we find, for 
instance, the common camel, instead of the Bactrian ; while Mount 
Sinai, Mounts Taurus and Caucasus, have goats and wild sheep which 
differ as much from those of Asia as they differ from those of 
Greece, of Italy, of the Alps, of the Pyrenees, of the Atlas, and of 
Egypt. Wild horses are known to have inhabited Spain and Ger- 
many ; and a wild bull extended over the whole range of Central 
Europe, which no longer exists there. The Asiatic origin of our 
domesticated animals may, therefore, well be questioned, even if we 
were still to refer Western Asia to the Asiatic realm ; since the ass, 
and some of the breeds of our horse, only belong to the table-lands 
of Iran and Mongolia, whilst the other species, including the cat, 
may all be traced to species of the European realm. The domesti- 
cated cat is referred by Ruppell to Felis maniculata of Egypt ; by 
others, to Felis eatus-ferus of Central Europe ; thus, in both cases, to 
an animal of the European realm. Whether the dog be a species by 
itself, or its varieties derived from several species which have com- 
pletely amalgamated, or be descended from the wolf, the fox, or the 
jackal, every theory must limit its natural range to the European 
world. The Merino sheep is still represented in the wild state by 
the mouflon of Sardinia, and was formerly wild in all the mountains of 
Spain ; whether the sheep of the patriarchs was derived from those 
of Mount Taurus or from Armenia, still they differed from those 
of Western Europe ; since, a thousand years before our era, the Phoe- 
nicians preferred the wool from the Iberian peninsula to that of their 
Syrian neighbours. The goats differ so much in different parts of 
the world, that it is still less possible to refer them to one common 
stock ; and while Nepaul and Cashmere have their own breeds, we 
may well consider those of Egypt and Sinai as distinct, especially as 
they differ equally from those of Caucasus and of Europe. The 
common bull is derived from the wild species which has become ex- 
tinct in Europe, and is not identical with any of the wild species of 
Asia, notwithstanding some assertions to the contrary. The hog 
descends from the common boar, now found wild over the whole 
temperate zone in the Old World. Both ducks and geese have their 
wild representatives in Europe ; so also the pigeon. As for the 
common fowls, they are decidedly of east Asiatic origin ; but the 
period of their importation is not well known, nor even the wild 
species from which they are derived. The wild turkey is well known 
as an inhabitant of the American continent. 

Now, taking further into account the special distribution of all 
the animals, wild as well as domesticated, of the European temperate 
zone, we may subdivide it into the following eight faunas : — 
1. Scandinavian fauna ; 2. Russian fauna ; 3. The fauna of 
Central Europe; 4. The fauna of Southern Europe; 5. The fauna 

Z 2 

356 Louis Agassi z on the Natural 


of Iran ; 6. The Syrian fauna ; 7. The Egyptian fauna ; and 
8. The fauna of the Atlas. The special works upon the zoology of 
Europe, the great works illustrative of the French expeditions in 
Egypt, Morocco, and Algiers, the travels of Riipell and llusseger in 
Egypt and Syria, of M. Wagner in Algiers, of Demidoff in South- 
ern Russia, &c. &c, and the special treatises on the geographical 
distribution of mammalia by A. Wagner, and of animals in general 
by Schmaida, may furnish more details upon the zoology of these 

Here, again, it cannot escape the attention of the careful observer, 
that the European zoological realm is circumscribed within exactly 
the same limits as the so-called white race of man, including as it 
does, the inhabitants of South-western Asia, and of North Africa, 
with the lower parts of the valley of the Nile. We exclude, of 
course, modern migrations and historical changes of habitation from 
this assertion. Our statements are to be understood as referring 
only to the aboriginal or ante-historical distribution of man, or 
rather to the distribution as history finds it ; and in this respect 
there is a singular fact, which historians seem not to have sufficiently 
appreciated, that the earliest migrations recorded in any form, show 
us man meeting man wherever he moves upon the habitable sur- 
face of the globe, small islands excepted. 

It is, farther, very striking, that the different subdivisions of this 
race, even to the limits of distinct nationalities, cover precisely the 
same ground as the special faunae or zoological provinces of this most 
important part of the world, which in all ages has been the seat of 
the most advanced civilization. In the south-west of Asia we find 
(along the table-land of Iran) Persia and Asia Minor ; in the plains 
southward, Mesopotamia and Syria ; along the sea-shores, Palestine 
and Phoenicia ; in the valley of the Nile, Egypt ; and along the 
northern shores of Africa, Barbary. Thus we have Semitic na- 
tions covering the north African and south-west Asiatic faunae, 
while the south European peninsulas, including Asia Minor, are in- 
habited by Gneco-Roman nations, and the cold, temperate zone, by 
Celto-Germanic nations ; the eastern range of Europe being peopled 
by Sclaves. This coincidence may justify the inference of an inde- 
pendent origin for these different tribes, as soon as it can be admit- 
ted that the races of men were primitively created in nations ; the 
more so, since all of them claim to have been autochthones of the 
countries they inhabit. This claim is so universal that it well de- 
serves more attention. It may be more deeply founded than his- 
torians generally seem inclined to grant. The columns of our table 
exhibit the animals characteristic of the temperate part of the 
European zoological realm, and show their close resemblance to 
those of the corresponding Asiatic fauna ; the species being repre- 
sentative species of the same genera, with the exception of the musk 
deer, which has no analogues in Europe. Though temperate America 

Provinces of the Animal World. 357 

resembles closely, in its animal creation, the countries of Europe and 
Asia belonging to the same zone, we meet with physical and organic 
features in this continent which differ entirely from those of the 
Old World. The tropical realms connected there with those of the 
temperate zone, though bound together by some analogies, differ 
essentially from one another. Tropical Africa has hardly any 
species in common with Europe, though we may remember that the 
lion once extended to Greece, and that the jackal is to this day 
found upon some islands in the Adriatic and in Morea. Tropical 
Asia differs equally from its temperate regions, and Australia forms 
a world by itself. Not so in Southern America. The range of moun- 
tains which extend, in almost unbroken continuity, from the Arctic 
to Cape Horn, establishes a similarity between North and South 
America, which may be traced also, to a great degree, in its plants 
and animals. Entire families which are peculiar to this continent 
have their representatives in North as well as South America, the 
cactus and didelphis, for instance ; some species, as the puma, or 
American lion, may even be traced from Canada to Patagonia. In 
connection with these facts, we find that tropical America, though it 
has its peculiar types, as characteristic as those of tropical Africa, 
Asia, and Australia, does not furnish analogues of the giants of 
Africa and Asia ; its largest pachyderms being tapirs and peccaries, 
not elephants, rhinoceroses, and hippopotami ; and its largest rumi- 
nants, the llamas and alpacas, and not camels and giraffes ; whilst it 
reminds us in many respects of Australia, with which it has the type 
of marsupials in common, though ruminants and pachyderms, and 
even monkeys, are entirely wanting there. Thus, with due qualifi- 
cation, it may be said that the whole continent of America, when 
compared with the corresponding twin continents of Europe — 
Africa or Asia — Australia is characterized by a much greater uni- 
formity of its natural productions, combined with a special localiza- 
tion of many of its subordinate types, which will justify the esta- 
blishment of many special faunae within its boundaries. 

With these facts before us, we may expect that there should be 
no great diversity among the tribes of man inhabiting this continent; 
and, indeed, the most extensive investigation of their peculiarities has 
led Dr Morton to consider them as constituting but a single race, 
from the confines of the Esquimaux down to the southernmost ex- 
tremity of the continent. But at the same time it should be re- 
membered that, in accordance with the zoological character of the 
whole realm, this race is divided into an infinite number of small 
tribes, presenting more or less difference one from another. 

As to the special faunae of the American continent, we may dis- 
tinguish, within the temperate zone, a Canadian fauna, extending 
from Newfoundland across the great lakes to the base of the rocky 
mountains, a fauna of the North American table-land, a fauna of the 
north-west coast, a fauna of the middle Uuited States, a fauna of the 

358 Louis Agassiz on the Natural 

southern United States, and a Calif ornian fauna, the characteristic 
features of which I shall describe on another occasion. 

When we consider, however, the isolation of the American con- 
tinent from those of the Old World, nothing is more striking in the 
geographical distribution of animals, than the exact correspondence of 
all the animals of the northern temperate zone of America with those 
of Europe ; all the characteristic forms of which, as may be seen by the 
fourth column of our table, belong to the same genera, with the ex- 
ception of a few subordinate types, not represented among our 
figures — such as the opossum and the skunk. 

In tropical America we may distinguish a Central American 
fauna, a Brazilian fauna, a fauna of the Pampas, a fauna of the 
Cordilleras, a Peruvian fauna, and a Patagonian fauna ; but it 
is unnecessary for our purpose to mention here their characteristic 
features, which may be gathered from the works of Prince New 
Wied, of Spix and Martius, of Tschudi, of Poppig, of Ramon de 
la Sagra, of Darwin, &c. 

The slight differences existing between the fauna? of the tem- 
perate zone have required a fuller illustration than may be necessary 
to characterize the zoological realms of the tropical regions, and the 
southern hemisphere generally. It is sufficient for our purpose to 
say here, that these realms are at once distinguished by the pre- 
valence of peculiar types, circumscribed within the natural limits of 
the three continents, extending in complete isolation towards the 
southern pole. In this respect there is already a striking contrast 
between the northern and the southern hemisphere. But the more 
closely we compare them with one another, the greater appear their 
differences. We have already seen how South America differs 
from Africa, the East Indies, and Australia, by its closer con- 
nection with North America. Notwithstanding, however, the ab- 
sence in South America of those sightly animals so prominent in 
Africa and tropical Asia, its general character is, like that of all 
the tropical continents, to nourish a variety of types which have no 
close relations to those of other continents. Its monkeys and eden- 
tata belong to genera which have no representatives in the Old 
World. Among pachyderms, it has peccaries, which are entirely 
wanting elsewhere ; and though the tapirs occur also in the Sunda 
Islands, that type is wanting in Africa, where, in compensation, we 
find the hippopotamus, not found in either Asia or America. We 
have already seen that the marsupials of South America differ en- 
tirely from those of Australia. Its ostriches differ also generally 
from those of Africa, tropical Asia, New Holland, &c. 

If we compare, further, the southern continents of the Old World 
with one another, we find a certain uniformity between the animals 
of Africa and tropical Asia. They have both elephants and rhino- 
ceroses, though each has its peculiar species of these genera, which 
occur neither in America nor in Australia; whilst cercopitheci and 

Provinces of the Animal World. 359 

antelopes prevail in Africa, and long-armed monkeys and stags in 
tropical Asia. Moreover, the black orangs are peculiar to Africa, 
and the red orangs to Asia. As to Australia, it has neither mon- 
keys nor pachyderms, nor edentata, but only marsupials and mono- 
tremes. We need therefore not carry these comparisons further to 
be satisfied that Africa, tropical Asia, and Australia, constitute in- 
dependent zoological realms. 

The continent of Africa, south of the Atlas, has a very uniform 
zoological character. This realm may, however, be subdivided, ac- 
cording to its local peculiarities, into a number of distinct faunse. 
In its more northern parts, we distinguish the fauna of the Sahara 
and those of Nubia and Abyssinia, the latter of which extends over 
the Red Sea into the tropical parts of Arabia. These faunse have 
been particularly studied by Riippell and Ehrenberg, in whose works 
more may be found respecting the zoology of these regions. They 
are inhabited by two distinct races of men, the Nubians and Abys- 
sinians, receding greatly in their features from the woolly -haired 
negroes with flat, broad noses, which cover the more central parts of 
the continent. But even here we may distinguish the fauna of 
Senegal from that of Guinea and that of the African table-land. 
In the first, we notice particularly the chimpanzee ; in the second, 
the gorilla ; there is no anthropoid monkey in the third. 

The tabular view gives figures of the most prominent animals 
of the genuine West African type. A fuller illustration of this 
subject might show how peculiar tribes of negroes cover the limits 
of the different faunse of tropical Africa, and establish in this re- 
spect a parallelism between the nations of this continent and those 
of Europe. We are chiefly indebted to French naturalists for a 
better knowledge of the natural history of this part of the world. 
In tabular view, we have represented the animals of our Cape- 
lands, in order to show how the African fauna is modified upon the 
southern extremity of this continent, which is inhabited by a dis- 
tinct race of men, the Hottentots. The zoology of South Africa 
may be studied in the works of Lichtenstein and Andrew Smith. 

The East Indian realm is very well known zoologically — thanks 
to the efforts of English and Dutch naturalists — and may be subdi- 
vided into three faunse, — that of Dukhun, that of the Indo-Chinese 
peninsula, and that of the Sunda Islands, Borneo, and the Philip- 
pines. Its characteristic animals, represented in the tabular view, 
may be readily contrasted with those of Africa. There is, how- 
ever, one feature in this realm which requires particular attention, 
and has a high importance with reference to the study of the 
races of men. We find here upon Borneo (an island not so exten- 
sive as Spain) one of the best known of those anthropoid monkeys, 
the orang-outang; and with him, as well as upon the adjacent 
islands of Java and Sumatra, and along the coasts of the two East 

360 Louis Agassiz on the Natural 

Indian peninsulse, not less than ten other different species of hylo- 
bates, the long-armed monkeys — a genus which, next to the orang 
and chimpanzee, ranks nearest to man. One of these species is 
circumscribed within the island of Java, two along the coast of Coro- 
mandel, three upon that of Malacca, and four upon Borneo. Also, 
eleven of the highest organized beings which have performed their 
part in the plan of creation within tracts of land inferior in ex- 
tent to the range of any of the historical nations of men. In ac- 
cordance with this fact, we find three distinct races within the boun- 
daries of the East Indian realm : the Telingan race in anterior 
India, the Malays in posterior India, and upon the Islands, upon 
which the Negrillos occur with them. Such combinations notify 
fully a comparison of the geographical range covered by distinct 
European nations, with the narrow limits occupied upon earth by 
the orangs, the chimpanzees, and the gorillas ; and though I still 
hesitate to assign to each an independent origin (perhaps rather from 
the difficulty of divesting myself of the opinions universally received, 
than from any intrinsic evidence), I must, in presence of these facts, 
insist at least upon the probability of such an independence of origin 
of all nations ; or, at least, of the independent origin of a primitive 
stock for each, with which at some future period migrating or con- 
quering tribes more or less completely amalgamated, as in the case 
of mixed nationalities. The evidence adduced from the affinities of 
the languages of different nations in favour of a community of ori- 
gin is of no value, when we know that among vociferous animals 
every species has its peculiar intonations, and that the different spe- 
cies of the same family produce none as closely allied, and forming 
as natural combinations, as the so-called Indo- Germanic languages 
compared with one another. Nobody, for instance, would suppose 
that because the notes of the different species of thrushes, inhabiting 
different parts of the world, bear the closest affinity to one another, 
these birds must all have a common origin ; and yet, with reference 
to man, philologists still look upon the affinities of languages as 
affording direct evidence of such a community of origin, among the 
races, even though they have already discovered the most essential 
differences in the very structure of these languages. 

Ever since New Holland was discovered, it has been known as the 
land of zoological marvels. All the animals differ so completely 
from those of other parts of our globe, that it may be said to consti- 
tute a world in itself, as isolated in that respect from the other con- 
tinents, as it truly is in its physical relations. As a zoological 
realm, it extends to New Guinea and some adjacent islands. New 
Holland, however, constitutes a distinct fauna, which at some future 
time may be still farther subdivided, differing from that of the 
islands north of it. The characteristic animals of this insular con- 
tinent are represented in the tabular view. They all belong to 

Provinces of the Animal World. 


two families only, considering the class of mammalia alone, the 
marsupials and the monotremes. Besides these are found bats and 
mice, and a wild dog ; but there are neither true edentata nor 
ruminants, nor pachyderms nor monkeys, in this realm, which is 
inhabited by two races of men, the Australian in New Holland, and 
the Papuans upon the islands. The isolation of the zoological types 
of Australia, inhabiting as they do a continent partaking of nearly 
all the physical features of the other parts of the world, is one of the 
most striking evidences that the presence of animals upon earth is 
not determined by physical conditions, but established by the direct 
agency of a Creator. 

Of Polynesia, its races and animals, it would be difficult to give 
an idea in such a condensed picture as this. I pass them, therefore, 
entirely unnoticed. 

Tabular view of the Natural Provinces of the Animal World and 
their relation to the different Types of Man. 

I. — Arctic Realm. 

1. Head of Esquimaux 

2. White Bear (Ursus mariti- 


3. Walrus (Trichecus rosmarus) 

4. Reindeer (Cervus tarandus) 

5. Harp Seal (Phoca grsenlan- 


6. Right Whale (Balsena mys- 


7. Eider Duck (Anas mollissima) 

8. Reindeer Moss (Cladonia ran- 


II. — Mongol Realm. 

9. Head of Chinese 

10. Bear (Ursus thibetanus) 

11. Musk Deer (Moschus moschi- 


12. Antelope (Antelopegutturosa) 

13. Goat (Capra siberica) 

14. Sheep (Ovis argali) 

15. Yak (Bos grunniens) 

III. — European Realm. 

16. Head of European 

17. Bear (Ursus arctos) 

18. Stag (Cervus elaphas) 

19. Antelope (Antelope rupicar- 


20. Goat (Capra Ibex) 

21. Sheep (Ovis musimon) 

22. Auerochs (Bos urus) 

IV. — American Realm. 

23. Head of Indian chief 

24. Bear (Ursus americanus") 

25. Stag (Cervus virginianus) 

26. Antelope (Ant. frucifera) 

27. Goat (Capra americana) 

28. Sheep (Ovis montana) 

29. Bison (Bos americanus) 

V. — African Realm. 

30. Head of Creole Negro 

31. Chimpanzee (Troglodytes ni- 


32. Elephant (Elephas africanus) 

33. Rhinoceros (R. bicornis) 

34. Hippopotamus(H. amphibius) 

35. Wart Hog (Phacochaerus 


36. Giraffe (Cameleopardalis gi- 


VI. — Hottentot Fauna. 
Head of Bushman 
Hyena Genet (Proteles Lalandii) 
Quagga (Equus quagga) 
Rhinoceros (R. simus) 

362 On Natural Provinces of the Animal World. 

(Jape Hyrax (Hyrax capensis) 
Ant-eater (Orycteropus capensis) 
Cape Ox (Bos Cafre) 

Malayan Realm. 
Head of Malay 

Orang-utan (Pithecus satyrus) 
Elephant (Elephas indieus) 
Rhinoceros (11. sondaicus) 
Tapir (Tapirus malayanus) 
Stag (Cervus Muntjac) 
Ox (Bos arnee) 

Australian Realm. 
Head of Alfouroux 
Spotted Opossum (Dasyurus vi- 

Rabbit (Parameles lagotis) 
Phalanger (Phalangista vulpina) 
Wombat (Phascolarctos cinereus) 
Squirrel (Petaurus saureus) 
Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) 
Duckbile (Ornithorynchus para- 

Tabular View of the Faunas. 

I. — Arctic Realm, inhabited by Hyperborsens, and containing an 

Hyperborean fauna. 

II. — Asiatic Realm, inhabited by Mongols, and sub-divided into 

Mandchurian fauna 1 . ,, - , - 

T r > in the temperate range ot the zone. 

Japanese fauna J ;: • 

Chinese fauna, in the warmer part. 

Central Mongolian fauna. 

Caspian (western) fauna. 
III. — European Realm, inhabited by White Men, and divided into 

Scandinavian fauna. 

Russian fauna. 

Central European fauna. 

South European fauna. 

North African fauna. 

Egyptian fauna. 

Syrian and an Iranian fauna. 
IV. — American Realm, inhabited by American Indians; North 
America divided into 

Canadian fauna. 

Alleghanian fauna, or fauna of the Middle States. 

Louisianian fauna, or fauna of the Southern States. 

Table-land fauna, or fauna of the Rocky Mountains. 

North-west Coast fauna. 

Californian fauna. 
Central America, subdivided into 

Mainland fauna. 

Antilles fauna. 
South America, divided into 

Brazilian fauna. 

Pampas fauna. 

Cordilleras fauna. 

Peruvian fauna. 

Patagonian fauna. 

On the Geological Associations of Tellurium. . 363 

V. — African Realm, inhabited by Nubians, Abyssinians, Foolahs, 
Negroes, Hottentots, Bosjesmans, and divided into 

Saharian fauna. 

Nubian fauna. 

Abyssinian fauna, (extending to Arabia). 

Senegambian fauna. 

Guinean fauna. 

African Table-land fauna. 

Cape of Good Hope fauna. 

Madagascar fauna. 
VI. — East Indian (or Malayan) Realm, inhabited by Telingans, 
Malays, Negrillos, and divided into 

Dunkhan fauna. 

Indo-Chinese fauna. 

Sunda Islandic fauna, (including Borneo and the Philip- 
VII. — Australian Realm, inhabited by Papuans, Australians, 
and divided into 

Papuan fauna. 

New Holland fauna. 
VIII. — Polynesian Realm, inhabited by South Sea Islanders, and 

Polynesian fauna. 


On the Geological Associations of Tellurium. By William 
Jory Henwood, F.R.S., F.G.S., Member of the Geolo- 
gical Society of France ; Hon. M.Y.P.S., &c. ; Mineral 
Surveyor to the Hon. East India Company.* (Communi- 
cated by the Author.) 

It is remarkable that tellurium, in its native state, although dis- 
covered by Miiller so long ago as 1782, has been found only in 
one locality — at Facebay in Transylvania — until now. Its alloys 
indeed have hitherto been detected in Norway, in Hungary, and in 
Siberia, only. 

In Transylvania the native tellurium occurs in veins traversing 
a sandstone formation ; but its alloys are found in lines which 
intersect a porphyritic rock ; and both the metal and its compounds 
are accompanied by gold, sulphuret of antimony, and blende. In 
Norway bismuth is associated with them, and in Siberia they are 
mixed with lead. 

Seven years have probably elapsed since I became acquainted 
with the occurrence of native tellurium in the mines of Coelho and 
Paciencia, near Morro de Sao Vicente, about thirty miles west of 

* From the Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. 

3()4 . On the Geological Associations of Tellurium. 

Ouro Preto, the capital of* Minas Geraes, in Brazil. The rock in 
the neighbourhood is a thin-bedded slate, usually talcose, and 
frequently containing chlorite also. The vein, which ranges through 
both mines, and is traced far beyond them on the line of its course, 
bears about E. and W. (magnetic), and is from twenty to forty feet 
in width. Its chief ingredients are hard milk-white quartz and 
quartzose slate. Though nowhere rich in gold, it is rarely desti- 
tute of it ; the precious metal — sometimes in crystalline grains, the 
tellurium, and minute crystals of iron pyrites, sprinkling thinly, but 
tolerably regularly, the whole mass of the vein. There are, how- 
ever, quartzose portions in which the tellurium occurs in large masses, 
presenting a confusedly crystalline structure, and sometimes long 
spiculas of it are inclosed in translucent quartz. 

During the summer of 1852, I visited — besides other parts of 
the United States — Spotsylvania county, near Fredericksburg, in 
Virginia. The Whitehall mine in that district is wrought in a 
deep bluo clay slate. The lodes bear about S.E. and N.W. (mag- 
netic), and are of considerable size ; their principal constituent is a 
hard white quartz, sometimes marked with ferruginous stains, and 
occasionally they contain large masses of slaty matter. The gold, 
for which the mine was wrought, is for the most part scantily, but 
pretty uniformly scattered through the whole body of iron-tinged 
parts than elsewhere ; where the quartz is somewhat drusy, it has 
occasionally a tendency to crystalline structure. The tellurium is, 
like the gold, only more scantily, dispersed through the quartzose 
matter ; but no crystals of it have yet been discovered. 

Distant as Minas Geraes and Virginia are from each other, the 
gold of the Morro de Sao Vicente neighbourhood has considerable 
resemblance to that of the Fredericksburg district ; both, although 
of the very best quality, having an exceedingly slight tinge of green. 
Whether this hue may be from a minute portion of tellurium being 
naturally alloyed with the gold ; or whether the two metals, being 
stamped together, are imperfectly separated by dressing, and form, 
when smelted together, an artificial combination, I am unable to say. 
No other natural union, however, if this be one, has yet been de- 
tected in either of these districts 

The sulphurets of antimony and of bismuth occur in the gold 
vein of Catta Branca, near Morro de Sao Vicente; iron pyrites and 
blende are mixed with the gold and tellurium of Paciencia ; and 
galena is in like manner associated with them in many of the mines 
near Fredericksburg. 

The engrossing occupations which have led me into these distant 
tracts, have not permitted me to search for the combinations of gold 
and tellurium ; a reward probably reserved for some future inquirer 
better qualified for the task than I am, and with leisure for the 
pursuit, which I have not enjoyed. 

;* Clabence Place, Penzance, 
September 19, 1854. 

Scientific Intelligence — Mineralogy. 305 



1. Sir David Brewster on the origin of the Diamond. — Sir 
David ascribes the origin of the diamond to a slow decomposition of 
plants. He met with a diamond which contained a globule of air, 
while the surrounding substance of the diamond had a polarizing 
(doubly refracting) structure, displayed by four sectors of polarized 
light encircling the globule. He therefore inferred that this air- 
bubble had been heated, and, by expansion, had produced pressure 
on the surrounding parts of the diamond, and thereby communicated 
to them a polarizing structure. Now, for this to have happened, 
the diamond must have been soft and susceptible of compression. 
But as various circumstances contribute to prove that this softness 
was the effect of neither solvents nor heat, he concluded that the 
diamond must have been formed, like amber, by the consolidation 
of vegetable matter, which gradually acquired a crystalline form by 
the influence of time and slow action of corpuscular forces. — (Pe- 
reirds Lectures on Polarized Light.) 

2. Polarity of Crystals. — In crystals, it is necessary to admit, 
besides ordinary attraction and repulsion, a third molecular force, 
called polarity, which may be regarded either as an original or a 
derivative property. Without this, it is impossible to account for 
the regularity of crystalline forms. Under the influence of a mu- 
tually attractive force, particles would adhere together and form 
masses, the shapes of which, however, would be subject to the 
greatest variety ; and though, occasionally, they might happen to 
be regular, yet this could not constantly be the case. 

The simplest conception we can form of polarity is, that it de- 
pends on the unequal action of molecular attraction or repulsion in 
different directions. A molecule endowed with unequal attractive 
forces in different directions, may be said to be possessed of polarity. 
— (Dr Pereira's Lectures on Polarized Light.) 

3. Researches on Crystallization. — M. Lavalle has recently pre- 
sented to the French Academy a memoir narrating some remark- 
able phenomena discovered and patiently observed by him. All 
bodies, whose composition is clearly defined, have a tendency to 
crystallize; in other words, when they take the solid state slowly, 
their last particles, in grouping themselves, each after the other, are 
so disposed as to form a mass, which the mind successively decom- 
poses into plane layers, into rectilinear files, and into elementary 
particles. As these are disposed parallel to each other, and at 
equal distances, to be arranged in files, so the layers are formed by 
the assembly of parallel and equidistant files; so, also, parallelism 

366 Scientific Intelligence — Mineralogy. 

and equality of distance preside at the aggregation of layers which 
compose the solid mass. It results from this, that the crystal is 
identical to itself throughout, and that any given particle affects in 
space, and in relation to the neighbouring particles, the same direc- 
tion and the same relations as every other particle in every part of 
the mass. This regularity of interior structure is generally exhi- 
bited on the exterior by characteristic forms, which the practised 
eye can always detect. Varied as they may be, these forms may be 
reduced to a small number of species, which are called the crystal- 
line system, and in which are naturally classed all real and possible 
crystals. Competent judges think nothing is more likely to reveal 
the existence of the elementary particle than the phenomenon of 
crystallization ; for if the particle does not exist in the same form 
as that of the smallest sensible crystal, the last particles whose in- 
tegrity seems necessary to the maintenance of the properties of the 
body must have particular and fixed directions. Be this as it 
may, we shall (perhaps) never see the particle itself; but this in 
no way lessens the interest of the phenomena connected with the 
mysterious operation of their free aggregation. It is to this point 
M. Lavalle's experiments were made. Among a good many curious 
experiments, M. Lavalle took a crystal of alum, a perfect octsed ; he 
destroyed one of the six summits, and so made a square face, parallel 
to one of the faces of the corresponding cube ; then, placing it upon 
this face, he abandoned it in the bottom of a box, containing a satu- 
rated solution ; the crystal increased as usual, with perhaps what 
may be called the exception, that a face exactly like the square face 
on which it stood, was spontaneously produced on the opposite sum- 
mit. Thus was confirmed by a striking example, — that great law of 
symmetry, which, in natural crystals, always opposes symmetrical 
faces. Another of his experiments was cutting away the angular 
edges of a crystal and the faces, so as to destroy completely all traces 
of its original form. But it must not be supposed that this will 
destroy its original nature; its structure will still remain; the ex- 
perimenter has but to replunge it into the dissolution where it was 
formed, to see it complete itself, and cover again its angles and 
faces. It may happen, however, that this sort of restoration pro- 
ceeds too rapidly, and that numerous small crystals shoot on the 
surface of the altered crystal. This gives a new piece of informa- 
tion ; for all these small crystals have a common direction, which 
coincides with that of the mass from which they spring. — thus de- 
monstrating the constancy of structure and the identity of the par- 
ticles of which it is composed. We need not be astonished, then, 
that if a fragment of a crystal in process of formation be broken off, 
this loss will be promptly repaired. Nay, it is further seen, that, 
if a crystal is broken into fragments, each fragment soon reproduces 
in the saturated water an entire crystal, imitating in this respect 
that marvel of organization which, of one polypus, divided into 

Scientific Intelligence — Geology. 367 

several parts, makes in a few days so many entire polypi. Curious 
phenomena are produced when a crystal is transferred from one 
solution to another. 

4. Natural Deposit of Saltpetre. — Professor W. H. Ellet, of the 
United States, reports that there has been discovered in Bradford 
County, Pennsylvania, a regular vein of nitre, believed to be 
unique in its character. The nitre occurs as a solid and uncrystal- 
line deposit in the horizontal seams of a sandstone rock, and in 
veins proceeding from them at different angles ; and the rock itself, 
which is quite porous, is abundantly charged with the same material. 
The nitre itself is very pure, containing more traces of nitrate of 
lime and magnesia. The sandstone in which it occurs is siliceous, 
containing a little carbonate of lime, and a notable quantity of sili- 
cate of potash. — (The Dublin Monthly Journal of Industrial Pro- 
gress, No. viii., p. 242.) 

5. Artificial Formation of Minerals by Igneous Action. — Pro- 
fessor Hausmann, of Gottingen, has recently published a memoir on 
the formation of minerals in and about furnaces, by furnace action. 
He enumerates the following varieties observed by him : silver, lead, 
copper, iron, bismuth, lead-glance, blende, oxide of zinc, red copper 

'ore, iron-glance, magnetic iron- ore, crysolite, pyroxene containing 
alumina, Humboldtite, orthoclase, lead-vitriol, and arseniate of nickel 
brown, yellow, green, and black blende were observed formed in the 
furnaces of Lauten Valley, Hartz, in regular octahedrons and dode- 
cahedrons ; also in lamellar and radiated concretions. Lead-glance, 
he says, is often formed by sublimations in the chimneys of furnaces, 
and the crystals are cubical with the usual cleavage ; and crystals of 
magnetic iron sometimes incrust cavities in the stone or brick work 
of the furnaces. 

6. The Use of the Microscope to Mineralogists. — M. Dufour 
has made an important microscopical discovery that will be found 
useful in many circumstances. He has shown that an imponderable 
quantity of a substance can be crystallized, and that the crystals so 
obtained are quite characteristic of the substances. For example, 
he crystallized imponderable quantities of sugar, chloride of sodium, 
of arsenic, and of mercury, and the crystals obtained were quite 
characteristic of these substances. The mineralogist and toxicologist 
may find this process extremely valuable when the substance for 
examination is too small to be submitted to tests. — (I? Institute, 
No. 1067.) 


7. Earthquake Indicator. — M. Ratio-Menton, a gentleman 
connected with the French diplomatic corps in the Argentine Re- 
public, has recently communicated to the Paris Academy of Sciences, 
in a letter addressed to the French Minister of Foreign Affairs, a 

368 Scientific Intelligence — Geology. 

sure means of learning the approach of an earthquake. According 
to this gentleman, the earthquake indicator is nothing more than a 
magnet, to which is suspended, by magnetic attraction, a little 
fragment of iron. Shortly before the occurrence of an earthquake, 
the magnet temporarily loses its power, and hence the iron falls. 
According to M. Ratio-Menton, the accuracy of this indicative sign 
has been thoroughly tested by a highly educated Argentine officer, 
Colonel Epinosa, during a residence of many years at Arequipa, a 
region where earthquakes are very frequent. Independently of the 
authority of the communication, arising from the respectability of 
the communicator, and from its being published in the Transactions 
of the French Academy of Sciences, the result is nothing more than 
might have been suspected, from theoretical considerations of the 
alliance between electricity and magnetism. A disturbance of elec- 
tric power has long been known to be associated with earthquakes. 

8. The quantity of Solid Matter carried annually to the Sea. — 
Mr A. Taylor, in endeavouring to calculate the probable quan- 
tity of solid matter carried annually to the sea, either in a state 
of suspension or in a state of solution, by rivers or rivulets, or 
by other agents, has arrived at the conclusion that this quantity 
of sediment spread on the bottom of the sea, is capable to dis- 
place sufficient water to raise the level of the ocean three inches in 
10,000 years. This is an important statement, and ought to be borne 
in mind, when calculating on the changes that our earth has under- 
gone during its formation. He has also calculated the denudation 
of sediment over 100,000 square miles of North America, spread 
by the Mississippi, ought, if its river has always been charged with 
sediment as it has always been in our days, to have lowered the 
surface of the earth one foot in 9000 years, and that the Ganges 
produced the same effect in its hydrographic basin in 1704 years. — 
(VInstitut, No. 1067.) 

9. Origin of the Bitumen of Stratified Rocks. — Table showing 
the Geological position of Petroleum Springs, — 

The super-cretaceous rocks of South America, the cretaceous of 
Syria, the oolite of France, and the lias of Europe, furnish 15 
The coal series and carboniferous rocks, . 8 

The Devonian rocks, . . . . 13 

The Silurian, 12 ... 

The metamorphic and magnesian, . . 6 

Total. . 54 

of these 54, 31 are below the carboniferous and coal-producing rocks ; 
and 23 are in or above the coal series ; of the number of 23, 15 are 
due to the rocks from the lias upward ; 8 only belonging to the coal- 
bearing strata. 

Scientific Intelligence — Geology, 369 

In the present state of knowledge, therefore, the rocks below the 
coal, produce about four times as much liquid and coagulated bitumen 
as the carboniferous strata, and one quarter more than all the rocks 
above the Devonian. The mica slate, serpentine, and magnesian beds, 
explored by Mr Taylor in Cuba, are doubtless the equivalent of the 
Azoic system of Lake Superior, and older than the Potsdam sand- 
stone. Mr Taylor regards all the bitumen of the West India Islands, 
including the Pitch Lake of Trinidad, as belonging to the same age. 

In the mine of Consualidad, near Havana, he found asphaltum in 
a vein or fissure of the metamorphic rock, which, at the bottom of 
the shaft, attained the thickness of 9 feet. On the Tapaste, and on 
the Matanzas road, he saw it in the same rocks, in still greater masses, 
whose dimensions had been penetrated more than 100 feet, without 
finding the sides. In those islands, asphaltum rises to the surface 
from beneath the sea, after volcanic action has been experienced. 
The great lake of Trinidad, 3 miles in circumference, he considers 
as supplied from the rocks of the same age, as those he inspected 
around Havana. The specimens observed by Mr Logan on the east 
coast of Lake Superior, were in rocks doubtless not newer than the 
Potsdam. Those streams of naphtha seen by Humboldt issuing 
from mica slate, in the Gulf of Cariaco, in Venezuela, were without 
doubt flowing from the most ancient rocks, and the same may be 
said of the gneiss containing iron, in Scandinavia, in which liquid 
bitumen is found. Everything points to an early, a very ancient 
existence of bitumen, both solid and liquid, in the rocky strata of our 

Was it not as ancient as any of the compound substances com- 
prising, these strata. 

The systems composed of magnesian slates, magnetic iron ore, 
mica slate, and magnesian limestone, which are so well developed 
on Lake Superior, in Missouri, and in Sweden, are older than most 
of the granites. Rocks that are apparently of the same age, or at 
least more ancient than any traces of animal or vegetable life in 
Cuba, in Scandinavia, and in Canada, contain bitumen. 

This assertion has not, it is true, a perfectly incontestable basis 
whereon to rest, but a reasonably good foundation, approaching to a 
mathematical demonstration. Aside from the facts here presented, 
the assertion is not theoretically a strange or startling one. 

The components, or simple substances of which bitumen is consti- 
tuted, existed from the earliest creation. Oxygen must have been 
in existence as early as the metals ; otherwise they would be found 
pure, and in the form of alloys, and not of oxides. We must suppose 
that there was iron ore, lime, silica, magnesia, and other oxides, al- 
kalies and earths, as soon as there was calcium or siliciurn. 

Oxygen gas, which constitutes about one-fourth of the mass of the 
globe, must have been primeval. Are not chlorine, sulphur, nitrogen, 


370 Scientific Intelligence — Geology. 

hydrogen, and carbon equally ancient ? Is there any rock so old that 
it does not contain sulphur. The dolomites of the metamorphic 
rocks contain carbon ; and the carbonates generally carry about one- 
eighth of their mass of this singular substance, which is sometimes 
an imperceptible vapour, and acquire the hardest kind of matter 
known. These dolomites are sometimes found older than the Pots- 
dam sand&tone. Nitrogen may not have been found in rocks below 
the mountain limestone, where it exists in the form of the nitrate of 
potassa. But nitrogen must have been in being before organic life ; 
for it is one of the component parts, and there could not have been 
an atmosphere fit for respiration without it. 

Hydrogen is not found in combination with the strata of the 
early geological eras ; but hydrogen must have been present, with 
oxygen, before water could have been formed ; and consequently, be- 
fore the deposition of any sedimentary rock. If the ancient seas 
which deposited the Silurian system, were, as their fossils prove them 
to have been, salt, then their water contained chlorides and chlorine 
in the same manner as our seas do at the present day. 

All the gaseous substances exist now in a free state in the oldest 
sedimentary strata, and flow out in combination with salts in thou- 
sands of mineral springs. The thermal springs that proceed from 
great depths in the lowest and oldest rocks, bring up carbonated hy- 
drogen and other gases, and chlorides, carbonates, &c, in solution. 
Almost all the salt wells and the petroleum springs in the above list 
evolve gases, some of them pure nitrogen, and salts of various kinds. 
All those kindred substances are found wherever man has penetrated 
the earth or divined its composition, in the oldest as well as in the 
most recent formations, and they include all the constituents of 

Chemists regard the various forms of native bitumen, whether 
under the name of naphtha, petroleum, senecaoil, mineral tar, oras- 
phaltum, as essentially the same compound mixed with different pro- 
portions of earthy matter, or exposed more less to the atmosphere, 
which coagulates and hardens it. It is an atomic combination of 
carbon and hydrogen — 6 atoms of each. In the atmosphere it ab- 
sorbs oxygen and nitrogen. From the same rocks and the same 
depths there issues in company with naphtha, petroleum, &c, an in- 
flammable or light carburetted hydrogen gas, composed of 1 atom 
of carbon to 2 of hydrogen. 

Having convincing proofs that the elementary substances compris- 
ing bitumen were in existence and universally diffused in nature be- 
fore the production of organic life, with the same chemical affinities 
they now possess and obey, is it philosophical to suppose that they 
did not, when in contact, obey those affinities until after animals and 
vegetables were created ? Is it not equivalent to the assertion that 
carbon and hydrogen did not unite in the proportion of 6 atoms of 

Scientific Intelligence — Geology. 371 

each, nor of 1 atom of carbon to 2 of hydrogen, till after they 
had been elaborated in the vessels of a planet, or the stomach of an 
animal ? Is it not more philosophical to reverse the process, and to 
say that animal and vegetable life derives its material substance by a 
power of accretion from what existed before, in a mineral state ; and 
from gases coeval with the primitive minerals ? 

10. Strength and Density of Building Stone. — By a series of 
experiments recently tried in Washington, under the direction of the 
Ordnance Board, the specific gravity of various sandstones present- 
ed, averaged 1,929; the best Quincy granite, or to speak properly, 
Sienite, 2,648, and the Malone sandstone 2,591. 

The report of the examining officers further states — 

1st, That the sandstone of the capitol broke under a pressure, per 
square inch, of 5,245 lb. 

2d, Several of the marbles tested broke under pressures varying 
from 7000 to 10,000 lb. 

3d, The compact red sandstone, of which the Smithsonian Insti- 
tute is built, broke under 9,518 lb. 

4th, The granite, or blue micaceous rocks, employed for the new 
foundations, broke (as the average of 7 samples) under 15,603 lb. 

5th, The Malone sandstone, 24,105 lb. 

6th, The most compact Sienite from Quincy, 29,220 lb. 

It should be mentioned, that the various sandstones were tested 
in the weakest position, — with the lines of stratification perpendi- 
cular to the horizon, as such is the way that they are usually em- 
ployed in building. The marbles and granites were tested in an 
exactly opposite position. 

11. Theory of Earthquakes. — A report of the committee of the 
Institute of France, consisting of MM. Lionville, Lame, and Elie 
de Beaumont, on the subject of the theory of earthquakes, has been 
transmitted to me for the use of the Association. From a careful 
discussion of several thousand of these phenomena, which have been 
recorded between the years 1801 and 1850, and a comparison of the 
periods at which they occurred with the position of the moon in rela- 
tion to the earth, the learned Professor, M. Perrey of Dijon, would 
infer that earthquakes may possibly be the result of an action of at- 
traction exercised by that body on the supposed fluid centre of our 
globe, somewhat similar to that which she exercises on the waters of 
the ocean ; and the report of the committee of the Institute is so far 
favourable, that at their instance the Institute have granted funds 
to enable the learned Professor to continue his researches. You 
will recollect how often the attention of the Association has been 
drawn to this subject by the observations of Mr Milne and of Mr 
Mallet, which latter are still going on, and that the accumulating 
facts are still waiting for a theory to explain them. — (From the 

2 a2 

372 Scientific Intelligence — Meteorology. 

B'xjht Hon. the Earl of Harrowby's Address to the British Asso- 
ciation at Liverpool.) 


12. Agassiz on the Specific Difference of the Human Races. — 
Professor Agassiz's researches in embryology possess most important 
bearings on the natural history of mankind. He states, for instance 
that during the foetal state, it is in most cases impossible to distin- 
guish between the species of a genus ; but that, after birth, animals 
being governed by specific laws, advance each in diverging lines. 
The dog, wolf, fox, and jackal, for example, the different species of 
ducks, and even ducks and geese, in the foetal state cannot be dis- 
tinguished from each other ; but their distinctive characters begin to 
develop themselves soon after birth. So with the races of men. In 
the foetal state there is no criterion whereby to distinguish even the 
Negro's from the Teuton's anatomical structure; but afterbirth, 
they develop their respective characteristics in diverging lines, 
irrespectively of climatic influences. This he conceives to be a most 
important law ; and it points strongly to specific difference. 


13. The importance of correct Scientific Instruments at Sea. — 
I would take the liberty of quoting further : — " There are risks at 
sea against which no foresight can provide ; but loss from defective 
compasses, or ill-regulated chronometers, should be treated as a 
crime, since common sense and common care will secure the efficacy 
of both these instruments. It is to be feared that life and property 
to a large amount are yearly sacrificed for want of a little elemen- 
tary knowledge, and a small amount of precaution on the part of our 
seamen, who neglect the safeguards furnished by modern science." 
You will perhaps forgive me for taking the liberty of urging upon 
you the importance of continuing to them an unabated if not an en- 
larged support. By giving accuracy to the various instruments of 
observation, the thermometer, the barometer, and the standard 
weights and measures, they are doing a work of incalculable benefit 
to science in general in this and in other countries. At this mo- 
ment they have in their hands for verification and adjustment one 
thousand thermometers and fifty barometers for the navy of the 
United States, as well as five hundred thermometers and sixty baro- 
meters for our own Board of Trade, the instruments which are sup- 
plied in ordinary commerce being found to be subject to error to an 
extraordinary degree. At the suggestion of Sir John Herschell, 
they have also undertaken, by the photographic process, to secure a 
daily record of the appearance of the sun's disc, with a view of as- 
certaining, by a comparison of the spots upon its surface, their 

Scientific Intelligence — Botany. 373 

places, size, and forms, whether any relation can be established 
between their variations and other phenomena. — (From the Right 
Hon. the Earl of Harrowbys Address to the British Association 
at Liverpool.) 


14. The Age of the Cypress Forests. — The plain on which the 
city of New Orleans is built rises only nine feet above the sea, and 
excavations are often made far below the Gulf of Mexico. In these 
sections several successive growths of cypress timber have been 
brought to light. In digging the foundation for the gas-works, the 
Irish spadesmen, finding they had cut through timber instead of 
soil, gave up the work, and were succeeded by a corps of Kentucky 
axemen, who hewed their way downwards through four successive 
growths of timber, the lowest so old that it cut like cheese. Abra- 
sions of the river banks show similar growths of sunken timber, 
while stately live oaks, flourishing on the banks directly above them, 
are living witnesses that the soil has not changed its level for ages. 
Messrs Dickeson and Brown have traced no less than ten distinct 
cypress forests at different levels below the present surface, in parts 
of Louisiana where the range between high and low water is much 
greater than it is at New Orleans. These groups of trees (the live 
oaks on the banks and the successive cypress beds beneath) are 
arranged vertically above each other, and are seen to great advan- 
tage in many places in the vicinity of New Orleans. Dr Bennet 
Dowler has made an ingenious calculation of the last emergence of 
the site of that city, in which these cypress forests play an import- 
ant part. He divides the history of this event into three eras — 1. 
The era of colossal grasses, trembling prairies, &c. as seen in the 
lagoons, lakes, and sea coast ; 2. The era of the cypress basins ; 3. 
The era of the present live oak platform. Existing types, from the 
Belize to the highlands, show that these belts were successively de- 
veloped from the water in the order we have named, the grass pre- 
ceding the cypress, and the cypress being succeeded by the live oak. 
Supposing an elevation of five inches in a century (which is about the 
rate recorded for the accumulation of detrital deposits in the valley 
of the Nile during seventeen centuries by the Nilometer mentioned 
by Strabo), we shall have 1500 years for the era of aquatic plants 
until the appearance of the first cypress forest, or, in other words, 
the elevation of the grass zone to the condition of a cypress basin. 

Cypress trees of ten feet in diameter are not uncommon in the 
swamps of Louisiana, and one of that size was found in the lowest 
bed of the excavation at the gas-works in New Orleans. Taking 
ten feet to represent the size of one generation of trees, we shall 
have a period of 5700 years as the age of the oldest trees now 
growing in the basin, Messrs Dickeson and Brown, in examining 

374 Scientific Intelligence — Botany. 

the cypress timber of Louisiana and Mississippi, found that they 
measured from 95 to 120 rings of annual growth to an inch, and, 
according to the lower ratio, a tree of ten feet in diameter will yield 
5700 rings of annual growth. Though many generations of such 
trees may have grown and perished in the present cypress region, 
Dr Dowler, to avoid all ground of cavil, has assumed only two 
successive growths, including the one now standing ; this gives us 
in the age of the two generations of cypress 11,400 years. 

The maximum age of the oldest tree growing on the live oak plat- 
form is estimated at 1500 years, and only one generation is counted. 
These data yield the following table : — 

Geological Chronology of the last Emergence of the present Site of 
New Orleans. 
Era of aquatic plants, . . 1,500 years. 

„ of cypress basin, . . 11,400 „ 

,, of live oak platform, . . 1,500 „ 

Total period of elevation, 14,400 „ 
Each of these sunken forests must have had a period of rest and 
gradual depression, estimated as equal to 1500 years, for the dura- 
tion of the live oak era, which of course occurred but once in the 
series. We shall certainly, then, be within bounds if we assume 
the period of such elevation to have been equivalent to the one 
above arrived at ; and, inasmuch as there were at least ten such 
changes, we reach the following result : — 

Last emergence as above, . . 14,400 years. 

Ten elevations and depressions, each equal 

to the last emergence, . . . 144,000 ,, 

Total age of the Delta, 158,400 „ 

In the excavation of the gas-works above referred to, burnt wood 
was found at a depth of sixteen feet, and at the same depth the 
workmen discovered the skeleton of a man. The cranium lay be- 
neath the roots of a cypress tree belonging to the fourth great level 
below the surface, and was in good preservation. The other bones 
crumbled to pieces on being handled. The type of the cranium 
was, as might have been expected, that of the aboriginal Ame- 
rican race. 

If we take, then, the present era at . 14,400 years, 
And add three subterranean groups, each 
equal to the living (leaving out the 
fourth, in which the skeleton was found), 43,200 ,, 

We have a total of 57,600 „ 
From these dates it appenrs that the human race existed in the 

Scientific Intelligence — Botany. 375 

delta of the Mississippi more than 57,000 years ago ; and the ten 
subterranean forests, with the one now growing, establish that an 
exuberant flora existed in Louisiana more than 100,000 years 
earlier, so that 150,000 years ago the Mississippi laved the magnifi- 
cent cypress forests with its turbid waters. — {Sir J. C. Nott and 
Geo. R. Gliddon, Esq., on the Types of Mankind.) 

15. The Effect of Coloured Light on Germination. — To deter- 
mine the commercial value of any seeds, one hundred of them are 
placed in a pot in a stove-house for the purpose of quickening the 
process of germination. If all the seeds germinate, the seed ob- 
tains the highest value in the market. If only eighty germinate, the 
seed loses 20 per cent, in value. This process ordinarily occupies 
from twelve to fifteen days ; but Mr Lawson found that by using 
blue glass they are enabled to determine the value of seed in two 
or three days ; and this is a matter of such commercial import- 
ance to them that it is quite equal to a gift of L.500 a-year. — (Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Polytechnic Society?) 

16. Origin of the Wheat Plant. — Some curious botanical facts 
have recently been laid before the French Academy, relative to the 
transformation of two grasses, iEgilops ovata and the iEgilops tria- 
ristata. M. Esprit Fabre of Adge, in France, has shown that the 
above grasses were capable of being the source of all or the greater 
part of our species of wheat. He first sowed the seed of the Ovata 
in the fall of 1838. In 1839, the plants grew to a height of two 
feet, and ripened in the middle of July. The ears here and there 
had one or two grains in them. The crop was five for one, and the 
straw was brittle and thin. In 1840, the seed of 1839 produced 
ears more numerous, and generally each contained a couple of grains 
of an appearance more like wheat. In 1841, the ears were more like 
wheat, and each had from two to three grains. The figure of the plant 
was almost like wheat. In 1842, the fourth year of his experiments, 
the progress was not so sensible as in the previous year. Many of 
the plants were attacked by rust. The stalks were like JEgilops. 
The ear gave two or three grains each. In 1843, the stalks grew two 
feet high. In each ear were two or three well-grown grains, and the 
straw was stronger. The figure of the plant was like wheat. In the 
year 1844, all the ears were filled. In 1845, the seventh year, the 
plant had reached the condition of true wheat. These experiments 
were made in an inclosure surrounded by high walls. There was 
no grass inside of it, and no grass raised near the spot. In 1846, 
he sowed this grain in a field broadcast, and continued it four years. 
In 1850, the straw was full, straight, over two feet high, and each 
ear contained two or three dozen grains of perfect wheat. Thus a 
savage plant, subject to cultivation, changed its entire figure and 
aspects, and gradually assumed a new character. 

376 Scientific Intelligence — Astronomy. 

17. A New Invention for increasing the Produce of Autumn Wheat. 
By M. D TJrcle. — The inventor grounds his discovery upon the fact 
positively ascertained '' by study and repeated experiments'" — that 
autumn wheat is not an annual, but biennial, like the beet-root and 
carrot class ; and he therefore proceeds to develop the alleged bien- 
nial properties by a novel plan of planting and treatment, for the 
increase of the produce. The ground is to be well manured, either 
before winter or at the beginning of spring, to receive the seed 
between the 20th of April and the 10th of May, this time being 
chosen to prevent the chance of blossoming during the year. But 
the time of sowing may be advanced from year to year ; for, if it 
were not for the present degeneracy of the plant, it might occur now 
in March. Each grain is sown separately, allowing it a large area 
of ground, if the soil is rich, but diminishing according to its steri- 
lity. It is deposited in rows, in holes, at regular distances, from 9 \ 
to 23^ inches asunder, in each direction, the holes in one row op- 
posite the spaces in the next. Each hole is to contain four or five 
grains 2J inches asunder. When the plants have attained a height 
of 4 inches, all but the finest one in each group are pulled up, 
and this single one is then left in till the harvest of the succeeding 
year. This curious process is stated to increase the produce very 

18. The Preservation of the Properties of Soil. 

63 Northumberland Street, September 4, 1854. 
Sir, — In the July number of the Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal, at page 170, it is observed that Schleiden considers plough- 
ing as " a necessary evil, and one only to be employed so far as ne- 
cessity requires." Permit me to observe, that in some of the 
western states of America (Indiana, for instance) I found this opi- 
nion prevalent, the farmers insisting that to expose the soil to the 
free action of weather is about as rational as to act in the same man- 
ner with a heap of manure, the valuable salts being in each case, to 
a greater or less extent, removed. — I remain, your obedient servant, 

A. Oswald Brodie. 


19. The Present State of Astronomy. — Since the meeting of the 
British Association last year, four planets and four comets have been 
discovered. Three of the new planets were found at Mr Bishop's 
observatory, two by Mr Hind, and one by Mr Maith. This last 
was also discovered the following night at the Oxford observatory, 
— another of the many instances presented by astronomy of inde- 
pendent discoveries made nearly simultaneously. The fourth planet 
was found at the observatory of Bilk, near Busseldorf, by Mr R. 
Luther, an astronomer distinguished by having already discovered 

Scientific Intelligence — Miscellaneous. 377 

two planets. Of the comets, one was discovered at Berlin, two at 
Gottingen, and the fourth was seen very generally with the naked 
eye to the end of last March. None of them have been identified 
with preceding comets. — (From the Right Hon. the Earl of Har- 
rowby's Address to the British Association at Liverpool.} 


20. New Method of procuring Coloured Silk from the Cocoons. 
— It has long been known to physiologists that certain colouring 
matters, if administered to animals along with their food, possessed 
the property of entering into the system and tinging the bones. In 
this way the bones of swine have been tinged purple by madder, and 
instances are on record of other animals being similarly affected. 
No attempt was made to turn this discovery to account until lately, 
when Mons. Roulin speculated on what might be the consequences of 
administering coloured food to silkworms just before spinning their 
cocoons. His first experiments were conducted with indigo, which 
he mixed in certain proportions with mulberry leaves serving the 
worms for food. The result of this treatment was successful — he 
obtained blue cocoons. Prosecuting still further his experiments, 
he sought a red colouring matter, capable of being eaten by the silk- 
worm without injury. He had some difficulty to find such a colour- 
ing matter at first, but eventually alighted on the Bignonia Chica. 
Small portions of this plant having been added to the mulberry 
leaves, the silkworms consumed the mixture, and produced red 
coloured silk. In this manner the experimentalist, who is still pro- 
secuting his researches, hopes to obtain silk, secreted by the worm, 
of many other colours. 

21. The value of Polarization to the Optician and Glass Manu~ 
facturer. — To the optician, it is of the highest, importance that the 
glass of which lenses and prisms are made should possess uniform 
density, and be free from all defects arising from irregularities in 
the annealing process. To detect these, the glass should be care- 
fully examined by polarized light previous to being ground and po- 
lished, and, by this agent, the slightest defects are made appreci- 
able. So also glass vessels, employed for domestic purposes, may 
be advantageously tested by the same agent. — (Pereird's Lectures 
on Polarized Light?) 

22. Practical value of the Optical characters of Sugar. — The 
optical characters of sugar have been made use of to detect fraud in 
pharmacy. In 1842, more than a ton of a substance, purporting to 
be manna, was offered for sale in Paris at less than 5d. per pound ; 
the excuse given for the unusually low price was, that cash was im- 
mediately required. Suspicion was raised, and the substance was 
submitted to careful examination, the result of which was the esta- 

378 Scientific Intelligence — Miscellaneous. 

blishment of the fact, that it was not manna, but potato sugar. Its 
aspect, taste, fermentability (mannite not being fermentable), and 
the presence of the sulphate of lime, proved this. Biot submitted 
it to a very careful optical examination, and found its characters to 
be those of a starch sugar. Manna contains two kinds of saccharine 
matter, one called mannite, and the other a fermentable sugar. 
Now, mannite, when pure, has no rotative power on polarized light, 
but commercial manna has a slight effect, owing to the presence of 
a small quantity of fermentable sugar. This fictitious substance, 
however, had the same effect on plane polarized light, as sugar pre- 
pared by the action of acids on starch, when the action is arrested 
at the first phase of its transformation. — (Pereirtis Lectures on 
Polarized Light.) 

23. Polarized Light used in detecting Vinous Fermentation. — - 
Take a solution of cane sugar, which has right-handed circular po- 
larization. As soon as it begins to ferment, it loses this property, 
but acquires left-handed polarization. — (PereircCs Lectures on Po- 
larized Light.) 

24. The use of Polarized Light as a Test for Sugar. — Some, 
kinds of sugar , when dissolved in water, yield solutions, which have, 
in a greater or less degree, the property of rotating the planes of 
polarization, some to the right, others to the left. Hence, polarized 
light may be sometimes used as a test of the presence of sugar, and 
the degree of rotation becomes an indication of the quantity and even 
quality of the sugar present. Biot examined by this test a specimen 
of sugar-cane juice, and found that it indicated the presence of 20 
or 21 per cent, of sugar. Peligot subsequently analyzed it, and 
found 20*9 per cent, of sugar. Biot, therefore, suggests that those 
who make, as well as those who refine sugar, might resort to this 
test as a means of determining the amount of sugar in different 
juices or solutions. To the colonist, it would prove useful, by 
pointing out the saccharine strength of the juice at the mill, and to 
the sugar refiner it would be valuable, by enabling him to deter- 
mine the absolute strength of raw sugar. — (Pereirots Lectures on 
Polarized Light.) 

25. The Value of the Microscope for detecting the best kinds of 
Wool for Felting. — Microscopic discoveries have been made within the 
last (ew years, which have led to a revelation of much of the mystery 
of felting. Examined through a powerful microscope, the short 
fibres exhibit the appearance of a continuous vegetable growth, 
from which there are sprouting and all tending in one direction from 
tho root to the other extremities, numerous leaves like calices or cups, 
each terminating in a short point. It is easy to perceive how easily 
one of these fibres will move in the direction from root to point, 

Publications Received. 379 

while its retraction must be difficult, being obstructed by the ten- 
dency of the little branches. In a fibre of merino wool, the num- 
ber of these reversions or projections amounted to 2400 in the space 
of one inch. In a fibre of Saxon wool of acknowledged superior felt- 
ing quality there were 2720 senations. Southdown wool, being 
inferior to those two for felting power, only contained 2080 sena- 
tions in one inch of fibre, while Leicester wool contained no more 
than 1860 in one inch ; and Leicester wool is known to be little 
adapted for felting purposes. 

26. Present state of Agriculture. — A perfected agriculture can 
result only from nice adjustments — a determination of the nature of 
the matter to be dealt with, and its inherent forces, combined with 
a special knowledge of the individual organization and its functional 
wants. Defective products are mainly due to functional wants ; there 
are no truly diseased products or disorganized organs. Graduate 
the supplies to the nutrient powers, satisfy the capacities of the plant 
at the proper time, and, all other things being adjusted, the hus- 
bandry is perfect ; or give the plant its climate, temper the heat and 
moisture to its constitution, make its physical condition happy, and 
put within its reach the assimilating elements, and enough is done to 
ensure productive returns. But to do this requires probably more 
knowledge of soils, and of the cultivated vegetables, than we now 
possess. The object is to supply without waste, to cheapen the pro- 
duct by the expenditure of the least labour, and restricting the food 
to the kind and quantity, so that it shall not be lost by escaping into 
the air, or being washed to remote parts by rains. It is evident that 
adjustments require a complete insight into the physiology of vege- 
tation— --its incipient stage, its maturing strength, the peculiar or 
special products to be formed, the elements composing them, and the 
best form in which these elements can be combined to meet all the 
wants of the being. As I have already said, functional endowments 
must be considered ; hence, to pursue that course with a plant which 
will give it an early vigorous constitution, a full development of its 
organs in its first stages, and the foundation is laid for the full 
amount of the products sought. — [Emmons' Natural History of New 


1. Siluria. The History of the Oldest Known Rocks containing Organic 

Remains, with a brief Sketch of the Distribution of Gold over the Earth. By 

Sir Roderick Impey Murchison. London : John Murray, Albemarle Street. 

This will remain the standard work on geology for many years to come; and 

as it contains much novel information not to be found in any other work, 

it ought to be in the hands of every geologist. 

380 Publications Received. 

2. Lectures on Polarized Light, together with a Lecture on the Microscope. 
By the late Jonathan Pereira, Esq., M.D. ; second edition, greatly enlarged, 
from materials left by the Author. Edited by the Rev. Baden Powell, M.A., 
V.P.R.S. London : Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1854. 

We find in these Lectures many valuable practical facts that illustrate well 
the great value of science of a high order. The author shows us that the 
study of polarized light not only furnishes us with an intimate knowledge 
of the nature and properties of substances ; but also its applicability to the 
detection of adulteration of goods, drugs, and chemicals; for example, the 
determination of the commercial value of saccharine juices — the nature 
of changes which occur in certain chemical and vital processes, in which 
ordinary chemical analysis fails — the detecting of the existence of certain 
diseases — and its use to the mariner in aiding him to avoid shoals and 
rocks. These Lectures are extremely valuable to the student of natural 

3. The Westminster Review for July 1854. 

4. Transactions of the Bombay Geographical Society, 1854. 

5. On the first Hurricane of September 1853, in the Atlantic; with a Chart, 
and Notices of other Storms. By W. C. Redfield. 

6. American Journal of Science and Arts, up to May 1854. 

7. Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Herausgegeben zu Berlin. Von J. C. 
Poggendorff. Nos. vi., vii. Leipzig, 1854. 

8. L'Institut, Journal Universell des Sciences et des Soci6t6s Savans ent 
France et a l'Etranger, up to August 1854. 

9. Bibliotheque Universelle de Geneve. Archives des Sciences Physiques 
et Naturelles. Geneve, August 1854. 

10. Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society. Nos. xxv., xxvi. 

11. The Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, up to April 
1854 ; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1854. 

12. Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions. London : August 1854. 

13. The Dublin Monthly Journal of Industrial Progress, up to September 

14. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Nos. i., ii. New Series. 1854. 

15. Annual Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society. 1853. 

16. The Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, for July 1854. 

17. New York North-Western Medical and Surgical Journal. May 1854. 

18. Jahrbuch der Kaiserlich-Koniglichen Geologischen Reichsanstalt. IV., 
Jahrgang. No. 1, January, February, March ; and No. 4, October, November 
and December. 1853. Wien. 


Adie, Richard, Esq., on the influence of hilly ground in checking 
currents of wind, 94. 

Richard, Esq., on the generation of electrical currents, 84. 

Africa, expedition to the centre of, by Messrs Richardson, Barth, 
Overweg, and Vogel, 183. 

Age of our planet, 182. 

Agassiz, M. L., on the natural provinces of the animal world, and 
their relation to the different types of man, 347. 

M. L., on the primitive diversity of animals, and num- 
ber in geological times, 271. 

M. L., on the Californian fishes, 214. 

Agriculture, new theories in, noticed, 167. 

Animals, primitive diversity of, and number in geological times, 271. 

Artesian well at Charleston noticed, 178. 

Beaumont, M. Elie de, letter from, in regard to Professor Jame- 
son, 45. 

Bitumen, origin of, in the stratified rocks, 368. 

Blainville, Marie-Henri Ducrotay, biographical notice of, 193. 

Blasting operations, new method, noticed, 180. 

Botany, 182. 

Bonn University, letter from, in regard to Professor Jameson, 48. 

Botany of the eastern borders, with the popular names and uses of 
plants, &c, 325. 

Brodie, A. Oswald, on the preservation of the properties of soils, 

Cathcart, Earl, letter from, in regard to the late Professor Jame- 
son, 44. 
Coal, description of, by Professor Harkness, 66. 
Cocoons, new method of procuring the coloured silk from, 377- 
Collections in University museum noticed, 40. 
Corbet, Richard, on the explosion of a meteor, 152. 
Crystallization, researches on, 365. 
Cypress Forests, age of, 373. 

Dana, James D., on a change of ocean temperature that would 

382 Index. 

attend a change in the level of the African and South Ameri- 
can continents, 92. 

Daubree, M., on the artificial production of minerals, 307. 

D'Urcle, on a new invention for increasing the produce of autumn 
wheat, 376. 

De Serres M. Marcel, the old world compared with the new world, 
by, 250. 

Earthquake indicator, 367. 

Electrical currents, generation of, noticed, 84. 

Essays, prize, proposed by the Society of Sciences at Haarlem, list 

of, 305. 
Ellet, Prof. W., notice of a natural deposit of saltpetre, by, 367. 

Fishes, Californian, described, 214. 

Flax, progress of its cultivation in Ireland, 182. 

Flourens, M., biographical notice of Marie-Henri Ducrotay Blain- 

ville, by, 193. 
Food, the relative values of different kinds, 189. 
Forbes, Professor Edward, on the manifestation of polarity in the 

distribution of organized beings in time, 332. 
Professor Edward, anniversary address delivered by, at the 

Geological Society of London, 1854, 99. 
Forests, cypress, age of, 373. 

Geology, present state of, as shown in Sir R. Murchison's work, 

Siluria, 313. 
Geography, 183. 
Gill, Mr, on the palolo, 144. 

Mr, on the tides in South Pacific, 148. 

Gulf Stream, discovery of a bank in connection with, 177. 

Harkness, Professor, description of coal, by, 66. 
Halibut fishing station noticed, 176. 
Health, influence of occupation upon, 165. 
Hydrology, 177-178. 

Icebergs of Polar Seas noticed, 176. 

Johnston, Dr George, on the botany of the eastern borders, 325. 

Iron, its condition noticed, 179. 

Ice, middle, position of whale-fishing ground, 177. 

Index. 383 

Jameson, the late Robert, biographical memoir of, by Laurence 

Jameson, 1. 
William, on the cultivation of tea in the district of 

Kangra, by, 76. 

Kane, Sir Robert, on the uses of industrial exhibitions, 154. 
Kaolin, description of, 50. 

Lavalle, M., recent researches on crystallization, by, 365. 
Lawson, M., on the effects of coloured light on germination, by, 375. 
Lichen's, experiments on the dyeing properties of, by W. Lauder 

Lindsay, M.D., 228. 
Light, the effect on germination, 375. 
Lindsay, Dr Lauder, on the dyeing properties of Lichens, 228. 

Marchal of Calvi, on the relative value of different kinds of meat, as 

food, 189. 
Malachite, artificial, noticed, 179. 
Meteorology, 176, 177. 
Meteor, explosion of, 152. 
Mineralogy, 179. 

Microscope, the use of, to Mineralogists, 367. 
Minerals, artificial production of, 307. 

paragenetic relations of, noticed, 58. 

-artificial formation of, by igneous action, 367. 

on the formation of, in the humid way, 344. 

Mississippi, table of the statistics of, 181. 

Morton, Dr Samuel George, obituary of, 337- 

Museum, University, National, numerical statement of collections in, 

University, National Natural History, an account of, 32. 

Obituary of Dr Morton, 337. 

Ox, short horned, two crania of, noticed, 162. 

Palolo, a variety of Sea Worm, noticed, 144. 

Plants and Animals, structure of, 185. 

Planet, (Earth) its age, 182. 

Polarity, manifestation of, in the distribution of organized beings, 332. 

Publications, new, received, 379. 

Perkin's heating apparatus, noticed, 38. 

384 Index. 

Races, human, the probable consequences from the intermingling 
of, 269. 

human, the changes that they appear destined to pass 

through, 267. 

Professor Agassiz, on the specific differences of, 372. 

Rocks, classification of the fossil iferous, 171. 

Rocks, tabular view of, the older Rhenish Provinces and of Belgium, 

Saltpetre, natural deposit of, 367. 
Seas, primeval, on the depth of, afforded by the remains of colour in 

Fossil testacea, 179. 
Smith, John Alexander, M.D., on the crania of ancient short-horned 

Ox, 162. 
Soil, on the preservation of the properties of, 376. 
Soda, nitrate, its use as a manure, 182. 
Sanarmont, M. de, experiments on the formation of minerals in the 

humid way, in metalliferous repositories, 344. 
Stone building, strength and density of, 371. 
Stoker, M. M., on the China stone and China clay of Cornwall, 50. 

Talbot's American tunnelling machine, noticed, 180. 

Taylor, M. A., on the quantity of solid matter carried annually to 

the sea, 368. 
Tea, cultivation of, in the district of Kangra, noticed, 76. 
Tides in South Pacific, noticed, 148. 
Tools, notice of the ancient Indian mining, 324. 

Vienna, Imperial Academy of Sciences of, letter from, in regard to 
Professor Jameson, 46. 

Wernerite, its chemical composition, and the products of its trans- 
mutation, 124. 

Weather, indications of, as shown by animals, 341. 

Wind, influence of, on undulating or hilly ground in checking cur- 
rents, 94. 

Wheat plant, origin of, 375. 

Wheat, autumn, a new invention in increasing the produce of. By 
M. d'Urclo, 376. 

Wove-felting, method in detecting the best kinds, 378. 

World, old and new, compared, 250. 



Experiments on the Dyeing Properties of Lichens. By W. Lauder Lindsay, 
M.D., late Assistant Physician, Crichton Royal Institution, Dumfries. 
(Communicated by the Author.) 

(Continued from page 249.) 

Table VIII. 

mmonia produces, in the alcoholic infusion of the following species, deep and rich 


Name of Lichen. 

Colour pro- 

Name of Lichen. 

Colour pro- 

seomyces rufus, 


Isidium corallinum, 

Orange- red 

orrera Ashneh, 

Purple „ 

Lecanora atra, 


chry sophthal m os , 

Crimson „ 









^ lutescens, 


3traria glauca v. fallax, 

' oreina, 




radiosa v. inflata, 






adonia amaurocrea, 




degenerans v. glabra, 



Crimson- red 

furcata v. fruticosa, 







• . . 


Green -yellow 



rangiferina v. sylvestris, 





. . . 

Lecidea armeniaca, 


incana v. polydactyla, 



vermicularis v. subulata 




llema marginale, 





flavo-virens v. vulgaris, 





. . . 





rnicularia ochroleuca, 



'ernia prunastri, 



rrophora cylindrica, 
















VOL. LVII. NO. CXIV. — OCT. 1854. 



W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Name of Lichen. 

Lecidca uliginosa, 

Lepra ria aeruginosa v. late- " 

Nephroma parilis, 

Parmelia aleurites, 

Borreri , 







fahlunensis v. vulgaris, 










stygia v. latior, 

stygiav. pulvinulenta, 

Peltidea aphthosa, 

Pertusaria communis, 

Psora caeruleo-nigricans, 
llamalina farinacea, 


Colour \> re- 

Name of Lichen. 

Colour pro- 


Ramalina polymorpha, 






Boccella tinctoria, 








Scyphophorus bellidiflorus 





deform is, 
















Solorina crocea, 



Sphserophoron coralloides, 



Squamaria cassia, 








Stereocaulon alpinum, 








Blood- red 


Green-yello 1 




Sticta f uliginosa, 








Umbilicaria pustulata, 



Urceolaria calcarea, 



cinerea v. alba, 




Usnea barbata v. articulata, 







Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Table IX. 

Showing the percentage of species* the alcoholic solution of which 
gives distinct colour-reactions with a solution of chloride of lime. 

Name of Lichen. 




































Shades of Brownish- 

Blood-red. Crimson. red. 
















* Or more properly specimens, including as it does both varieties and dupli- 
cate individual species. 
Vide Tables iii. and iv. 



W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Table X. 

Showing the percentage of species the alcoholic solution of which 
gives, with dilute aqua ammonia*, distinct colour-reactions. 



Name of Genus. 











. . . 

. . . 

. . . 

• • • 




















. . . 


















. . . 


. . • 


. . . 













. . . 



. . . 





. . . 



. . . 


















• • t 








. . . 

. . . 























































, . . 

. . . 
















. . • 






. . . 

• . . 

. . . 




. . . 


• • • 







• • • 















































Vide Tables viii., xiv., xv., xi\ } . v., vi., and vii. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Table XL 

Showing the percentage of species which give distinct colours on 
simple maceration in dilute aqua ammonise. 
































Urceolaria, . 


Variolaria, . 

Verrucaria, . 


Purple. Red. Brown. y ellow< 




810 ... 
... 16-4 
21 4-3 

2-9 3.8 





1 9-2 

This Table does not indicate truly the percentage of species yielding fine 
tints by ammoniacal maceration, in consequence of very few specimens having 
been operated on. It only shows roughly the genera furnishing useful species. 

Vide Tables xvii. and xiv. 


W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Table XII. 

List of species whose alcoholic infusion strikes no red colour with 
solution of chloride of lime y but which yield, nevertheless, fine 
red or purple tints on ammoniacal maceration. 

Bseomyces rupestris 
Borrera Ashneh 

Cladonia bellidiflora 

cocci ferus 











Cetraria Islandica 
Isidium corallinum 

Lecanora ventosa 
Lee idea sanguinaria 

Parmelia caperata 



Parmelia Borreri 











pallida v. albella 


Peltidea sylvatica 

Ramalina fraxinea 

Stereocaulon botryosum 
Sticta pulmonaria 
Solorina crocea 
Sphserophoron coralloides 

Pertusaria communis 
Usnea ceratina 
Urceolaria cinerea 
Nephroma parilis 
Variolaria communis 

elegans v. miniata 

This shows the inapplicability of the chloride of lime (Stenhouse's) 
test in all cases, for many of the above are excellent dye-lichens. 
It therefore cannot safely or uniformly be relied on as a calorimeter ; 
this may arise from the absence of certain conditions necessary for 
the development of its reaction with orsellic acid, &c. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Table XIII. 

Showing a number of species whose alcoholic infusion does not yield 
with ammonia the kind or intensity of tint, which we should 
a priori expect from the blood-red tint struck by solution of 
chloride of lime. 

Name of Lichen 

Borrera furfuracea 
Gyrophora heteroidea 
Lecanora parella 
Lepraria incana 
Parmelia dubia 

rimosa v. sordida 
Ramalina fraxinea var. 

Roccella tinctoria & var., 3 1 
specimens J 

fuciformis, 5 specimens 

Umbilicaria senea 
Urceolaria scruposa 

Action of Chloride 

of Lime on alcoholic 



Cherry- red 




Blood- red 

Action of Ammonia 
on alcoholic infu- 

Reddish- brown 




B rownish-yello w 

This table also shows the fallacy of Stenhouse's test, in certain 
cases, for here it leads us to form anticipations which are not realized. 
It is not, however, necessary — it may be a mere coincidence — that 
the development of a red colour by this test, and by Helot's (ammo- 
nia) test usually coexist, so that from the presence of the one reac- 
tion we are justified in expecting that of the other. Of the precise 
chemical nature of these reactions we know little or nothing. 


W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Table XIV. 

Showing a few instances of the different action of ammonia on the 
alcoholic and aqueous infusion, and of the value of prolonged 
exposure, fyc, in the evolution of colouring matter. 

Name of Lichen. 

Borrera ciliaris 

Cladonia coccifera 
Evernia prunastri 
Gyrophora murina 
Isidium corallinum 
Lecanora Parella 
Parmelia parietina 
Peltidea canina 
Ramalina fraxinea 
Stereocaulon paschale 
Umbilicaria pustulata 

Effects of Ammonia 

Alcoholic Infusion. 














Effects of simple 
Ammoniacal Ma- 













In the majority of the above, prolonged exposure of the alcoholic 
decoction, after the addition of ammonia, to the air, along with the 
maintenance of a suitable temperature, &c, would yield colours 
similar in tint, if not in degree, to those produced by simple lengthened 
maceration in dilute aqua ammoniee. 

Table XV. 

The alcoholic infusion of the following species gives a beautiful bright 
greenish-yellow tint on the addition of ammonia. 

Borrera flavicans 

Cetraria glauca v. fallax 

Cladonia amaurocrsea 

furcata v. fruticosa 

v. rangiformis 
v. subulata 

Collema nigrescens 

Cornicularia ochroleuca 

Lecanora atra 




Lecidea dubia 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 


Lecidea elata 

Lepraria aeruginosa v. latebrarum 

Parmelia conoplea 
Pertusaria communis 

Psora cseruleo-nigricans 
Ramalina fraxinea 

Scyphophorus endivsefolius 
Squamaria Clementi 

Stereocaulon alpinum 

v. majus 
Usnea florida 


In many, if not most of the above, the colour is due to the chloro- 
phyll contained in the thalline gonidia. 

Table XVI. 

The following were subjected in quantity to ammoniacal maceration, 
and yielded very poor tints. 

Colour produced. 




Name of Lichen. 
Alectoria jubata 
Borrera ciliaris 
Cetraria nivalis 
Cladonia rangiferina 
G-yrophora cylindrica 

Lecidea icmadophila 
Parmelia parietina 
Peltidea canina 
Scyphophorus cocciferus 
Sphserophoron compressum 
v. fragile 
Stereocaulon paschale 

Usnea plicata 

In the above, nearly the same colour was developed by simple 
maceration in water or by boiling, and depends on the cell-contents 
of the cortical layer of the thallus of the plants. The colouring 
matters, which exist ready formed in the thallus, bear no resem- 
blance to the colorific colourless principles which are capable, under 
certain chemical reactions, of yielding coloured substances. 



W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Table XVII. 

The following were subjected in quantity to simple ammoniacal maceration, and yielded 

rich tints. 

Name of Lichen. 

Colour pro- 

Name of Lichen. 

Colour pro- 

Borrcra flavicans, 


Parmelia perlata, 


ICetraria glauca, 

Red- brown 




Ramalina farinacea, 

Purple -red 

Evernia prunastri, 
Gryrophora murina, 

[sidium corallinum, 
Lecanora parella, 





Roccella fuciformis, 


Sticta flava, 






Brown -yell 

Parmelia omphalodes, 


Umbilicaria pustulata, 


Table XVIII. 

In the following species, which are, or have been, used in commerce 
as dye-lichens, the colorific material is detectable by reagents. 

Evernia prunastri. 
Gyrophora deusta. 

Isidium corallinum. 
Lecanora atra. 



Parmelia caperata. 





Ramalina farinacea. 

Roccella fuciformis. 


Solorina crocea. 
Umbilicaria pustulata. 
Urceolaria calcarea. 


Usnea barbata. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 395 

Table XI 


Showing the colour of the alcoholic infusion of various species.* 

Name of Genus. 






P. c. 

P. c. 

P. c. 

P. c. 

P. c. 




4 50- 






2 61-1 




11 70-5 

. . . 







8 42-6 






5 13-6 






9 30-2 




... ... 







4 20- 




3 50- 




6 26-2 






1 10-6 




16 33-2 






21 26-7 







Leprari a 



1 25- 





2 48-1 




49 39-6 








. . • 

9 70-4 










4 50- 




3 60- 




1 13-6 




12 52-3 




8 60- 




19 58-3 



. . . 










Sphserophoron, 1 












12 68-1 








4 50-2 




7 78- 





• • . ... 






5 30-4 






13 89-1 




... ... 

. . . 





1 100- 

* In most cases depending on the Chlorophylle-contents of theGonidia, or on the 
ready formed colouring matters contained in the cortical layer of the thallus of the 

396 W. Lauder Lindsay"^ Experiments on the 


Showing the effect of age, exposure to light and moisture, nature 
in modifying or altering the tint or degree of colour educible. 

Name of Lichen. 

Evernia prunastri, 

Gyrophora deusta, 

Lecanora atra, 

Date when 


parella v. albo flav, 

v. pallida 

Lecidea speirea, 





Nephroma resupinata, 

v. helvetica, 
Parmelia aleurites, 






Nature of 



Alpine rocks 


Alpine rocks 




Granitic rocks 
Calcareous „ 


Alpine rocks 
Calcareous „ 



Country where 

















fahl.,v. vulg. maj. 1840 Micaceous rocks Switzerland 

olivacea cort. glabra, 


v. panniformis, 


v. tenella, 









Canary islands 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 



of habitat, climate, heat and cold, elevation above the sea, fyc, 
from lichens. 

Alcoholic solution gives brownish-red with ammonia, 
greenish-yellow. „ 

blood-red with chloride of lime, 
greenish yellow. „ 

blood-red. ,, 

no reaction. ,, 

blood-red with ammonia, 
greenish-yellow. „ 
blood-red with chloride of lime, 
greenish-yellow. ,, 

crimson red with ammonia, 
orange-yellow. „ 

blood red with chloride of lime, 
no reaction. „ 

cherry red. „ 

no reaction. „ 

orange red with ammonia, 
greenish-yellow. „ 
blood-red with chloride of lime, 
no reaction. „ 

purple-red with ammonia, 
greenish-yellow. „ 
blood-red. „ 

greenish-yellow. „ 
brownish-red. „ 

greenish-yellow. „ 
blood-red. „ 

greenish-yellow. „ 
blood-red with chloride of lime, 
no reaction. „ 

blood-red. „ 

no reaction. „ 

brownish-yellow with ammonia, 
blood-red. „ 

no reaction with chloride of lime, 
blood-red. „ 

greenish-yellow. }J 

brownish-red. ,, . 

no reaction. 


W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Name of Lichen. 
Ramalina farinacea 


Date when Nature of 

collected. hahitat. 

1843 Trees 

Sphgerophoron coralloides, 1852 Rocks 

1812 Trees 

1830 Rocks 

Umbilicaria pustulata 1828 ,, 


Urceolaria calcarea, 1810 - 


cinerea v. vulg. 1826 

v. alba „ - 

scruposa v. ocellata 1843 


Usnea barbata, 1815 — 

v. alpest. dasop. 1840 Trees 
v. camp, cerat. 1840 

Table XX.— 

Country where 


— Scotland 












Table XXL 

The following species are said to be, or to have been, used in dyeing ; 
but they have not, in my hands, yielded reactions indicative of 
useful dye agents. 

Alectoria jubata. 


Lecidea geographica 

Lepraria chlorina, • 
Usnea florida, 

No change of colour was produced by chloride 
of lime ; the colour of the alcoholic solution and 
the effect of ammoniacal maceration, even for 
the lengthened period of a year, was a light 

The colour of the alcoholic solution, and the 
reaction of chloride of lime and ammonia, was 
a greenish-yellow. 

Yielded the same results. 

Also yielded similar results ; with the excep- 
tion that chloride of lime bleached the alcoholic 
solution of the former, and made no change in 
j that of the two latter species. 

Dyeing Properties of Lichens. 399 



Alcoholic solution gives tile-red with ammonia, 
greenish-yellow. „ 
tile-red. „ 

straw colour. ,, 

crimson-red. „ 

greenish-yellow. „ 
brownish-red. „ 

... orange. „ 

brownish-red. „ 

blood-red with chloride of lime, 
no reaction. „ 

straw colour with ammonia, 
blood-red. „ 

no reaction with chloride of lime, 
blood-red. „ 

blood-red with ammonia, 
greenish-yellow. „ 
brownish-yellow. „ 

Table XXII. 

In the following species, which are used, or said to be used, in some 
countries for dyeing green, the colouring matter exists ready 
formed in, and gives the predominant tint to, the thallus of the 

Borrera flavicans. Lecidea geographica. 

Cetraria juniperina. Lepraria chlorina. 

Parmelia parietina. Usnea florida. 
Squamaria candelaria. plicata. 

400 W. Lauder Lindsay's Experiments on the 

Table XXIII. 

In the following species, which are said to be used in various 
countries for dyeing brown, the colouring matter also exists 
ready formed in, and gives the predominant tint to, the thallvs 
of the plant, 

Cetraria islandica. Parmelia physodes. 

Gyrophora cylindrica. Sticta pulmonaria. 

Parmelia omphalodes. scrobiculata. 

Table XXIV. 

The following lichen- genera, on account of the exceedingly minute 
size and delicate consistence of their thalli, from the position, 
nature, and colour of their apotnecia, fyc, have been entirely 
excluded from my experiments, and are not at all likely ever to 
furnish species useful as dye agents. 












For similar reasons, only a few species of the following genera 
were subjected to experiment ; the results yielded are equally 










Most of the angiocarpous lichens have thus been excluded from 
the experiment, and promise to be utterly valueless as dye agents ; 
and inter alia, 

Chiodecton. Pertusaria. Sphserophoron. 

Cliostomura. Pyrenothea. Strigula. 

Endocarpon. Sagedia. Thelotrema. 

Gyalecta. Segestrella. Verrucaria. 

( 401 ) 

List of Tables. 

I. Number of specimens experimented on. 
II. Effects of reagents in evolving colour. 

IX. \ Reactions of chloride of lime on alcoholic solution. 
IV. \ 
XV. / 

•vy/ I Effects of simple ammoniacal maceration. 


XIX. Colour of alcoholic infusion. 

XX. Effects of heat, moisture, exposure, &c, in modifying 
XVIII. XXI. Detectability of colorific properties by reagents. 
XXII. XXIII. Green and brown dye-lichens. 
XXIV. Genera not operated on. 

Reactions of ammonia on alcoholic solution. 

The Botany of the Eastern Borders, with the Popular Names 
and Uses of the Plants, and of the Customs and Beliefs 
which have been associated with them. By George 
Johnston, M.D., Edinburgh. London : John Van Voorst, 
Paternoster Row. 1853. 

(Continued from page 332.) 

Whilst our language remains, the memory of these days 
shall never pass away, for we believe that every reflecting 
mind will confess there is a charm in the names of Herbs 
Gerard, Bennet, Christopher, Paris, and Robert ; Timothy 
Grass, Wild Basil, and Good King Henry ; Sweet William, 
Cicely, and Marjoram, they are memorial-flowers scattered 
along our daily paths, greeting us with every returning 
spring, commemorating the friendships and work of our 
elder Herbalists, as well as the grateful feelings of a simple 
peasantry who had benefited by their kindness and skill. 

" They do not wisely, that with hurried hand 
"Would pluck those salutary fancies forth, 
From the strong soil within the peasants' breast 
VOL. LVIT. NO. CX1V. — OCT. 1854. 2 C 

402 Dr George Johnston on the 

And scatter them far, far too fast away 
As worthless weeds, oh ! little do we know, 
When they have soothed, when saved!" 

Viewed from the high vantage ground of modern intelli- 
gence, there is much in the simpler s lore that is interesting 
to the student both in natural and in civil history. The re- 
lief of suffering humanity is the grand idea which looms 
through the mists of ignorance and credulity ; the mind re- 
verts to the remote age when the Druids walked in the old 
oak grove ; the Saxon colonization, and the Danish inroads ; 
and how the politic churchman of a later age collected and 
improved upon whatever was useful. 

It is not becoming in all cases to scoff at the marvellous 
virtues attributed to some plants, and the extraordinary 
cures said to have been effected by others, as these ascrip- 
tions are all beggared by the advertisements of Elixirs, 
Pills, Plasters, and Ointments of modern quacks, which 
crowd our newspapers, and disfigure our places of public 
resort ; for the high consideration in which the healing art 
was held, tended greatly to secure to the physician, not only 
implicit obedience to his prescriptions, but also that peculiar 
mental or nervous desire of the patient to profit by the same, 
which is of the greatest importance in the physician's attempt 
to assist nature. Imagination, acting through the nervous 
system, is the great mediating agent between body and 
mind, hence this implicit obedience to prescriptions, this 
faith, or desire, to derive benefit from the prescription is the 
source and support of all those brazen-faced systems of 
quackery which disgrace our own age. 

The medical properties of several of our native plants 
have even of late years been the subject of experiment in the 
Edinburgh Infirmary and elsewhere, without obtaining any 
very striking results ; our author recommends poultices of 
Groundsel and Eupatorium as being worthy of farther experi- 
ment : — Although " Culpepper's complete herbal, with nearly 
four hundred medicines made from English herbs," still finds 
a pretty good sale amongst the border peasantry, still the 
old faith in the coltsfoot, the goosefoot, the elder, and other 
plants, is fast passing away, and it is seldom that the cot- 

Botany of the Borders. 403 

tager's black tea-pot is devoted to the preparation of fragrant 
stomachic drinks from the chamomile and hyssop, which once 
flourished in every garden : Even the village cow-doctor's 
skill in bleeding and the use of decoctions of our native 
herbs are at a discount, for within the last thirty years edu- 
cated veterinarians have settled in most of the border dis- 

After the Reformation, the education of the people was a 
burden imposed upon the land in Scotland ; in England, it 
was left to charity, and to private enterprise, both of which 
have proved miserably deficient. It does not appear in these 
pages on which side of the border popular beliefs of all sorts 
lingered longest and in the greatest strength ; be that as it 
may, we have a pleasing insight into the life of the young 
borderer in the doings of a young family as they wander 
forth in May to gather wild flowers to ornament the haw- 
thorn spray, and make necklaces of the pretty daisy, and 
chains of the dandelion stalks ; and again, in summer, we 
have the rompings of the elder boys on their broomsticks, 
the platting of rush-caps, and helmets, the stout assault wdth 
the sword-like leaves of the yellow Iris ; the single combat 
with the heads of the Ribwort plantain ; the hunting after the 
even-leaved clover with its fairy-land associations, the find- 
ing of which was certain to insure good luck ; whereat our 
author remarks, " Beliefs of this kind will continue to in- 
fluence posterity, for they are permanently rooted in that 
stage of life which corresponds, in its credulity and faith, 
with that age of society in which beliefs originated ; then 
we have the foray to gather hazles, the anxiety to get a tf nine- 
some bobbin ;'' the sour sloe-plum sweetened by the win- 
ter's frost; the earth-nut, which if its white stem be broken, 
will sink deeper into the earth. The young suckers, or 
offshoots of the wild rose, termed Chapman's cheese, are all 
set down in the list of the school-boy's delicacies; and, strange 
to tell, in eating haws, the number of lies that a boy has told 
that day is reckoned by the number of black specks on the 
teeth, and the absence of specks vindicates his innocence ! ! 
The practice of blowing upon the ripened heads of the dan- 
delion is very common, but the number of revolutions made 


404 Dr George Johnston on the 

;- v 

by the twisted heads of the field scabious, is surely a novel, 
as well as a local horologue of the school-boy. Mention is 
likewise made of his noisy habits, in making whistles of the 
willow and plane tree, pipes of the green blades of corn, pop- 
uns of the elder, and squirts of the hogweed ; of his crack- 
ing the broad leaves of the lime and the plane, the bells of 
the fox-glove, and the fresh flowering heads of the white 
cockle. Then there is notice of his mischievous pranks with 
the heads of the burr-dock, bleeding the green-horn's tongue 
with the goose-grass, and filling his mouth with the florets of 
the woolly-ear grass, rudely stripped off between his teeth 
and lips. 

It would appear from many passages, that our author 
possesses a practical experience of all the amusements of the 
border youth, a vivid recollection of expeditions to gather dan- 
delions and sowthistles for the pet rabbits, and how he pelted 
his companions with burrs. We shall allow him to tell his 
own tale in connection with the lycoperdons, or puff-balls : — 

" Aye, those were happy days ; but the game was not one that 
could be played except in out-of-the-way places amidst our hills, 
where I spent my early years. And often have I attempted to blind 
my fellows thus ; and ever in vain ; — yet it is pleasant now, when 
years have whitened the hair, and ripened the body to what must 
soon be harvest, to recal those simple acts of the bygone time. It 
is a ' Pleasure of Memory.' I am almost afraid to think that no 
such frolics may be enacted now, — perhaps no such names are now 
familiar. Boys have grown big and wise with the age, and are men 
from the beginning. This may be development : I am suspicious 
whether in the right direction. But right or wrong, I, at all events, 
wish them to have such blythesome games as ours were when we 
went gathering Fussba's, that we might puff the light dust into the 
faces of those we then liked best, and may never forget !" 

These incidents vividly recal to memory our own school- 
boy days. The seeds of the elm, beech-nuts, and the young 
leaves of the same tree, the underground stems of the rest- 
harrow (Ononis arvensis), might be aded to the above list of 
delicacies. When a wasp's nest was to be destroyed, or an 
humble bee's nest was to be robbed of its honey, the willow- 
herb, the black knapweed, and ragweed, supplied our wea- 
pons both of offence and of defence ; and we had a strange 

Botany of the Borders. 405 

old custom of switching each other's hands with bunches of 
the common nettle for ten days previous to the autumnal va- 
cation of our parish school. 

The border maidens of the olden times seem to have so 
greatly distrusted their natural charms to captivate lovers, 
that we have notice of at least half-a-dozen plants possessed 
of various occult virtues for attaining that end. The holly- 
leaf must be pulled at midnight, with much ceremony ; the 
even leaf of the ash must be placed in the shoe ; the tu- 
ber of Orchis latifolia must be pushed unseen into the 
swain's pocket by the rural enchantress ; a cluster of nine 
hazle-nuts, a " ninesome bobbin," is a love-charm to dream 
upon, and it is rich in prophetic suggestions ; the love-sick 
swain may place a leaf of the millefoil in his nostril and turn 
it three times round, thinking of his lass, and if his nose 
bleeds, he is sure to get her ; and, lastly, both lad and lass 
might practise divination by placing two representative 
Kemps (Plantago lanceolata), deprived of all appearance of 
inflorescence, below a stone for the night, as the florets blow 
in succession, the appearance of the blossom next morning 
is held to be a most happy omen for the anxious lover. In 
the description of Solomon's seal, Convallaria Polygonatum, 
our author quotes from Gerarde : " The root of Solomon's 
seal stamped while it is fresh and greene, and applied, taketh 
away in one night, or two at the most, any bruise, black or blew 
spots, gotten by falls or women's wilfulnesse, in stumbling 
vpon their hasty husband's fists, or such like," Here, as 
in other parts of Great Britain, the mountain ash, or rowan- 
tree, enjoyed great reputation as an antidote to witchcraft; 
the elder was next to it in reputation. Witches and elder- 
trees once flourished in the border village of Auchincraw. 
Time was when its wood was esteemed for the clothyard 
shafts of the bowmen of the border ; whilst the present re- 
stricted use of its fruit as a preserve, and for making a cor- 
dial, and its inner bark as an ingredient in salves, &c, seems 
to have descended to us from a remote age. 

Not only in the works of old herbalists, whose limited 
worth all will acknowledge, but often in names contemplated 
singly, there are stores of historical and moral truth, as 

406 Dr George Johnston on the 

well as of passion and imagination, laid up ; and from these, 
valuable lessons may be derived, if only our attention was 
awakened to their exstence. For like unto some traveller 
passing unmoved over notable battle-fields, and through cities 
of old renown, because unconscious of the noble actions which 
have been wrought, and of the great men who have lived 
there, — so we, like him, lacking that knowledge which breeds 
admiration, are thus deprived of this pure mental excitement, 
and miss much valuable instruction. 

"We are glad that our author has paid considerable atten- 
tion to the local names of plants, — a department of research 
which at first sight may appear of trivial importance, if not 
even childish ; but if prejudice is laid aside, and if one list of 
local names is compared with another, a key may perhaps be 
obtained to some obscure points in the language or dialect and 
history of their respective inhabitants. The critics of Shak- 
speare have often been obliged to resort to the local names 
of plants and animals found near Stratford-on-Avon, to il- 
lustrate the meaning of the immortal bard ; so, in like man- 
ner, will the student of the Scottish bards, such as Douglas, 
Ramsay, Ferguson, Burns, Scott, Leyden, Tannahill, and 
Hogg, gladly welcome the information embodied in this work ; 
and future poets will resort to its pages as to some precious 
mine, rich in all the materials for poesy. The old national 
language in which most of these poets wrote, is going into dis- 
use, and giving place to the smoother numbers of the English 
tongue ; nor should this be a subject for regret, for all that 
is beautiful, and good, and true, that has been wedded to im- 
mortal verse, shall never be forgotten. But the subject of the 
popular names of plants is to be viewed in a still higher light. 
From the local we must rise to the national ; and for this 
we have a few notices, which will only serve to whet the ap- 
petite, it may be, of the philologist for farther information. 
Thus, the beautiful wood-sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) is locally 
termed gowk's-meat; in Gothland, Sweden, "Goikmat;" in 
France, " pain de coucou." The fruit of the bird-cherry 
(Prunus Padus) is termed hagberry ; in Sweden, " hagg," 
which means hedgeberry. The fruit of Empetrum nigrum 
is locally called crawberry ; in Sweden, " ckrak-ris." 

Botany of the Borders. 407 

The question regarding the species of thistle regarded as 
the national emblem of Old Scotland, is discussed at some 
length. In the absence of positive proof, plausible conjec- 
ture favours Cardus Marianus. Be that as it may, the thistle 
only replaced the figure of St Giles, which formerly was bla- 
zoned on her standards, about the middle of the 15th cen- 

We have several pleasing notices of the application of va- 
rious plants to different purposes connected with domestic 
and rural economy, several of which throw a curious and 
instructive light on the history of the past. The broom, as an 
important forage plant for sheep in winter, is the subject of 
many parliamentary statutes. The burning of heath, to 
obtain sweeter herbage, was put under legal restrictions in 
1401. In 1364, the vicar of Norham took tithe of thistles, 
and " bramble-berries of the larger sort." In the charter 
for holding St Boswell's fair, it is expressly provided that 
thistles shall be exempt from custom ; and about a cen- 
tury ago, the chief employment of the farm-servants during 
summer was to pull thistles in the corn-fields, for the double 
purpose of improving the crops, and for feeding the horses ; 
nay more, such was the importance of thistles as fodder, 
that there is at least one instance on record of a prosecution 
being raised by one farmer against his neighbour for stealing 
thistles. Such notices are powerfully significant of the 
wretched state of agriculture in those days. Previous to the 
extensive use of iron in the construction of agricultural im- 
plements, the wood of the ash was very valuable for all 
country purposes ; and such was the scarcity of timber in 
the south of Scotland, after the desolating wars of the days 
of Wallace and Bruce, that the Scottish parliament ordained 
that a certain number of ash trees, in proportion to the num- 
ber of ploughs employed on each farm, should be planted 
around each homestead. After the consolidation of many 
small farms, and the consequent destruction of their home- 
steads, a few venerable ash trees were often the sole memo- 
rials of the extinguished hearths. And by way of contrast, 
it may be stated that in Gloucestershire the snowdrop marks 
the site of the cottage garden ; whilst a bright green, grassy 

408 Dr George Johnston on the 

spot, with patches of nettles, in the midst of the moors, 
marks " the Highland clearing." We have heard old men 
tell how, in their boyhood, they climbed the ash trees to take 
the nest and young of the goldfinches, which annually resort- 
ed there to breed ; and how the numbers of these pretty birds 
gradually decreased, as improving agriculture destroyed the 
thistles and other weeds which are essential to their exist- 
ence. There is an old saying quoted by our author, " It is 
not too late to sow barley when the leaves of the ash cover 
the pyet's nest." This shows the familiarity of one of our 
shyest birds before the era of game-preserving arrived. 

Amongst other memorial-flowers of human habitations we 
have the wallflower, which, we are told, " is a suggestive 
flower, and marks the era of the decline and fall of the rude 
feudal times." The daffodil and the primrose annually re- 
appear in beauty in a field which occupies the site of the 
Garden of the Hospital of Maison-Dieu, near Kelso. Stragg- 
ling lines of old plane-trees indicate the greater extent of 
several border villages in past ages. " It throws him (the bo- 
tanical rambler) back on past days, when he who planted the 
tree was owner of the land and of the hall, and whose name 
and race are forgotten even by tradition. .Alas ! for that for- 
getfulness which waits upon humanity, — especially on that 
which had only the virtues of a retired life and secret bene- 
volence to preserve it ! ' There is reasonable pride in the 
ancestry, when a grove of gentlemanly old sycamores still 
shadows the hall.' " 

The dreadful state of the English borders, so late as 1561, 
is aptly illustrated in an ordinance enjoining the planting of 
hawthorn hedges around the crofts or closes environing the 
villages, as a defence against the incursions of the Scottish 
mosstroopers. It was the soldiers of Cromwell who first 
planted hawthorn hedges in Scotland, in 1650; but they 
were little regarded till a century later, when agriculture 
first began decidedly to advance. It would appear, from a 
quotation by the author, that the holly had been used as 
a hedge-plant in the days of Wallace, Until the roads 
were so far improved as to admit of the use of wheel- 
carriages, the inhabitants of the district were badly off for 

Botany of the Borders. 409 

fuel : the few coal mines were not then worked, peat was 
very local, wood very scarce, so that turf dug from the moor 
and a little brushwood was their only resource ; for this 
purpose, the right to certain cuttings of furze, or whin, is 
specified in leases so late as 1730. 

We have already stated that our author has discarded 
scientific descriptions with the exception of the Rubi, or 
brambles, and the Hieracia, or hawkweeds ; these being exe- 
cuted with care, and illustrated by expressive figures, will be 
found highly useful by the student ; as an illustration of our 
author's manner of describing the local notabilia of a plant, 
let us take a few examples : — 

" Sedum acre ; stone-crop, on dikes capt with earth, and 
on rocks in deans, common. June. Often removed to the 
garden to ornament walls and rock-work ; and cottagers 
plant it on their window-sills, and on the roof of the porch, 
where it grows untended, pleasant, and evergreen in the 
leaf, or cheerful when in flower. In winter the herbage is 
purplish-brown ; on chewing a bit of it, no particular taste is 
at first perceptible, but, in a few minutes an acrid and 
peculiarly disagreeable sensation in the throat follows, and 
which lasts a considerable time. This acridity is much 
weakened, and often entirely lost, when the stone-crop is in 

" Prunus spinosa. The sloe, or slae, on the precipitous 
banks of deans, or braes, where the shrub forms an impene- 
trable brake wherein our little songsters can nestle in security. 
April — and our ancestors watched the time, for, said they — 

' When the slae tree is as white as a sheet 
Sow your barley, whether it be dry or wet.' 

The austere fruit is eaten by schoolboys after it has been 
ameliorated by the frosts of winter. One of the occupations 
of the ' shortest days' after the ' barring out' had gained a 
holiday, used to be a foray to the slae-berry braes. I have 
more than once been one of the party. Slae sticks are 
prized, because they are very knobby, straight and dark 
coloured, and firmer than those of other shrubs." 

With a few extracts from the remarks on the fox-glove, 
we shall close these illustrations : — 

410 Dr George Johnston on the 

" Digitalis purpurea. Fox-glove or rather FolkVglove, 
viz., the gloves of the 'good people;' witches' thimbles; 
deadman's bells ; Scotch mercury ; wild mercury, common : 
abundant in the north, east, and west of the county of 
Berwick, in the greywacke district ; less common, and even 
rare in the sandstone districts ; often very ornamental in 
deans, and on rocky ledges that overhang the deep pools of 
our brattling burns : 

1 I've lingered oft by rockydells, 
Where streamlets wind with murmuring din, 
And marked the fox-glove's purple bells 
Hang nodding o'er the dimpled lin.' 

This plant is one of the most powerful ingredients used as 
* bath"* for sheep, and some shepherds object to its use, for 
they say it blackens the wool very much. The leaves afford 
a medicine of great energy and value ; and before this was 
known to physicians, the fox-glove, or fox-tree, was frequently 
used by the bold country quack, not always with impunity. 
(See Dalzell's Darker Superstitions, page 113.) About 
Greenlaw, the plant, from its stateliness, bears the elegant 
name of the King's- el wand : 

' Straight as the fox- glove, ere her bells disclose.' 

" The flowers were once applied to the purpose of caps, 
by the troops of fairies that did inhabit our deans and sylvan 
retreats ; now, our little girls glove their fingers with them, 
putting them on the top of each other in a pyramid to over- 
flowing, and they call them ladies' thimbles. Boys inflate 
them by blowing into the bell, and then they crack them by 
a smart stroke. They also suck the honey at the base of the 
flower. Tempted by this nectar, the bee enters deep within 
the corolla, where, being imprisoned, it buzzes about with 
vexation and rage," — then follows some beautiful lines from 
the prelude to Wordsworth's Retrospect. 

In addition to these longer extracts, many a little gem- 
like expression might be copied from the work at large, the 
errors of other authors are corrected with freedom, yet with 
kindness; praise is freely accorded where it is due. The short 
biographies of Dr Thomas Penny, the Rev. Andrew Baird, 
Messrs Bruce and Mitchell, most of whom were the author's 

Botany of the Borders. 411 

cotemporaries and co-labourers, are replete with good taste 
and feeling, and honest admiration for departed worth. The 
work is farther enriched by an elaborate Essay on the Fossil 
Flora of the Mountain Limestone Formation of the district, 
from the pen of George Tate, Esq., F.G.S., besides numerous 
notes, especially by Mr Hardy of Penmanshiel ; and very 
many extracts from the varied and extensive literary re- 
searches of the author. 

We have endeavoured to illustrate the scope and general 
execution of the work ; it cannot be strictly termed either 
popular or scientific, but it appeals to the wants, and will 
engage the sympathy of many who will give it an attentive 
perusal. We can wander in spirit with its author through 
the old woods which rang to the thundering gallop of the 
wild cattle, and the rush of the affrighted red deer, and the 
howl of savage wolves ; through forest glades where glided 
the gentle roe-buck, through morasses where wallowed the 
fierce wild boar, and by solitary lakes where the ingenious 
beaver built his dam ; these woods, and their wild inhabitants, 
have all passed away, leaving scanty memorials in significant 
local names, a few gnarled trees in out-of-the-way places, 
some bony remains, some short allusions in ancient chronicles, 
and in old songs of the peasantry, which but for Scott, 
Leyden, Hogg, and others, had well-nigh passed into oblivion. 

The elder historians were content to describe court in- 
trigues, party cabals, battles, and marchings of armies, but 
in these days we demand to know something of greater 
importance, how the people fared, and what progress they 
made in agriculture, commerce, and literature ; hence, all 
information relative to domestic and rural economy, beliefs 
and customs of the past, are most welcome. The Border 
Flora aspires to, and reaches a high grade of usefulness, it is 
a book of reference, speaking of old times and old customs, 
which stand in striking contrast with the present. It is thus 
that it invests the science of botany with an interest and a 
moral beauty " undreamt of by the sensual and the proud ;" 
and we believe that no reflecting mind, imbued with a love 
for such kindred pursuits, will turn from its perusal without 
the firm conviction that 

" All we seem to know demands a longer learning." 


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